高中英语语法 非谓语动词 讲解及其练习题
二、非谓语动词用法： （一）动词不定式： （to）+do，具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。 2．不定式的句法功能： （1）作主语： To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard. 动词不定式短语作主语时，常用 it 作形式主语，真正的主语不定式置于句后，例如 上面两句可用如下形式：
It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes. It means failure to lose your heart. 常用句式有：1、It+be+名词+to do。 2、It takes sb.+some time+to do。 3、It+be+形容词+of sb +to do。 4 It+be+形容词+for sb.+to do。 常用 careless,,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise,等表示赞扬或批评 的形容词，不定式前的 sb.可作其逻辑主语。 （2）作表语： Her job is to clean the hall. （ 3 ） 作 宾 语 ： 口 诀 决 心 学 会 想 希 望 ， decide/ determine, learn, want, expect/hope/wish 拒绝设法愿假装；refuse, manage, care, pretend 主动答应选计划，offer/order, promise, choose, plan, 同意请求帮一帮。 agree, ask/beg, help 如果不定式（宾语）后面有宾语补足语，则用 it 作形式宾语，真正的宾语（不定式）后置， 放在宾语补足语后面，例如： Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语，如： I have no choice but to stay here. He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike. 动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用，如： He gave us some advice on how to learn English. （4）作宾语补足语： 在复合宾语中， 动词不定式可充当宾语补足语， 如下动词常跟这种复合宾语： want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite. 此外，介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用，如： With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema． 有些动词如在使役动词 make, have, let 和感官动词 see, watch, notice, observe, feel, hear, listen to, look at 等词后接不定式作宾补，不定式不带 to，表示做某 事的全过程。当他们转换成被动语态时，作为主语补足语的不定式必须带 to （五看 三使两听一感觉）但改为被动语态时，不定式要加 to, 如： I saw him cross the road.
He was seen to cross the road. （5）作定语： 动词不定式作定语，放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系： ①动宾关系： I have a meeting to attend. 注意：不定式为不及物动词时，所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等，应有必要的介词， 如： He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about. What did you open it with? 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way，可以省略介词： He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem. 如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者，不定式可用主动式也可用被动式： Have you got anything to send? Have you got anything to be sent? ②说明所修饰名词的内容： We have made a plan to finish the work. ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语：当名词被 first, last, second 以及 only 等词修饰 时，其后可用不定式作定语。且充当定语的不定式不含有将来意义或情态意义，却经常含有 过去时意义。 She was the first to come. （6）作状语： ①表目的： He worked day and night to get the money. She sold her hair to buy the watch chain. 注意不定式放句首时，逻辑主语与句子主语要一致： wrong：To save money, every means has been tried. right：To save money, he has tried every means. wrong：To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. right：To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. ②表结果： He arrived late to find the train gone. 常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调： I visited him only to find him out. ③表原因： They were very sad to hear the news. ④表程度： It's too dark for us to see anything. The question is simple for him to answer. （7）作独立成分： To tell you the truth, I don't like the way he talked. （8）不定式的省略：保留 to 省略 do 动词。
If you don't want to do it, you don't need to. 掌握动词不定式应注意的几个问题
1． “to” 是不定式符号还是介词，下列短语中的 to 都是介词。 agree to object to close to,come to,lead to,refer to, equal to,similar to,point to,thank to,devote to,next to,belong to,be used to,look forward to apply---to 2． 带 to 还是不带 to I have no choice but to give in I cannot do anything but give in 3． 动词不定式逻辑主语是由 for 作为标记的。但是有时用 of . 区别：当使用 for 时，句中形容词修饰的是不定式；而用 of 时，句中形容词修 饰逻辑主语。 It’s necessary for you to study hard .（necessary 修饰 to study hard， 表示学习努力是有必要的） It’s foolish of him to do it .（foolish 修饰逻辑主语 him） 与 of 连用的形容词有： good,kind,nice,wise,clever,foolish,right,wrong,careful,careless,polit e,? 与 for 连用的通常是一些表示可能性、难易程度、必要性等含义的形容词： possible，impossible，easy，hard，difficult，necessary，? 需 4.不定式作宾语补足语时省略 to 的情况：若不定式前的谓语动词是使役动词 make，let，have（表示“让、使”）、感官动词 see，watch，look at，observe， notice，hear，listen to， feel 时，不定式符号 to 可以省略。这些动词亦可 总结为口诀：“三使五看两听一感觉”。例如： Let's （to）go！走吧！ He saw the thief （to）steal a lady’s cellphone. 注：改为被动句时要把 to 还原，例如： The thief was seen tosteal a lady’s cellphone. 5．不定式的省略。下列短语中，如果意义明确，常常省略到 to。 want to,wish to,hope to,like to,hate to,plan to,try to,love to,have to,ought to,need to,used to,be able to 6．作定语： 动词不定式作定语，放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系： ①动宾关系： I have a meeting to attend. 我有一个会议要出席。 注意：不定式为不及物动词时，所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等，应有必要的 介词，如： He found a good house to live in. 他找到了一个居住的好房子。 The child has nothing to worry about. 这个孩子无忧无虑。 What did you open it with? 你用什么打开它？ 如果不定式修饰 time,place,way，可以省略介词：
He has no place to live. 他无处安身。 This is the best way to work out this problem. 这是解决这个问题的最好 办法。 如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者，不定式可用主动式也可用被动式： Have you got anything to send? 你要送什么东西吗？ Have you got anything to be sent? 你有什么东西需要送吗？ ②说明所修饰名词的内容： We have made a plan to finish the work. 我们制定了一个完成工作的计划。 ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语： He is the first to get here. 他第一个来到这儿。
7 疑问词 + 动词不定式：疑问代词和疑问副词后可加动词不定式构成不定式短语，在句中 可作主语、表语或宾语，如：How to prevent them from swimming in this river is a problem. 做主语、宾语、表语，还可以做定语。 （why 和 if 后不能直接跟动词不定式） He didn’t know how to answer her. When to start has not been decided. I don’t know who to ask advice from. Would you please advise me which to buy? Please explain (to me) where to begin and how to do it. 8 to 可以省的情况 1. 在下列固定词组或短语之后要跟不带 to 的不定式 had better? had best? would rather?(than?) would sooner?than? cannot help but cannot but cannot choose but.. may/might as well? do no more than? 2 介词 but, except, besides, than,等表示“除了?”之意的词前， 若有 实义动词 do 时，常用无 to 的不定式作其介词的宾语，若无实义动词 do，则用带 to 的动词不定式。 He was not able to do anything but/except wait. He had no choice but to give in. xchanged views on the question of whom to elect. why 或 why not 开头的省略型疑问句中，其后可跟不带 to 的不定式。如： Why get upset just because you got a bad mark? You are looking tired. Why not take a holiday? When to start has not been decided. 9 某些动词后， 可用 it 做形式宾语，然后加宾语补足语，最后加不定式作真正的并于。常 见的动词有 find, think consider, feel, make 等。 They find it difficult to repay the money. 10help 后，做宾补和宾语的不定式符号 to 带不带都可以。如;
He helped her walk across the street. He often helps do some housework at home. 11 固定用法 综合：so to speak 可以说，可谓 to be exact 精确地说 to be sure 无可否认，诚然 to make things(matters) worse The dog is, so to speak, a member of the family. He’s in his mid-fifties; well, fifty-six to be exact. 表真诚：to be fair to be (perfectly) frank to be honest to tell (you) the truth 表总结：to be brief to conclude to cut/make a long story short to sum up 表让步: to put it another way to say the least 不夸张的说 表顺序：to begin with to start with 主动表被动 1) 不定式作定语与被修饰名词构成动宾关系， 并且不定式的逻辑主语就是句子的 主语。 I have two letters to answer. 2) 有些结构中，不定式表达被动意义，却用主动形式，因为可以在句子中找到不 定式这个动作的发出者。 Give her some books to read. Would you bring me a bench to sit on? The morning air is so good to breathe. 注意： 用做定语的不定式为“动词+介词”时，介词不能省略。如： a piece of paper to write on a nice place to live in 3) 某些动词的不定式与 be 连用时，常见的有 to blame，to let 等。如： The house is to let. He is to blame for not driving carefully. （二）动名词： 动名词既具有动词的一些特征，又具有名词的句法功能。 （1）作主语： Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处的。 Collecting stamps is interesting. 集邮很有趣。 12
当动名词短语作主语时常用 it 作形式主语。 It's no use quarrelling.争吵是没用的。 （2）作表语： In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs. 在蚂蚁王国，蚁后的工作是产卵。 （3）作宾语： They haven't finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。 We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 我们必须阻止空气被污染。 We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。 要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语： 口 诀 ： 考 虑 建 议 盼 原 谅 ， consider, suggest/advise, look forward to, excuse/pardon; 承认推迟没得想；admit/permit, delay/put off, fancy; 避免错过继续练，avoid, miss, keep/keep on, practice; 否认完成就欣赏；deny, finish, enjoy/appreciate; 禁止想象才冒险，forbid, imagine, risk; 不禁介意准逃亡。can’t help/stand, mind, allow/permit, escape Memespckafida 妹妹是不吃咖啡的 m-mind e- escape m-miss e- enjoy s- suggest / remmend p-practise c- consider k-keep /keep on a- advise f- finish i- imagine /include d-dislike /delay a- allow /admit/appreaciate/avoid risk （4）作定语： He can't walk without a walking-stick. 他没有拐杖不能走路。 Is there a swimming pool in your school? 你们学校有游泳池吗？ （5）作同位语： The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞，他藏身的地方很秘密。 His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged． 他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。 2. 注意以下几种结构： Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般说来，女孩 子更细心。动名词的复合结构 由形容词性的物主代词/名词所有格+动名词构=动名词的复合结构，在句子中可作 主语、宾语、表语等。物主代词和名词所有格是动名词的逻辑主语。 Do you mind my/me smoking here? I insisted on my husband/husband’s paying the bill. 1) 在口语和非正式英语中， 这种结构不用在句首， 常用人称代词宾格代替物主代 词，用米歌词普通格代指所有格。如: There are many reasons for animals dying out. 2) 如果动名词的复合结构在句首，就必须用形容词性的物主代词或名词所有格。 如： His smoking caused the fire in the forest. 3) there be 的动名词的复合结构为 there being 如： What’s the chance of there being a rain tomorrow? 3. 动名词做主语的句型
a waste (of?) no(little) good /use hardly any good/use worthwhile /worth one’s while no way no sense in no point in no use/good (in) nothing worse than
1．There’s no telling what will happen . =It’s impossible to tell what will happen . = No one can tell what will happen . . 3．There’s some difficulty ( in ) doing … 在此句型中,difficulty 可以由以下单词替换: trouble , problem , fun , pleasure , a good time , a hard time 4、动名词作 need, want, require, be worth 的宾语时，用主动式代替被动式。 The washing-machine needs repairing.（或用：needs to be repaired）这台洗衣机需要修理。 The point wants referring to. 这一点要提到。 This English novel is worth reading. 这本英文小说值得一读。 The situation in Russian required studying. 俄国形式需要研究? 5 do+限定词（my, some, any, the 等）+ -ing，表示“做…事”之意，如：We often do our cleaning on Saturday afternoon. Will you do any shopping on Sat urday this afternoon? （三）现在分词： 现在分词既具有动词的一些特征，又具有形容词和副词的句法功能。 1、现在分词的形式： 否定式：not + 现在分词 （1）现在分词的主动语态：现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作 同时发生，完成式表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生，常作状语。例如： They went to the park, singing and talking. 他们边唱边说向公园走去。 Having done his homework, he played basket-ball. 做完作业，他开始打篮球。 （2）现在分词的被动语态：一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作，完成式表 示发生在谓语动 词之前的被动的动作。 The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。 Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake.
被告诉了好几遍，这个淘气的孩子又犯了同一个错误。 2．现在分词的句法功能： （1）作定语：现在分词作定语，当分词单独做定语时，放在所修饰的名词前；如果是 分词短语做定语放在名词后。 In the following years he worked even harder. 在后来的几年中，他学习更努力了。 The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father. 正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。 现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能， in the following years 也可用 in the 如： years that followed; the man speaking to the teacher 可改为 the man who is speaking to the teacher. （2）现在分词作表语： The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. 正在这家上演的电影很棒。 The present situation is inspiring. 当前的形势鼓舞人心。 be + doing 既可能表示现在进行时，也可能是现在分词做表语，它们的区别在于 be + doing 表示进行的动作是进行时，而表示特征时是系动词 be 与现在分词构成系表结构。 （3）作宾语补足语： 如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语： see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch 等。 例如： Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗？ He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。 （4）现在分词作状语： ①作时间状语： (While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. 在工厂工作时，他是一名先进工人。 ②作原因状语： Being a League member, he is always helping others. 由于是共青团员，他经常帮助他人。 ③作方式状语，表示伴随： He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他呆在家里，又擦又洗。 ④作条件状语： (If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 要是整天玩，你就会浪费宝贵的时间。 ⑤作结果状语： He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他把杯子掉了，结果摔得粉碎。 ⑦作让步状语： Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. 虽然雨下得很大，但不久天就晴了。 ⑧与逻辑主语构成独立主格： I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my head． 我等汽车时，一只鸟落到我头上。 All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly. 所有的票已经卖光了，他们失望地离开了。 Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises. 如果时间允许，我们将做另两个练习。
有时也可用 with (without) +名词（代词宾格）+分词形式 With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。 ⑨作独立成分： udging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor. 从外表看，他一定是个演员。 4. 英语中有一部分分词短语，它独立存在，没有自己的逻辑主语。这些分词短语已成 为固定的习惯用语，常被看做句子的插入语，常见的有： generally speaking strictly(honestly/frankly/roughly/broadly) speaking considering? judging from/by? talking all/everything into consideration （四）过去分词： 过去分词只有一种形式：规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed 构成。不规则动词的过去分词 没有统一的规则要求，要一一记住。 过去分词的句法功能： 1．过去分词作定语： Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅 行。 Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 当选为委员的人将出席这次 会。 注意当过去分词是单词时， 一般用于名词前， 如果是过去分词短语， 就放在名词的后面。 过去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。 2．过去分词作表语： The window is broken. 窗户破了。 They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。 注意：be + 过去分词，如果表示状态是系表结构，如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。 区别： The window is broken.（系表） The window was broken by the boy.（被动） 有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的，不表示被动，只表示完成。如： boiled water（开水） fallen leaves（落叶） newly arrived goods（新到的货） the risen sun（升起的太阳） the changed world（变了的世界） 这类过去分词有：gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed 等。 3．过去分词作宾语补足语： I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。 有时过去分词做 with 短语中的宾语补足语： With the work done, they went out to play. 工作做完了，他们出去玩去了。 4．过去分词作状语： Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents.
受到邻居们的表扬，他成为父母的骄傲。 （表示原因） Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦它被看见，人们就忘不了。 （表示时间） Given more time, I'll be able to do it better. 如果给予更多的时间，我能做得更好。 （表示条件） Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy. 虽然被告之有危险，他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。 （表示让步） Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 心中充满了希望与恐惧，他走进山洞。 注意以下几个问题： 1．下列动词后跟不定式与跟动名词作宾语意义有区别， forget to do … 忘记要做某事 forget doing… 忘记做了某事 remember to do…记住要做某事 remember doing …记着做了某事 mean to do … 有意要做某事 mean doing … 意味着做了某事 regret to do … 对要做的事表示后悔 regret doing … 对做过去的事后悔 can’t help to do…不能帮助做某事 can’t help doing … 情不自禁做某事 try to do … 尽力去做某事 try doing 试着做某事 learn to do … 学着去做某事 learn doing … 学会做某事 stop to do … 停下来去做（另一件事） stop doing … 停止做某事 go on to do … 接着做（另外一件事） go on doing … 继续做某事 used to do … 过去做某事 be used to doing … 习惯做某事 2．动名词作定语与现在分词作定语意义有区别 动名词作定语表达 n+ for doing 的含义 现在分词作定语表达 n+which(who) be doing 的含义 如：a sleeping car = a car for sleeping a running horse = a horse which is running 前者是动名词 ， 后者是现在分词 又如： drinking water , walking stick running water , sleeping boy 2．分词作表语 The news sounds encouraging . They got very excited . 1）现在分词与过去分词作表语的区别： The news is interesting . He is interested in the news . doing 作表语，主语与表语是主谓关系 ；done 作表语，主语与表语是动宾关系。
2）表语与被动式的区别： The blackboard was broken by Xiao Ming .（强调动作） The blackboard is broken . You’d better have it repaired.（强调状态） 3）常作表语的过去分词： amused , injured , covered , known , dressed , lost , broken , gone , delighted, excited , pleased , satisfied , married , worried , surprised , interested , burnt , shut , crowded , wounded , drank , done 3．现在分词、动名词 现在进行时的区别 The situation in our country is encouraging . (表语) The situation in our country is encouraging the people . ( 现在进行时) My job is looking after the little baby . (动名词) 能回答 how-question 的是现在分词，能回答 what-question 的动名词，即不能回答 how-question 也不能回答 what-question 的是现在进行时。 例如： How is the situation in our country ? It is encouraging . What is your job ? My job is looking after the little baby . 4．注意的四种结构 Have/get something to do 有某事要做 have /get something done 使某事被做 have/get somebody do something 使某人做某事 have something doing 让某事一直做着 容忍某事的发生 The teacher had us read/ got us to read the text aloud. You’d better have/get your hair cut. He managed to get the horse running. 5． 需要跟反身代词作宾语的动词： seat , prepare , hide , dress 如：I seated myself on the chair . I was seated on the chair . 6．不定式被动式、分词的被动式和过去分词的区别： I have a problem to be discussed at the meeting . ( 将来) The building being built on the river is the Science Museum . （正在进行） The building completed three years ago is now in bad conditions . （ 过去） 7．分词做状语需要注意的一个问题： 分词与句子主语的逻辑关系 Seeing from the hill , the city looks beautiful .( 错误 ) Seen from the hill , the city looks beautiful . （ 正确） 8 Seeing 与 the city 不是主谓关系； seen 与 city 是动宾关系现在分词和过去分词的区 别 1) 语态上不同 现在分词表主动，所修饰的人或物时分词动作的执行者；过去分词表示被动， 所修饰的人或物时分词动作的承受者。如： I heard someone closing the door. I heard the door closed.
2) 时间上不同 现在分词表正进行，过去分词表完成的动作。如： falling leaves fallen leaves 3) 特殊分词的分词用法 英语中和很多与感觉有关的及物动词，其现在分词表示主动意义，即“令人有 某种感觉” ；过去分词含有被动意义，即“人被引起某种感觉” 。如： moving – moved disappointing -- disappointed exciting – excited surprising – surprised 有些及物动词的过去分词表示被动意味并不强， 它主要表示的是一种状态或结 果。如： I found him seated at the back of the classroom. (= I found him sitting?) Lose in the forest, he had to find his way out first.
9 逻辑主语构成独立主格： Time permitting,we'll do another two exercises. 如果时间允许，我们将做另两个练习。 有时也可用 with (without) +名词（代词宾格）+分词形式 With the lights burning,he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。 10 独立成分 Judging from(by) his appearance,he must be an actor. 从外表看，他一定是个演员。 Generally speaking,girls are more careful. 一般说来，女孩子更细心 非 谓语动词十大解题原则
来源：天星 更新日期：2011-11-19 点击： 1138
原则一、两个句子必须要用连词连接，如果没有连词连接，则需要用非谓语动词 例 1. _________ many times, but he still couldn’t understand it. A. Having been told B. Having told C. He had been told D. Though he had been told 例 2．_________ many times, he still couldn’t understand it. A. Having been told B. Having told C. He had been told D. Though he had told 解析：例 1 中有连词 but 连接，表明前后都是句子，所以答案为 C。
例 2 中后面是一个句子，而且没有连词，所以前面不是句子，应该用非谓语动词，根据 句意此处为被动，所以答案为 A。 原则二、不及物动词无-ed 形式非谓语动词，及物动词有宾语时用-ing 形式，无宾语时 用-ed 形式 例 3. ____________ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing 解析：lose 为及物动词，现在后面没有宾语，所以用-ed 形式，答案为 B。 例 4. __________, I really believe that I’d prefer not to make any change now. A. Considered all the possibilities B. Taking all the possibilities into consideration C. Taken all the possibilities into consideration D. Giving all the possibilities 解析：把。。。考虑进来结构为 take sth into consideration，现在 take 后面有宾语 all the possibilities，所以用-ing 形式，答案为 B。 原则三、being done 表示“正在被”，一般不作状语，只作定语。非谓语动词的完成时 形式 to have done 或 having done 强调该动作发生在句子谓语动词之前 例 5. __ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. A. Fail B. Failed C. To fail D. Having failed 解析：根据句意“我们没有打通电话，就给他们发了个邮件”，没有打通电话应该发生在 发邮件之前，所以用 having done，答案为 D。 例 6. Tim Bemers-Lee is generally considered _____ the World Wide Web, on which all the information is shared by all. A. to have founded B. having founded
C. founding D. to found 解析：根据句意，Tim Bemers-Lee 创立万维网应该是过去的事情，而且 be considered 后面应该用动词不定式，所以应该用 to have done，答案为 A。 原则四、非谓语动词作定语时，表示将来用-to do，表正在进行用-ing，表示已经完成 用-ed 例 7. The play_____ next month aims mainly to reflect the local culture． A．produced B．being produced C．to be produced D．having been produced 解析：根据本题中的时间状语 next month，可知 the play 将要于下月被创作出来，表将 来应该用 to do，所以答案为 C。 例 8.The trees _____ in the storm have been moved off the road. A. being blown down B. blown down C. blowing down D. to blow down 解析：根据句意“被暴风雨刮倒的树已经从路上移走了”，树被刮倒是过去已经完成的动 作，表已经完成用-ed 形式，所以答案为 B。 原则五、介词后跟-ing 形式，可以在-ing 前加逻辑主语 例 9. The discovery of new evidence led to ______________. A. the thief having been caught B. the thief to be caught C. catch the thief D. the thief being caught 解析：本题 led to 中的 to 是介词，后面应该用-ing 形式，the thief 作-ing 的逻辑主语， 所以答案为 D。 例 10. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks ____ could be heard outside the classroom. A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed
C. being opened and closed D. to open and close 解析： 本题 the noise of 中的 of 是介词， 后面应该用-ing 形式， desks 作-ing 的逻辑主语， 所以答案为 C。 原则六、-ing 形式或 to do 可作主语或宾语，-ed 形式则不可以 例 11. ___________ in a heavy traffic jam is quite an unpleasant experience. A. Caught B. Having caught C. Being caught D. To catch 解析：本题中 is 为系动词，前面应该作主语，用-ing 形式，所以答案为 C。 例 12 ___twice a year, whether it is a car or a bus or a truck, is the rule that every driver must obey in this city. A. Examining B. Examined C. Being examined D. Having been examined 解析：本题中 is 为系动词，前面应该作主语，用-ing 形式，所以答案为 C。 原则七、be+-ed+介词结构常可把 be 去掉保留-ed+介词做状语 例 13 Michael’s new house is like a huge palace, ______ with his old one. I think Michael’s new house is like a huge palace, ______ Michael’s new house with his old one. A. comparing B. compares C. to compare D. compared 解析：“和。。。相比较”结构为 be compared with，现在做句子的状语，所以只保留非 谓语动词，把动词 be 去掉，答案为 D。 A 例 14 _______ with a difficult situation, Arnold decided to ask his boss for advice. _______ a difficult situation, Arnold decided to ask his boss for advice. A. To face B. Having faced C. Faced D. Facing
解析：“面对”结构为 be faced with, 现在做句子的状语，所以只保留非谓语动词，把动 词 be 去掉，答案为 C。D 原则八、非谓语动词作状语，其逻辑主语必须和句子主语保持一致，和句子主语构成 主谓关系时用-ing 形式，构成动宾关系是用-ed 形式。其逻辑主语和句子主语不一致时，要 在非谓语动词前加逻辑主语，构成独立主格结构 例 15． ____ twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we changed our dog. A. Being bitten B. Bitten C. Having bitten D. To be bitten 解析：本题考查非谓语动词作状语，其逻辑主语应和句子主语 the postman 一致，the postman 应该是被咬，所以答案为 B。 例 16._______ in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of spring. A. To walk. B. Walking C. Walked D. Having walked 解析：本题考查非谓语动词作状语，其逻辑主语应和句子主语 he 一致, he 和 walk 应该 是主动关系，所以答案为 B。 例 17. While watching television, __________. A. the doorbell rang B. the doorbell rings C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings 解析： 根据“非谓语动词作状语， 其逻辑主语必须和句子主语保持一致”的原则， watching 的逻辑主语应和后面句子主语一致，所以句子主语应为“we”，答案为 C。 例 18. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons ____ for the day. A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished 解析：本题没有连词，所以后面应用非谓语动词，the lessons 是非谓语动词的逻辑主语， 和非谓语动词构成独立主格结构。根据句意应是“被完成”，所以答案为 B。 原则九、不定式做状语一般有两种：目的状语和出乎意料的结果状语（表示顺其自然 的结果用-ing 形式）。另外，某些形容词（表喜、怒、哀、乐）做表语后跟不定式可以表 示原因
例 19．_____, you need to give all you have and try your best. A. Being a winner B. To be a winner C. Be a winner D. Having been a winner 解析：根据句意“要想成为获胜者，你要付出所有，尽最大努力”，此处表目的，所以答 案为 B。 例 20. The news reporters hurried to the airport, only _______ the film stars had left. A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told 解析：本句句意为“记者们匆匆赶到机场，却被告知明星们已经走了”，表出乎意料的结 果常常用 only to do，所以答案为 B。 例 21. The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the entrance, ________ in the natural light during the day. A. to let B. letting C. let D. having let 解析：本题句意为“玻璃门替换了木头门，自然光就进来了”，自然光进来时顺其自然的 结果，所以用 doing, 答案为 B。 例 22.How glad I am ___________ you! A. seeing B. to see C. saw D. having seen 解析： 本题是 I am glad to see you 的感叹句形式，to see you 是原因状语，答案为 B。 原则十、 非谓语动词的否定原则是在非谓语动词前加 not，有 not to do, not doing, not having done, not to have done 几种形式 例 23______that he was in great danger, Eric walked deeper into the forest. A. Not realized B. Not to realize C. Not realizing D. Not to have realized 解析： 本题考查 doing 的否定形式 not doing，答案为 C。
例 24. What worried him most was ______ to visit his sick child. A. his being not allowed B. his not being allowed C. his not allowing D. having not been allowed 解析： 本题考查 being done 的否定形式 not being done; his 为 not being done 的逻辑主语， 所以答 案为 B。 例 25. Sarah has decided ________ away on holiday this summer. A. don’t go B. to not go C. not going D. not to go 解析：本题考查 to do 的否定形式 not to do, 所以答案为 D。 非谓语动词考点分析 1．The Olympic Games, ______ in 776 B.C,did’t include women players until 1919.
A.first playing B.to be first played C.first played D.to be first playing 析：根据题干，必须选表示被动的选项，故排除 A、D；因 B 选项表“将要被举行”意，不合题干之用，只有 C 选项（相当于 which was first played）才合用。 2．European football is played in 80 countries, ______ it the most popular sport in the world. A.making B.makes C.made D.to make 析：B、C 是谓语动词，在此不可用。D 项 to make 或表目 的，或表“将要使得”，这都不合题干情景。只有 A.making,可作 状语，表结果。再举一现在分词作结果状语例： The bus was held up by the snowstorm,causing the delay.公共
汽车被大风雪所阻，因而耽误了。 3．Little Jim should love ______ to the theatre this evening. A.to be taken B.to take C.being taken D.taking 析： 根据 this evening,应选表示将来义的选项， D 应排除。 C、 Take 后无宾语，必然要用被动式，故答案为 A。 4．John was made ______ the truck for a week as a punishment. A.to wash B.washing C.wash D.to be washing 析：根据 be made to do sth.句式，可定答案为 A。 5．The patient was warned ______ oily food after the operation. A.to eat not B.eating not C.not to eat D.not eating 析：根据 warn sb.(not)to do sth.句式，可排除 B、D 两项；又根据 非谓语动词的否定式 not 总是在首位的规律，又可排除 A，而定 C。 6．——I usually go there by train. ——Why not ______ by boat for a change? A.to try going B.trying to go C.to try and go D.try going 析：此题可根据 why not 后直接跟原形动词规律而一举确定正确 答案为 D。若将 B 项改为 try to go，则要根据其与 try going 意义 之别来确定答案。依据题干对话内容，乙方是建议甲方尝试乘船 变变花样，所以答案仍为 D。 7．______ a reply,he decided to write again. A.Not receiving B.Receiving not C.Not having received D.Having
not received 析：非谓语动词的否定式 not 应置于首位，B、D 皆为错误形式。 A 项不能表达先于 decided 的动作，只有选 C 项才表没收到信在 先，决定再写信在后，所以 C 为正确答案。 8 ． Charles Babbage is generally considered ______ the first computer. A.to invent B.inventing C.to have invented D.having mvented 析： consider 表“考虑”意时， 其后动词用 doing 形式， 此处不表“考 虑”，而表“认为”，这时 consider 后作宾语补足语或主语补足语 多为 to do,to have done,to be 等形式。 据此可排除 B、 两个选项。 D 又因 A 表“要发明”意，不合题用，只有 C 表“发明了”意，才合题 用，故选 C。 9．Most of the artists ______ to the party were from South Africa. A.invited B.to invite C.being invited D.had been invited 析：“被邀请参加晚会”，应选表被动意的选项，B 不可用。D 项 少引导词 who，也应排除。又因短暂动词的现在分词被动式不可 作定语，C 也应排除，只有 A.invited(＝who were invited)才是正 确答案。 10．The murderer was brought in,with his hands ______ behind his back. A.being tied B.having tied C.to be tired D.tied 析： 表主动意， B 应排除。 表“将要被捆绑”， 表“正在被捆绑” C A
都不合题意， 只有 D 项填入空白才能表达“双手被反绑着”这一意 思，符合题干情景。再看一类似例句： He came in,(with)his head held high.他昂首走了进来。 非谓语动词专练 1.______ more attention,the trees could have grown better. A.To give B.Having given C.Given D.Giving 2.The first textbooks ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A.to be written B.written C.being written D.having written 3.The missing boys were last seen ______ near the river. A.to play B.play C.to be playing D.playing 4.______ in thought,he almost ran into the car in front of him. A.To lose B.Lost C.Having lost D.Losing 5.When passing me he pretended ______ me. A.to see B.not having seen C.to have not seen D.not to have seen 6.The children insisted ______ there on foot. A.they going B.they would go C.on their going D.going 7.He still remembers ______ to Shanghai when he was very young. A.taking B.being taken C.taken D.having taken 8.______ the railway station,we had a break,only ______ the train had left. A.Arriving at;to find B.Coming to;discovering that
C.On arriving at;finding out D.Hurrying to;to have found out 9.With the boy ______ the way,we had no trouble ______ the way ______ to Zhongshan Park. A.leading;finding;leading B.to lead;found;to lead C.led;finding;led D.leading;found;led 10.______ these pictures,I couldn’t help thinking of those days when I was in Being and ______ from the top of a thirty-storeyed building,Beijing looks more beautiful. A.Seeing;seen B.Seen;seeing C.Seeing;seeing D.Seen;seen 11.I can hardly imagine Peter ______ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A.to have sailed B.to sail C.sailing D.sail 12.If you wave your book in front of your face,you can feel the air ______ against your face. A.moved B.moving C.moves D.to move 13.______ is known to all,China will be an ______ and powerful country in 20 or 30 years’ time. A.That;advancing B.This;advanced C.As;advanced D.It;advancing 14.While shopping,people sometimes can’t help ______ into buying something they don’t really need. A.persuade B.persuading C.being persuaded D.be persuaded 15.There was terrible noise ______ the sudden burst of light.
A.followed B.following C.to be followed D.being followed 16.Please excuse my ______ in without ______ . A.come;permitted B.coming;permitted C.comimg;being
permitted D.to come;being permitted 17.______ his head high,the manager walked into the room to attend the meeting ______ then. A.Holding;being held B.Held;holding C.Having held;held D.Held;to be held 18.——Did you hear her ______ this pop song this time the other day? ——Yes,and I heard this song ______ in English. A.sing;singing B.sung;sung C.sung;singing D.singing;sung 19.The question ______ now at the meeting is not the question ______ yesterday. A.discussed;discussed B.discussing;had discussed C.being discussed;discussed D.discussing;discussing 20.With the cooking ______ ,I went on ______ some sewing. A.done;to do B.being done;doing C.to be done;doing D.to have done;doing 21.It is no use ______ your past mistakes. A. regretting B. regret C. to regret D. regretted 22.Her husband died in 1980 and had nothing ______ to
her,only ______ her five children. A.left;to leave B.leaving;leaving C.leaving;left D.left;leaving 23.I am very busy.I have a very difficult problem ______ . A.to work B.to work out C.to be worked out D.to work it out 24.I would appreciate ______ back this affernoon. A.you to call B.you call C.your calling D.you’re calling 25.Climbing mountains was ______ ,so we all felt ______ . A.tiring;tired B.tired;tiring C.tiring;tiring D.tired;tired 26.I saw some villagers ______ on the bench at the end of the room. A.seating B.seat C.seated D.seated themselves 27.She was glad to see her child well ______ care of. A.take B.to be taken C.taken D.taking 28.It is one of the important problems ______ tomorrow. A.to solve B.to be solved C.solved D.solving 29.______ maps properly,you need a special pen. A.Drawn B.Drawing C.To draw D.Be drawing 30.There is a river ______ around our school. A.to run B.run C.running D.to be running 31.How about the two of us ______ a walk down the garden? A.to take B.take C.taking D.to be taken 32.I was fortunate to pick up a wallet ______ on the ground on
the way back home, but unfortunately for me,I found my colour TV set. ______ when I got home. A.lying;stolen B.laying;stealing C.lay;stolen D.lying;stealing 33.Whth the kind－hearted boy ____ me with my work,I’m sure I’ll be able to spare time ___ with your work. A.to help;help you out B.helping;helping you C.helped;to help you out D.to help;to help you 34.Greatly movedd by her words, ______ . A.tears came to his eyes B .he could hardly hold back his tears C. tears could hardly be held back D. his eyes were filled with tears. 35.——I hope the children won’t touch the dog. ——I’ve warned them ______ . A.not B.not to C.not touch D.not do 36.I would love ______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A.to go B.to have gone C.going D.having gone 37.When ______ why he walked in without permission,he just stared at us and said nothing. A.been asked B.asked C.asking D.to be asked 38.The man kept silent in the room unless ______ . A.spoken to B.spoke to C.spoken D.to speak
39.He was often listened ______ in the next room. A.sing B.sung C.to sing D.to to sing 40.Rather than ______ on a crowded bus,he always prefers ______ a bicycle. A.ride;ride B.riding;ride C.ride;to ride D.to ride;riding 41.The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street,but his mother told him ______ . A.not to B.not to do C.not do it D.do not to 42.What’s troubling them is ______ enough experienced workers. A.that they have to B.they have not C.their not having D.not their having 43.______ his telephone number,she had some difficulty getting in touch with Bill. A.Not knowing B.Knowing not C.Not having known D.Having not know 44.Bamboo is used ______ houses in some places . A.to build B.to building C.to be built D.being built 45.Go on ______ the other exercise after you have finished this one. A.to do B.doing C.with D.to be doing 46.The day we looked forward to ______ .
A.come B.coming C.has come D.have come 47.Whom would you rather ______ the work? A.to have to do B.to have do C.have to do D.have do 48.Do you think it any good ______ with him again? A.to talk B.talking C.to talking D.having talked 49.Sometimes new ideas have to be tested many times before ______ . A.accepting fully B.being fully accepted C.fully accepting D.fully being accepted 50.The government forbids ______ such bad books. A.published B.to publish C.publish D.publishing 非谓语动词专练答案 1―5 C B D B D 6―10 C B A A A 11―15 C B C C B 16―20 CAD CA 21―25 A D B C A 26―30 C C B C C 31―35 C A D B B 36―40 B B A D C 41―45 A C A A A 46―50 C D A B D
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