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ontheapplicationoftask-basedlanguageteachinginjuniorhighschool任务型教学法在初中英语的应用


呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

On the Application of Task-based Language Teaching in Junior High School
Introduction Nowadays, almost every junior high school student must learn English, s

o, how do students study English effectively and how do teachers teach English effectually are two major problems both in English teaching and learning. Task-based language teaching is an available method which can help teachers teach English well. Therefore, task-based language teaching was chosen as the research subject by the author. In this thesis, the author introduced some knowledge about task-based language teaching. Firstly, there are some general cognition such as concept, background information, theoretical basis, components and features of task-based language teaching. Secondly, the applying of task-based language teaching in middle school English teaching is other one important point. The second point covers principles and significance of designing tasks, a case study and the problems occurred during process of applying task-based language teaching as well as strategies of solving problems Thirdly, task-based language teaching also distresses ideal and practical effects of performing task-based language teaching and the gaps between these effects. The author collected various information of task-based language teaching via books and internet, and then classified this information. At last, a simple but integrated thesis was completed. The total purpose of this thesis is that how to apply task-based language teaching efficiently and how can it plays a role in teaching effectively.

1. Literature review of Task-based Language Teaching 1.1 Basic information of TBLT 1.1.1 Concept of TBLT Task-based language teaching is an interactive communication activity that teachers design specific teaching tasks, through particular situation, and lead students to take participate in tasks and complete them. Task-based language teaching
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

underlines students’ initiative participation, and communication of information between students and students also between students and teachers. 1.1.2 Background information of TBLT Task-based language teaching is one of communicative approach of English teaching skills, but it did not last long. In the 1980s, foreign language teaching researchers and the second language acquisition researchers shifted their focus on learners’ study strategies and field of their cognition procedures. They consider that to let the students to learn the language by completing tasks can provide learners with the situation of language and opportunities of language learning, and promote the process of learning. According to their opinion, language learning not only can provide students with sufficient comprehensible input, but also it required students to complete the task of learning, transmit meaningful information, and committed to the natural, significant communication. Because of the relation between task-based language teaching and communicative language teaching, task-based language teaching get support from theoreticians who study second language acquisition and it gets sufficient attention in the field of applied linguistics. Applied linguists put forward the concept of "task" , and regarded the "task" as the core of task based language teaching, put forward the basic concept of language use into practical significance (task) in classroom teaching mode, is to complete the task of learning. And they also suggest that basic concept of language application should transform into practical classroom teaching, completing learning tasks. The core of tasks is meaning of language instead of form of language. The keynote of tasks comes from reality or imitation of reality instead of language which were simplified in textbooks or 1.1.3 Theoretical basis of TBLT Task-based language teaching isn’t based on one linguistics school, and it was influenced by many theories of linguistics schools, which include structural linguistics, functional linguistics and interactive model of language. Skehan ( Skehan, P.A framework for the implementation
2

written

materials.

of

task-based

instruction.

Applied

呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

Linguistics1996.17 (1): 38-61.) use the standard of structural linguistics to determine the complicity of language structure in tasks; Berwick(Quoted from Richards, J. and Rogers, T. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. CUP 2002 ) use functional theory to distinguish the tasks of language education and the tasks of language communication; language acquisition theory emphasis on the interaction of tasks; another master distinguishes interaction and communication. So, task-based language teaching is based on those three theoretical bases. Moreover, the study theory of task-based language teaching mainly based on the points of communicative language teaching that is communication. 1.2 Components of TBLT 1.2.1 Goals of tasks Goals of task indicate purposes which were reached via students through completing a task. Goals of tasks can be confidence which can cultivate students to speak English freely and solve the problems occurred in communication. And they can be some language skills. 1.2.2 Input materials of composing tasks Input materials must be real, and their purposes should depend on true communication in reality. Then students can experience language in real or imitated situation. And these input material can give rise to students’ resonance and interest also arouse students desire to attend activities actively. 1.2.3 Activities based on input materials The project of task-based language teaching design from simple to complex, from easy to difficult, and the latter activity relates with the former activity. Tasks will be formatted from primary stage to advanced stage in the form. 1.2.4 Teachers’ and learners’ function in task Under teachers’ lead, students use their knowledge and skills to complete a communicative project. Students exchange their points about how to study effectively. Through free talk, searching and arranging information, questionnaire and completing projects these forms, students can reach communicative objectives via using target language, then students’ ability of applying English will be cultivated and enhanced.
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

1.3 Features of TBLT Firstly, Task-based language teaching is a new form of communicative approach, and it also redevelops communicative approach. Secondly, Task-based language teaching underline study process, and it brings real language materials in study environment. Task-based language teaching try to let students take participate study process via completing real tasks. Thirdly, Task-based language teaching still underlines cultivating students’ communicative ability which was applied in English communication. However, it emphasizes learning social communication through communication, and cultivating students’ comprehensive capability of language applying. Fourthly, Task-based language teaching emphasis on real tasks which were regarded as teaching central activities. What’s more, learners’ own experiences can be important elements in classroom learning. This choice revises reality shortage in teaching activities which based on function. Fifthly, Task-based language teaching requires that teaching activities should beneficial to students to learn language knowledge and develop language skill, meanwhile, it indicates that intracurricular language learning should combine with extracurricular activities. Thus, practical applied capacity of language will be enhanced.

2. Application of TBLT in junior high school English teaching 2.1 Principles of task design in application of TBLT 2.1.1 Authenticity The authenticity principle indicates that input materials that apply in tasks should come from reality in tasks design. Meanwhile, the situation of fulfilling tasks and specific activities ought to try their best to contact with reality. Of course, reality only is a relative concept, and authenticity principle of tasks design doesn’t oppose completely fake language materials occurred in classroom tasks. But one point that can’t be suspected is that teachers should try their best to create real environment. For this, students could contact and process real language information that language and
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

skills applied in classroom also can be applied in reality sufficiently. 2.1.2 Function The obvious shortage in traditional language practice is that language deviate context and function. Students may realize different language forms, but they may not express meaning and function appropriately via those forms. Functional principle bases on authenticity principle, and distinguishes the relation between language forms and language function. Learners experience the relation between language forms and function as well as the relation between language and context sufficiently in tasks performing. Functional principle strengthens learners’ understanding of language appropriateness. 2.1.3 Continuity The continuity principle relates to the relation between one task and other tasks, and practical steps of tasks in classroom were also involved in it. That is how to reach coherence and fluency of teaching and logic during implementing process of tasks design. Task-based teaching doesn’t indicate that a lesson involves one or two activities, and a series of activities which have no relevance in class isn’t the aim of task-based language teaching. Task-based teaching means that teaching completes or reaches teaching objectives through a group or a series of task performing. In task-based teaching, tasks should be related to each other and their teaching objectives ought to be unified, and their content should be linked. Nunan(Nonan D. Second

language teaching and learning [M]Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press ,2002)once put forward task-dependency principle, which means tasks present in a series in classroom. Every task bases on former task, and latter task belongs to the former. In this way, tasks of every lesson or unite will consist of a teaching ladder. It can help students reach expected teaching objectives step by step. 2.1.4 Operability In task design, operability should be considered in classroom environment. Teaching ought to avoid using complex tasks. When students need, teachers must offer task performing or operation model for them. 2.1.5 Practical applicability
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

The design of tasks can’t only pay attention to their forms instead of their effect. Classroom tasks are always obedient to teaching. Therefore, teachers were demanded for devising tasks only because of mission. Task designers try their best to create condition which is benefit for students’ own activities. What’s more, teachers should take advantage of limited time and space to provide students with opportunities of interaction and communication. 2.1.6 Interest One advantage of task-based language teaching is that teachers arouse students’ learning motivation sufficiently via interesting classroom communicative activities, so that students take participate in learning of their own accord. Therefore, during the process of task design, one important point that should be taken into account is interest of tasks. Inflexible and repetitive type of tasks decline students ’ interest of attending tasks, so, the types of tasks should be diversified. More over, origin of interest of tasks couldn’t be ignored. Interest of tasks not only comes from tasks themselves, but also comes from other many aspects, such as people’s participation, frequent communication and interaction, interpersonal communication of task performing, emotional communication, and sense of excitement and achievement of task completing. 2.2 Application of TBLT in junior high school---a case study The following study and analysis is according to the unit4 how do you get to school, one unite in PEP English textbook for grade eight. 2.2.1 Case After learned the knowledge about transportation, teachers can design a task that students have conversations which used the sentence pattern “How do you get to school?” and “Why do you choose…?”, and teachers can provide some choices about transportation for students. Two students form one group. One is questioner, and the other is answerer. They can exchange their characters after one time practice. Scene 1: Lucy’s home is far from school. Her partner Tom asked her how did she get to school everyday and why. Tom: How do you get to school?
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

Lucy: I get to school by bus. Tom: Why do you choose bus? Lucy: Because my home is far from our school and bus is convenient as well as quick. Bus is a nice choice. Tom: Oh, yeah, you are right.

Scene 2: Mary’s home is not too far from school. Her partner peter asked her how did she get to school and why. Peter: How do you get to school? Mary: I get to school by bike, and sometimes I walk to school. Peter: Why do you choose bike? Mary: Not only because my home isn’t too far from school, but also bike is environmental friendly. Peter: Oh, why do you get to school on foot? Mary: I think walk is a better way for exercise. 2.2.2 Question design Before class, teachers have designed questions. As in the example above, teachers know that students have learned some knowledge about transportation, so, she design some questions about transportation and then students can collect information through some knowledge that they have learned. In class, students have several minutes to discuss about the information, the discussion is benefit for students to learn new knowledge and enter into learning state quickly. What’s more, it is also in favor of harmonizing the relationship between students and teachers or students and students. As the case, students can know their classmates better via the conversations about how do them get to school. What’s more, students’ ability of speaking,

analyzing contents, cultivating cultural consciousness was enhanced obviously. As in the example, after collecting information, students should classify and arrange those information, then they should talk with others, which can practice their ability of speaking and analyzing contents. 2.2.3 Build a student-centered and harmonious class Student-centered class
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

Taking part in teaching activities can increase communication between students. It is benefit for students to relax their mentality,reduce anxiety and enhance learning efficiency. Every member can express his or her own views, and this can help students contact different and abundant language phenomenon. Students can accumulate and digest those various language materials. As the example in above, students have conversations with their classmates by themselves, which can enhance students’ ability and enthusiasm of autonomous learning. What’s more, students feel free to express their own opinions, which can help students become the master of learning. 2.2.4 Enrich the second class Task-based language teaching not only emphasizes enriching teaching in classrooms, but also pays attention to the second classroom which is a necessary replenishment of task-based language teaching. Using books, TVs, internet and other teaching resources to develop various outside activities can surmount limitation of activities in classrooms. Mean over, students’ comprehensive English ability could be strengthened via extending students’ knowledge field. And the second classroom can cultivate students’ ability of organization, communication, applying language and creation. The tasks or conversations which were designed by teachers are good ways to practice their ability. 2.2.5 Analysis ⑴ Advantages: Firstly, there are two scenes in this case, and the scenes describe situation clearly and specifically. Scenes are related to reality, and this is benefit for cultivate students’ ability of language applying. Secondly, teaching activities were designed according to language function in this case. The design is correspond to task-based language teaching principles which teach students to do something by language. Thirdly, the design of case can combine language function with language points, and it is easy to operate. ⑵ Disadvantages: Firstly, the instructions of task isn’t enough specific. For instance, procedures of
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

the task weren’t referred to in description of the task. What’s more, comment of performance of the task was absent. Secondly, although the case can set real scenes for students to cultivate their communicative ability, their ability of analyzing and solving problems can’t be cultivated. ⑶ suggestions Design of the case is a little easy for grade eight students, so, the design of the case should be increased some details and questions. 2.2.6 Example Aim at problems appeared in the previous case, there is a new design of case as a example of task-based teaching activity. ⑴ Task: conversation about how do students get to school ⑵ Appropriated grade: grade eight ⑶ Form of activity: groups’ activity ⑷ Design of scene: If Lily’s home is a little far form her school, and she can choose several transportation such as bike, car, bus, and sometimes she goes to school on feet. Her partners ask her how did she get to school. ⑸ Procedures ① Arrange task Teacher: Lily’s home is a little far form her school, and she can choose several transportation such as bike, car, bus, and sometimes she goes to school on feet. Which transportation should Lily choose and why? Please discuss it in groups,3 or 4 students in each group. Choose one student from each group to take notes during the discussion, and prepare for a report about your discussion. ② Groups activity 3 or 4 students in each group, and choose one student from each group to take notes during the discussion, and prepare for a report about your discussion. ③ Report presentation After discussion, teacher will check several groups which present their discussion for the whole class. When teacher listen students’ report, the teacher should
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

write down some important points on his blackboard. ④ Teacher ’s prompt The teacher can give students some prompt and instruction when students discussed or reported. There is one point should be pay attention to is that Chinese prompt can’t be appeared. ⑹ Production Amy: Lily, how do you get to school? Lily: usually, I get to school by bus or bike, but sometimes I walk to school. If my father has free time, he will drive me to school. Peter: Why do you choose bus or bike? Lily: Because I think bus is convenient, and bike is environmental friendly as well as cheap. Peter: Don’t you think bus is always crowded? Lily: Yeah, you are right, but I often take earlier bus, so, it isn’t too crowded. Smith: When do you walk to school? Lily: Usually, I will choose a fine day, especially in the spring and autumn. Smith: Don’t you think it is tired? Lily: Of course not, in fact, I think it is good for our health. Smith: Yes, you are right. After the analysis of the case, it is clear that how to design a task or how to organize an activity. 2.3 Limitation of TBLT and problem solving 2.3.1 Problems in applying of TBLT ⑴ Low efficiency in the classroom Low efficiency in the classroom can’t guarantee the accomplishment of tasks. Task-based language teaching regards students as its center, and learning initiative was controlled by students. However, because of too many students in one class, although tasks were finished by group works, teachers can not take care of students comprehensively and superintend them effectively. It is can’t avoid that when students encounter some difficulties, they used their mother language. So, the time which was
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

used when students completed takes was difficult to control. As a result, the quality of completing tasks is hard to guarantee. ⑵ Incompleteness of evaluation criterion The evaluation criterion of task-based language teaching was mainly according to the degree of completing tasks. Under the condition that main objectives of English learning is that students enter a higher school, if teachers adopt task-based teaching approach, when students enter examinations, communicative ability wasn’t involved in these tests, students only need to be tested by filling blacks and practicing of truth or fault, then teachers, students and patriarch must can’t agree and it impedes performing of teaching. Therefore, reformation of evaluation criterion has to carry out at the same time. Although English curriculum criterion has pointed out clearly that the evaluation systems of English curriculum should reflect the multivariable evaluation systems and diversification of evaluation forms. Evaluation should pay attention to the process of students’ comprehensive language ability and the effect of learning. Through the combination of formative assessment and summative assessment, teachers not only focus on results, but also pay attention to processes. The objective of it is that unifying evaluation of learning processes and learning results. ⑶ Prepare hard in place Task-based language teaching needs teachers prepare a number of works in earlier stage. The work can provide necessary datum, teaching aids and situation for arranging and performing of tasks, but this effect needs abundant manpower, material resource earlier work. ⑷ Tasks hard to organize There are some problems that hard to operate which were involved in transforming teaching courses into several tasks. If the transformation is inflexible, task-based teaching will only be a form. ⑸ Students hard to participate A few students can orient their opposition and participate tasks positively during process of completing tasks. However, there are some students deviate their character and partake inefficiently because of students’ limited level and participation
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

consciousness. ⑹ Important point hard to grasp How to grasp and reflect some teaching important points is a difficult point in English teaching process. For instance, teachers how to present teaching important points efficiently, and students how to grasp teaching important points and strengthen learning effect during teaching process are difficult. ⑺ Effect hard to control Because of differences between teaching tasks and students’ abilities, various students and contents have different effect in task-based language teaching performing. So, the effect is hard to control. 2.3.2 Strategies to figure out the problems ⑴ Sufficient preparations and scientific design According to requirement of teaching courses, teachers transform teaching content into tasks. For arranging students’ different characters, teachers must prepare sufficiently. What’s more, students could be divided into groups and participate in discussion. Teachers need pay attention to fraction of coverage of students’ participation, and leaders also need arrange those students who aren’t outgoing and good at communicating to join in tasks. In this way, students’ consciousness of applying language and showing themselves positively will be enhanced. According to different degree of tasks, teachers provide necessary supplementary materials and aids for students. All these need teachers’ spend enough time and energy when they prepare courses, and this is a important premise of performing of task-based language teaching. ⑵ Arouse students’ interest Based on students’ interest and excitement in adolescence, teachers should lead their students whose characters and types are dissimilar to join in tasks. For instance, most schoolboys are interested in PE, history and political affairs. However, most schoolgirls prefer to music and art. When teachers design teaching tasks and analyze students’ different characters, they can combine the content that have been mentioned in preceding part of the paragraph with relative knowledge, then students will learn
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

much from the combination. For those students who have high level and broad knowledge field, when teachers arrange characters for them, some difficult characters should be considered at first. This arrangement may arouse students’ changeable consciousness. On the contrary, teachers can arrange some easy characters for those students whose English level isn’t high. According to students’ different level, teachers must design and arrange different tasks for them. 2.4 Significance of TBLT 2.4.1 Enhance interest in learning Studying with interest can enhance learning efficiency and cultivate learning initiative. English as a language, if it deviates teaching whose aim is applying, some students will feel baldness and boring. Task-based language teaching divides purpose of English learning into several small tasks and, then the tasks will be carried out in different steps. In this way, students’ interest of attending, performing and experiencing tasks will be aroused as well as students can learn language, feel pleasure, gain success and experience confidence in interest. 2.4.2 Broaden the field of knowledge During the process of carrying out tasks, English was transformed into a instrument in many times, and students learn and comprehend grammar and skills by the instrument. The effect of it likes a key, and teachers educate their students to open every gate behind unknown world. During this process, students will contact a large number of social, historical, cultural and economical knowledge and information. The content of the process is abundant and the field is very extensive. Students broaden their sight when they accepted and finished every task. 2.4.3 Strengthen applied abilities Language is an instrument that human beings use it to communicate with others and pass on information. The ultimate purpose of language learning is that people can apply language well. In English task-based teaching, the students’ most obvious feeling is that how to complete each task by using English. During the process of completing various tasks, not only do students train their abilities of using language in reality, but also, students’ communicative and cooperative ability also were cultivated
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

and exercised. These abilities will be the necessary capability when English majors finished their studies and deal with foreign affairs successfully. 2.4.4 Promote the educational reform Traditional English teaching model pay too much attention to students’ recitation, reading and transcription, and students’ practice of vocabulary, texts and sentences. This way can give rise to discontinuity in English studying, and students can’t apply English comprehensively. So, students can only read English instead of communicating by English. However, task-based language teaching innovate teaching ideas and methods in different degrees. Depends on requirement of new curriculum reform, students are the center of teaching, and students can study in reality and applying. This teaching method is going to be a favorable exploration and creation of English teaching model.

3. Production (effect) of task-based language teaching 3.1 Ideal production Teachers try to create a new teaching model and get rid of old teaching model which regarded teachers as center, and teachers occupied most time to impart knowledge for students. Task-based teaching model is a new teaching model that regards students as center. According to requirements of task-based language teaching, students learn knowledge via completing tasks; so, the knowledge can be remembered by students deeply. 3.2 Practical production The design of tasks is difficult because of students’ different ability and performance of tasks in classroom. What’s more, due to too many students, classroom is hard to control; meanwhile, limited time is an insurmountable limitation for tasks completed performance of tasks. Not every student can understand well and deeply, so, different capacity lead to difference of students’ acquaintance. 3.3 Reasons of gaps between ideal production and practical production Firstly, task-based language teaching isn’t perfect in English teaching in our country, and it hasn’t applied for a very long time. In many areas, task-based language
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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

teaching was in experiment stage. Secondly, teachers’ control of students’ learning via task-based teaching model isn’t enough powerful, so it can’t avoid emerging some problems such as limited time and difficulty of controlling. Last but not the least, students’ level are dissimilar, and their degrees of participation are diverse, so, the real production is different from ideal production. 3.4 Methods to narrow the gaps between ideal production and practical production Teachers should design the tasks which correspond with students’ characteristic. The tasks not only should accord with students’ intelligence, but also should be related to their life experience. In this way, during process of completing tasks, students can extract some related experience and deepen it. Meanwhile, difficulty of tasks will be reduced, but interest of tasks will be strengthened, and finally students will finish objectives. Students’ active participation is an important point in teaching. Quality-oriented education isn’t elite education, so, teachers should lead most of students to finish tasks. Only did students take experience and overcome difficulties, then they will succeed and fell the sense of achievement. Task-based teaching reflects three ideas which regard students as main part, regard tasks as center and regard activities as forms, these three ideas are benefit for students to learn by themselves and enhance their communicative ability as well as learning confidence and interest. These advantages are specific reflections of quality-oriented education in English teaching. Teachers’ comments and summaries are another necessary point in task-based language teaching. These not only can strengthen students’ memories of knowledge, but also it is a review of the whole learning process. So, students’ advantages and disadvantages can be pointed out. More encouragement can help students comprehend tasks which were studied and their direction of developing.

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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

Conclusion It is acknowledged that a appropriate choice of teaching methods is a certain condition of curriculum reform. According to standard of English curriculum, it advocates task-based teaching models and apply comprehensive language ability into teaching process. What’s more, achieving objectives via experiencing, participating, communicating and cooperating is another point which was recommended. Teachers use task-based language teaching in English teaching, and this application adjust students’ cognition structure. Students enhance their participation of learning, and they were not passive of learning, however, they became masters of learning. Students’ enthusiasm was mobilized in different degrees, and their interest of learning English was aroused. According objectives of task-based language teaching, teachers help students cultivate their habits of independent studying during the process of completing tasks, and education quality was improved steadily. Due to pedagogical reform, teachers’ quality was improved, and many teachers take part in all kinds of competitions. However, there are some problems and shortages of task-based language teaching. For instance, forms of tasks are various, but effect of them isn’t perfect; cooperative consciousness can’t reflect well between students and sometimes tasks are so difficult that students have no ideas. To sum up, although task-based language teaching has some imperfection, it is an important and necessary teaching method in English teaching. And task-based language teaching will be applied in many areas.

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呼伦贝尔学院外国语学院本科毕业论文

References
[1]Hao Huizhen, Zhang Yashu 2005 on task-based English language teaching [A] Journal of Hebei Normal University (Educational Science Edition [2]Li Juan, 2007 The Contrast of Model and Foundation of TBLT and 3P Approach [A] Journal of Shanxi Institute of Education [3]巢见峰. 2013. 中学任务型教学法刍议 [J] 学术研究第 12 期 [4]方文礼. 2005. 外语任务型教学法纵横谈[A] 外语与外语教学第 9 期 [5]贾志高. 2005. 有关任务型教学法的几个核心问题探讨[C] 课程教材教法第 25 卷第 1 期 [6]刘智慧. 2013. 英语任务型教学模式下的阅读学习拓扑[A] 中国教育学刊 [7]李晓冰、徐洁.2014 任务型教学法在高中英语教学中的运用反思[A] 海外英 语 [8]王蔷.2006.5. 英语教学法教程 [M] 北京,高等教育出版社 [9]吴文 2004. 任务型教学法的产生发展及反思[A] 文山师范高等专科学校学 报第 17 卷 第3期

[10]张晓娟. 2013. 浅谈任务型教学法在初中英语教学中的应用 [J]中国校外 教育 [11]钟玉英. 2014. 中学英语教学法中的任务型教学法研究[A] 英语广场学术 研究第 3 期

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