当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> 状语从句

状语从句


状语从句 一 综述 1. 定义 在讲解状语从句之前,我们先来回顾一下从句的定义。 复合句又称主从复合句,由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成,主句为句子主体,从句 不能独立,只能用作句子的一个成分,如主语,宾语,表语,介词宾语,定语,状语,同位 语等。 从句担任哪个句子成分,这个从句就叫该成分的从句。所以,状语从句就是充当状语成分的 从句。 那么什么是状语呢? 状语修饰动词、形容

词、副词或整个句子。通常由副词、介词短语、动词不定式、分词和从 句等担当。状语的位置比较灵活,可以位于句首、句末或句中。 所以,状语从句的概念就是:用一个从句来修饰主句或主句的谓语动词,这个从句就叫做状 语从句。 2. 分类 状语从句用来修饰主句或主句的谓语动词,那么从修饰描述的角度可以把状语从句分为 九大类,分别表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、比较和方式。 3. 结构 状语从句通常由一个连词或起着连词作用的词组引导, 这些词或词组被称作为引导词,基 本属于从属连词。由于状语从句对主句只起修饰作用,所以主句是一个完整的句子,另一方 面,状语从句的引导词属于从属连词,所以从句本身也是一个完整的句子,综合起来,状语 从句的结构比较简单,我们学习的重点将放在连接两部分句子的引导词上。 二 时间状语从句 1.表示动作同时发生 时间状语从句表示主从句动作同时发生, 常用的引导词有从属连词 when, whenever, while, as 和一些名词短语 any time, each time, every time 等。 When a person feels encouraged, he can face the impossible. Every time you help somebody else, you help yourself. Any time the program doesn’t work well, you can pause it. 辨析:when, while, as when, while 和 as 在引导时间状语从句时都可表示“当……时候” , ,但有些区别。 when:主句和从句的动作可以是同时发生,也可以是先后发生,动词如果是指可以持续发 生的动作的话,通常用进行时态来表示;when 引导的时间状语可以表示一段时间内发生的 动作,也可以表示某一时间点所发生的动作。 while:主句和从句的动作基本上是同时发生的,动词如果是指可以持续发生的动作的话, 通常用进行时态来表示;while 引导的时间状语只表示一段时间内发生的动作;while 也可 以指两个动词间的对比,表示反差相当于 but。 as: 主句和从句的动作可以是同时发生,也可以是先后发生,但强调动作是紧接着发生, 表示“随着……、一边……一边、正当…”。 例如: While I was having dinner, he was reading a very interesting story. 当我在用餐时,他正在读一 本有趣的小说。 (主、从句的动作持续在一段时间内同时发生) I will go on a trip to Canada when I have enough money. 当我有足够的资金的时候,我会到加

拿大去旅行。 (主、从句的动作先后发生) We were having a party when the lights went out suddenly. 当灯突然熄灭的时候,我们正在开 派对。 (灯熄灭是突然的动作,when 在这里引导的时间状语从句是表示某一时间点所发生 的动作) While we were watching TV, the boy came in hurriedly. 当我们在看电视时,男孩匆忙跑了进 来。 (主、从句的动作同时发生,可以用 when 来代替) While my mum was busy preparing supper, my dad was reading a newspaper. 当我妈妈忙于准 备晚饭时,我爸爸倒在看报纸。 (表示对比,可以用 but 来代替) As the pupils walked along the street, they sang happily. 学生们一边沿着街道走,一边愉快地 唱歌。 (主、从句的动作同时发生, 强调“一边……一边” ,不可替换) As spring comes, everything comes to life. 春回大地,万物苏醒。 (表示紧接发生的动作, “随 着……” ) 2. 表示动作接连发生 时间状语从句可表示主句和从句的两个动作紧接发生,常用的从属连词有 as soon as…, hardly/ scarcely…when, no sooner…than 还有名词短语 the minute, the moment, the instant, the second 和副词 immediately, directly 等。 As soon as I reach Canada, I will ring you up. 我一到加拿大,就给你打电话。 We had hardly / scarcely arrived when it began to rain. Hardly / Scarcely had we arrived, when it began to rain. 我们刚一到就下起雨来了. No sooner had the Chinese people's great decisive fight with the Japanese aggressors ended than this civil war was launched. 中国人民和日本侵略者一场大决斗刚刚完毕,一个对外战争刚刚完毕,你们就发动这次对内战 争。 注:hardly/ scarcely…when, no sooner…than 表示一…就…时,如果 hardly/scarcely, no sooner 置于句首时其后的主句用部分倒装。 3. 表示动作先后发生 用于表示一个动作先于或后于另一个动作发生的从属连词有 before, after, by the time 等。 Check it carefully before you hand it in. 交来之前仔细核对一下。 Marina cared for him after he seriously injured his eye several years ago. 在他几年前眼睛严重受伤后马莉娜就照顾他了。 By the time the ambulance had arrived, a crowd of onlookers had gathered. 救护车赶到时,围观的人已经很多了。 Before 用法 4. 表示动作终止或开始 表示一个动作一直延续到另一个动作发生时终止,常用的从属连词有 until, till, 其中一般二 者可以互换,但是 until 引导的从句可置于句首,也可用于否定句,但 till 不可以。Until/till 用于肯定句时,意为“直到…为止” ,主句必须用持续性动词;用于否定句时,意为“直到… 才…” ,主句通常用短暂性动词。 She watched them till they had turned the corner 她望着他们一直望到他们转过弯去. He lived in California until he was twenty.

他在加里弗尼亚一直住到 20 岁。 She didn't go to bed until her daughter came back. 她一直等到女儿回来才去睡觉。 5. 表示动作延续 表示一个动作从另一动作发生起一直延续到某一时刻,用从属连词 since 或 ever since。 She has been living a hard life since her husband died. 她自从丈夫死后,一直过着艰苦的生活。 He's been lying low ever since I asked him for the money he owes me. 自从我催他还钱,他就不露面了。 (ever since 比 since 语气较重) 三 地点状语从句 通常由下列连词引导: where, wherever, no matter where, everywhere, anywhere。 Corn grows best where the ground is rich. 谷物在土地肥沃的地方长得最好。 You are able to go wherever you like. 你喜欢上哪儿就可以上哪儿。 Everywhere you go, never forget your motherland. 无论你到哪里,都不要忘记自己的祖国。 He would live with his grandmother anywhere she lived. 不管他的祖母住在哪儿,她都愿意和她住在一起。 Such kind of structure should be avoided wherever (it is) possible. 像此种结构随处都得避免。 (it is 可以省略) Fill in the blanks with the proper form of verbs where necessary. 在下面的空格里,如需要使用动词的,用其恰当形式填写。 (同样省略了 where 之后的主谓 结构) 地点状语从句有时含有条件的意义,此时须放在主句之后。 Where there is smoke, there is fire. Where there is no rain, farming is difficult. 四 目的状语从句 目的状语从句表示主句谓语动作发生的目的和动机。引导目的状语从句的从属连词有 (so)that, in order that, in case, for fear (that), lest 等。目的状语从句中的谓语动词一般含有情 态动词 can, could, may, might, should 等。 He drew a plan of the village so that she could find his house easily. 他花了一张这个村子的草图,以便于她能找到他的房子。 In order that the grass and flowers could bloom again, it was necessary that the rocks should be removed. 为了这些花草能再开花,这些石头必须搬走。 We spoke in whispers for fear (that) we might wake the baby. 我们轻声谈话, 以免吵醒婴儿. Take your umbrella with you, lest/in case it should rain. 带上你的伞,以防下雨。 (should rain 是虚拟形式) 五 结果状语从句 结果状语从句一般用来表示主句的行为或内容所产生的结果。 引导结果状语从句的从属连 词有 that, so (that), so…that, such…that 等。结果状语从句一般位于主句之后。 1. so, that, so that, such that

这四个都可以引导结果状语从句。 So that 最为常用, so 或 that 常用于口语或非正式文体中。 We arrived early, so that we got good seats. 我们到得很早,因此我们座位很好。 It was so hot that we wanted to go swimming. 天气太热,我们想去游泳。 She is so good a teacher (=She is such a good teacher) that all the students like her. 她是那么好 的老师,每个学生都喜欢她。 His reactions are so quick (that) no one can match him. 他的反应如此敏捷 (以致) 无人比得上 他。 He is such a marvelous joker that you can’t help laughing. 他是一个如此奇妙的诙谐人物,(以 致) 弄得你不能不笑。 They are such wonderful players that no one can beat them. 他们都是出色的运动员, 没有人能 战胜他们。 In his fury he threw the stone tablets upon the ground so that they were broken. 他大怒之下, 便把那些石匾扔到地上,摔破了。 My suitcase had become damaged, so that the lid would not stay closed. 我的箱子损坏了, 因此 盖子关不上了。 Nothing more was heard from him so that we began to wonder if he was dead. 我们再也没有收 到过他的信,因此我们开始怀疑他是不是死了。 It was so dark that he couldn’t see the faces of his companions. 天是那样黑,他同伴的脸他都 看不见了。 2. so…that, such…that So…that 和 such…that 都可以引导结果状语从句,都是“如此…以致…”的意思,但 so 是副 词,后接形容词或副词;such 是形容词,后接名词或名词词组。 在 So…that 和 such…that 结构中, 如有带不定冠词的单数名词, 且该名词前有形容词修饰时, 这两种结构可互换,但要注意他们的语序不同。 如果名词前有 many, much, little, few 修饰时, 习惯上只能用 so…that…来表示结果。 但当 little 解释为“小”时,仍用 such…that. 辨析:目的状语从句和结果状语从句 So that 既可引导目的状语从句也可引导结果状语从句,我们可以从语意关系上和结构形式 上对目的状语从句与结果状语从句进行分别。 (1) 目的是主观意念,结果是客观现实。因此,从句若反映一种意欲,则是目的状语从句, 若是一种事实,就是结果状语从句。 (2)目的状语从句表示动机,即一种可能机,并非事实,因而从句中多用假定性的谓语动词, 常用 can, may, could, might, would, should 等情态动词。结果状语从句表示客观事实,所以用 陈述语气的谓语动词,从句中常无情态动词。 (3)目的状语从句可以移至句首,从而达到进一步强调目的意义,而结果状语从句不可以, 只能置于主句之后。 六 方式状语从句 方式状语从句表示主句动作发生或状态存在的方式或方法。 引导方式状语从句的从属连词有 as, as if, as though 等。在非正式英语中,like 也可用来引导方式状语从句。 You ought to do as Paul tells you. 你应按照保罗吩咐的做。

They talked as if they had been friends for a long time. 他们说话的样子就好像是多年的好友一般。 He paused as if he was expecting her to speak.. 他停顿了一下,就仿佛等她说话似的。 Don't talk to me like you talk to a child. 七 条件状语从句、 条件状语从句用来表示实现主句中某一动作发生的条件, 或表示主语中某一状态是在什么情 况下产生的。 引导条件状语从句的从属连词有 if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that, in case, suppose/ supposing that, provided/ providing that 等。 If the weather is fine tomorrow, we shall go to attend the pop-song singer ’s concert. 如果明天天好的话,那么我们就去参加那位流行歌手的音乐会。 All dreams are of no value unless they are followed by action. 如果所有的梦想不能伴随行动的话,那么他们没有一点儿价值。 As long as the world lasts, there will be mistakes. 只要世界继续,错误便仍将存在。 Suppose he didn’t believe in us, what should we do then? 如果他不信任我们的话,那我们该怎么办?(在此处,suppose 相当于 if 的用法。 ) Supposing Tom can’t come to repair our TV set, who will do the work? 如果汤姆布来修我们的电视机的话,那谁来干这活呢?(supposing 的用法同上) Providing (that) there is no opposition, we shall bring the meeting to an end.如果没什么反对意 见的话,那今天的会就开到这里。(providing 引导从句时 that 可加可不加,等同于 if 引导 的条件状语从句) You may borrow my lap-top, on condition that you won’t lend it to anyone else.你可以借用我的 手提电脑,只要你不擅自借给他人就行了。 (on condition 后经常跟带有 that 的从句 ) 八 原因状语从句 原因状语从句通常是用来表示主句中某一动作产生的原因, 或用来说明主句内容的理由或根 据。引导原因状语从句的从属连词有 because, since, as , now (that), seeing that, considering that 等. 1. because, since, as Because 在表示原因时语气最强,一般表示听话人所不知道的原因和理由,它可以用于强调 结构, 可以用来回答 why 的提问, 也可和 only, just 以及否定词 not 连用。 As 的语气不如 because 那么强,常位于主句之前。Since 相当于汉语中的“既然” ,语气最弱,常表示对方已经知晓, 无需加以说明的原因。 George was worried because he hadn’t had any letter from Green. 乔治很着急,因为他一直未收到格林的信。 You shouldn’t get angry just because some people speak ill of you. 你不该仅仅因为有些人说了你的坏话就发怒。 The man bought the expensive house easily only because his parents had given him a large sum of money. 就因为这个男的父母给了一大笔钱,所以他能轻松买下这么贵的房子。 It was because I wanted to see my uncle that I went to town yesterday. 我昨天是由于要去看我的叔叔而进城的。 (because 引导的原因状语从句的强调句形式:It is (was) because ?. that ?, since 与 as 无此形式)

As the bell had rung, all the students went to the classroom. 由于上课铃声响了,同学们都进了教室。 Since you’re going, I will go too. 既然你要去,我也去吧。 2. now (that), seeing (that), considering (that) now (that), seeing (that), considering (that)这几个连词的意思和用法相当于 since. You ought to have a good rest now that you've finished the work. 既然已完成了工作,你就应该好好休息一下。 Seeing (that) it is 10 o'clock, we'll wait no longer. 由于时间已到十点,我们不再等了。 Considering he's only been learning English a year he speaks it very well. 考虑到他只学了一年英语,他讲得算是很流利了。 九 让步状语从句 让步状语从句表示尽管有某种不利于主句动作发生的条件存在, 主句的情况依然会出现。 引 导让步状语从句的从属连词比较多,常见的有 although, though, however, whatever, whoever, whomever, whether, no matter (what, which…), even if, even though 等。 1. though, although, even if, even though 这几个词引导让步状语从句时,意为“虽然,尽管” 。Although 比 though 更为正式,而 even though, even if 的语气更强。 He works hard though he is very old. 随他很老,但工作很卖力。 Even if I had been invited, I wouldn’t attend his birthday party. 即使我是被邀请了,我也不会出席他的生日派对。 Even though you are tired, even though you feel exhausted sometimes, and even though you feel like you are dragging this body around, please proudly stand up. 即使你很疲累,即使你有时感觉精疲力竭,而且即使你感觉你好像是正在四处扯拽这一个身体, 还是请骄傲地站起来。 If the ruler is personally upright, all will go well even though he does not give orders. But if he is not personally upright, even though he gives orders, they will not be obeyed. 其身正,不令而行;其身不正,虽令不从。 2. while, when While, when 也可用于让步状语从句,意思相当于 although,但语气较轻。 While I like the color of the hat, I do not like its shape. 虽然我喜欢这顶帽子的颜色,但我不喜欢它的形状。 How can he get the promotion when his boss dislikes him? 既然上司不喜欢他,那他怎么会获得提升呢? 3. as, though As, though 引导让步状语从句时,从句一般要使用前置结构,也就是将形容词,副词,名词 或动词原形位于句首,名词提前时不用冠词。 Old as I am, I can still fight. 虽然我老了,但仍能战斗。 (相当于 Although I am old, I can ….) Boy as he is, he is very careful with his work.虽然他是个男孩子,但他对工作却是一丝不苟的。 (相当于 Though he is a boy, he is ….注意当名词置于句首时,必须使用其最简单结构。 ) Try as you may, you will never succeed. 你尽管试吧,但决不会成功。

4. 疑问词+ever, no matter +疑问词 这两类词引导让步状语从句时,表示“无论,不管” ,语气较强。 You can’t come in, whoever you are. 不管你是谁,都不可以进来。(相当于 No matter who you are, you can’t come in.) However busy he is, he is willing to help anyone who needs his help. 无论他有多忙,他总会帮助那些需要他帮助的人。 Whatever it is you're wishing for, whatever you hope come true, whatever it is you want the most--that's what this wishes you. 不论你有什么希望,不论你有什么心愿,不论你最渴望什么,都是我对你的祝愿。 Whatever goes up must come down but, thank goodness, whatever goes down must come up. 凡是上升的东西一定会下降,不过谢天谢地,凡是下降的东西一定会上升。 5. whether Whether 或 whether…or…引导让步状语从句,意思是“不管…(还是)…” We'll go on with the work, whether we can find the necessary tools or not. 不管我们能否找到所需的工具,我们要把这件工作做下去。 The secret of being miserable is to have leisure to bother about whether you are happy or not. 痛苦的秘密在于有闲功夫担心自己是否幸福。 十 比较状语从句 比较状语从句往往用来表示主句和从句动作或状态在数量,性质,程度上的差别。详情请参 考“形容词/副词比较级”章节。 十一状语从句的省略 状语从句同时具备下列两个条件:①主句和从句的主语一致,或从句主语为 it;②从句主要 动词是 be 的某种形式。从句中的主语和 be 动词常可省略。例如: When ( the museum is ) completed , the museum will be open to the public next year . He’ll go to the seaside for his holiday if (it is ) possible. 另外,比较状语从句经常省略。例如: I’m taller than he (is tall ). The higher the temperature (is), the greater the pressure (is ). 就状语从句而言,有时为了使语言言简意赅,常常将状语从句进行"简化"。状语从句的"简化" 现象在口语中较为普遍,而且在高考中的复现率也较高。因此,有必要对其进行全面、透彻的 了解。 状语从句的"简化"现象常存在于以下五种状语从句中:①由 if, unless 等引导的条件状语从句; ②由 although, though, even if / though 等引导的让步状语从句;③由 when, while, as, before, after, until / till 等引导的时间状语从句;④由 as, as if 等引导的方式状语从句;⑤由 as, than 等引 导的比较状语从句。下面针对这五种情形作一归纳。 (1)当状语从句的主语是 it,且谓语动词是 be 时,it 和 be 要完全简化掉。例如: If (it is) possible, he will help you out of the difficulty.如果可能的话,他会帮你摆脱困境。 You must attend the meeting unless (it is) inconvenient to you.除非情况对你来说不方便,否则 你必须出席这次会议。 (2)当状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致时,从句可以将主语和 be 动词简化掉。 常用于以下几 种情形: a.连词+形容词 As (he was) young, he learned how to ride a bike.他小时候就学会了骑自行车。 Whenever (she is) free, she often goes shopping.她有空就去逛商店。

Work hard when (you are) young, or you'll regret.少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。 b.连词+名词 While (he was) a young boy, he was always ready to help others.他在孩提时代就乐于助人。 Although (he was) a farmer, now he is a famous director.尽管他曾是个农民,而现在是位著名的 导演了。 c.连词+现在分词 As (she was) walking along the river bank, she was singing a pop song.她沿着河堤边走边唱着流 行歌曲。 Although (he is) doing his best in maths these days, he has still got no good marks.尽管近来他一 直在学数学,但他仍然没有取得好成绩。 d.连词+过去分词 He won't go there with us unless (he is) invited.除非受到邀请,否则他不会和我们一道去那里。 The concert was a great success than (it was) expected.这场音乐会出乎意料地取得了巨大成 功。 e.连词+不定式 He stood up as if (he were) to say something.当时他站起来好像要说什么。He wouldn't solve the problem even if (he were) to take charge.即使他来负责,他也解决不了这个问题。f. 连词+ 介词短语 She looked anxious as though (she was) in trouble.她看上去很焦急,好像遇到了麻烦。 He had mastered the English language before (he was) in the USA.他到美国之前就懂英语了。 注意:当从句主语和主句主语不一致时 ,从句部分要么用完全形式 ,要么用独立主格结构来表 达。例如: When the meeting was over, all the people went out of the meeting-room.当会议结束时,人们都 走出了会议室。


更多相关文档:

状语从句(9种

1. 时间状语从句 . 常用引导词: 常用引导词 : when, as, while, as soon as, before, after, since , till, until 特殊引导词: 特殊引导词 : the ...

状语从句的定义与功能

状语从句的定义与功能_英语_高中教育_教育专区。状语从句的定义与功能:在复合句中担任状语成分的从句称为状语从句,修饰主句的谓语动 词,形容词或副词。 状语从句的...

状语从句的九种常见类型

状语从句省略的十大类型 3页 10财富值 英语精句 2页 2财富值如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心;如要提出功能问题或意见建议,请点击此处进行反馈。 ...

九种状语从句

3.原因状语从句;(adverbial clause of cause) 原因状语从句; 原因状语从句 由 because, as ,since 引导 I didn’t go ,because i was afraid。 4.条件状语...

九大状语从句总复习

九大状语从句总复习 (1) 状语从句在主从复合句中修饰主句中的动词、 形容词或副词等, 按意义可以分为时间、 地点、 原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步...

状语从句八大类型

状语从句八大类型_英语_初中教育_教育专区。主要讲解了状语从句的八大类型,同时附上一些固定词语,帮助同学记忆,最附上习题巩固。1.时间状语从句(adverbial clauses of...

状语及状语从句知识归纳

状语及状语从句知识归纳 隐藏>> 状语表示法: 副词:He behaved badly. 不定式做状语:It was too late to do anything now. 介词短语: She faced it with calmn...

英语语法 状语从句是什么

英语语法 状语从句是什么状语从句指的是在主从句中作状语的从句, 修饰主句中的动词、 形容词或副词等。 状语从句放在主句之前时,常用逗号分开;若放在主句之后,...

状语从句翻译练习

状语从句翻译练习_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。状语从句翻译练习时间状语句翻译练习 When I was in junior middle school, I was slow / bad in math. 当我读...

状语从句填空和改错练习

状语从句填空和改错练习_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。状语从句练习 一、用正确的连词填空,完成状语从句的意义 1. She is such a crazy NMA fan ___ she downl...
更多相关标签:
状语 | 定语从句 | 状语从句讲解 | 时间状语从句 | 状语从句专项练习 | 宾语从句 | 从句 | 状语从句ppt |
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com