当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> my Chapter 1

my Chapter 1


C

H

A

P

T

E

R

1
Halliday (韩礼德)

Saussure

(索绪尔)
Bloomfield Chomsky (布龙· 菲尔德) (乔姆斯基)<

br />
Introduction
McGraw-Hill

Linguistics
Stephen E. Lucas
? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 2

? Traditional grammar (Latin grammar, the particular grammar of a language) ? ? Universal grammar modern linguistics

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 3

? 语言学:智慧而令人心醉神迷的探索——人类 从野蛮到文明的进化中所使用的基本武器— — 语言。 ——马里奥· 裴

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 4

? ? ? ? ? ? ?
McGraw-Hill

What is language? How is works? What do all language have in common? What make language change? ? ? ?
? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 5

Linguistics is the scientific study of language
? Chinese ,English, French, Latin, Japanese…
? Particular language ? Language in general

×

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Scientific?
McGraw-Hill

Slide 6

scientific study systematic investigation
? Collect and observe language facts ? Display similarities

? Made generalizations ? Formulate hypotheses checked ﹠proved

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 7

? Process of linguistic study:
? ① Certain linguistic facts are observed, generalization are formed; ? ② Hypotheses are formulated; ? ③ Hypotheses are tested by further observations; ? ④ A linguistic theory is constructed.

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 8

The Scope of Linguistics
1. What is defined the study of sentence structure? A. morphology B. Semantics C. phonology D. Syntax 2. The branches of linguistics that studies how context influences the speakers interpreter sentences is called____ A. Semantics B. pragmatics B. C. sociolinguistics D. psycholinguistics

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 9

? 3. _____ studies the total stock of morphemes of a language, especially those items which have clear semantic reference. A. phonology B. Morphology C. Lexicology D. Lexicography ? 4. _____ deal with how language is acquired, understood and produced. A. psycholinguistics B. sociolinguistics C. Neurolinguistics D. Anthropological Linguistics
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 10

? 5. _____ is defined as the study of the relationship between language and mind. ? A. Semantics ? B. Pragmatics ? C. Cognitive linguistics ? D. Socio linguistics (2011年真题) ? 6. The study of the mental processes of language comprehension and production is ? A. corpus linguistics. ? B. sociolinguistics. ? C. theoretical linguistics. ? D. psycholinguistics. (2009年真题)
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 11

? 7.________ refers to the study of the internal structure of words and the rules of word formation. ? A. Phonology. ? B. Morphology. ? C. Semantics. ? D. Sociolinguistics. (2007 真题) ? 8. Syntax is the study of ________. ? A. language functions ? B. sentence structures ? C. textual organization ? D. word formation (2005 真题)
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 12

2. The scope of linguistics
? General linguistics(普通语言学): the study of language as a whole从 ? 1.Phonetics 2.Phonology 3.Morphology ? 4.Syntax 5.Semantics 6.Pragmatics ? 7.Sociolinguistics 8.Psycholinguistics ? 9.Applied linguistics ? 10.Anthropological linguistics, ? 11 .neurological linguistics; ? 12. mathematical linguistics; computational linguistic
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 13

Phonetics vs. Phonology (语音学) ( 音位学)
Phonetics: the study of the sound used in linguistic communication (or the study of the phonic medium of language) (How speech sounds are produced and classified; it in concerned with all the sounds that occur in the world’s languages.) Phonology: is essentially the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language. (How sounds form systems and function to convey meaning)
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 14

Morphology (形态学)

vs. Lexicon (词汇学)

? Morphology: the study of the way in which
morphemes are arranged to form words (how morphemes are combined to form words) ? Lexicon: the lexicon of a language is the study of its words and expressions: 1. the form and meanings of words and phrases 2. lexical categorization 3. the appropriate usage of words and phrases 4. relationships between words and phrases, and 5. categories of words and phrases.
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 15

Psycholinguistics vs. Neurolinguistics (心理语言学) (神经语言学)
? Psycholinguistics: the study of language with reference to the workings of the mind. It concerns the representation of language in the mind, the planning, production, perception and acquisition. ? Neurolinguistics: the study of language disorder and relationship between brain and language

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 16

Syntax(句法学)****
? Syntax: the study of those rules that govern
the combination of words to form permissible sentences (how morphemes and words are combined to form sentences)

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 17

Semantic vs. pragmatics
? Semantics: the study of meaning in abstraction ? Pragmatics: the study of meaning in context of use

rose

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 18

? Sociolinguistics: the study of language with reference to society
? Applied linguistics: the application of linguistics principles and theories to language teaching and learning

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 19

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 20

3. Some important distinctions in linguistics
? ① Prescriptive vs. Descriptive 规定性与 描写性 ? ② Synchronic vs. Diachronic 共时性与历 时性(现代英语多研究共时性) ? ③ Speech and writing 言语与文字 ? ④ Langue and parole 语言和言语 ? ⑤ Competence and performance 语言能 力与语言运用
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 21

3.1 Prescriptive vs. Descriptive 规定性 描写性
Traditional grammar
It aims to lay down rules for “correct and standard” behavior in using language, to tell people what they should say and what they should not say.
McGraw-Hill

vs modern linguistics

It aims to describe and analyze the language people actually use.

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 22

Synchronic 共时
The description of a language at some point in time

vs.

Diachronic 历时

The description of a language as it changes through time.

Modern linguistics?

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 23

Speech and writing 言语 文字
? Speech is prior to writing form the point of view of linguistic evolution.

?
McGraw-Hill


? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 24

Langue and Parole 语言 言语
Langue: refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community (abstract, stable) Parole: refers to the realization of langue in actual use

(concrete, variable)

F. de Saussure distinguish langue form parole and made langue his subject of linguistic study.
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 25

Langue and Parole 语言 言语
? Both langue and parole are the subjects of the study of linguistics

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 26

Competence 语言能力
? the ideal user’s knowledge of the rules of his language.

vs.

performance 语言行为

the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistics communication.

N. Chomsky McGraw-Hill

N. Chomsky distinguished competence from performance and made competence his subject of his study. ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 27

Saussure Langue and parole sociological Langue is a matter of social convention
McGraw-Hill

Chomsky Competence and performance psychological Competence is a property of the mind
? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 28

Traditional grammar vs. modern linguistics
? Prescriptive Descriptive ? Written language Spoken language ? A particular language a universal framework

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 29

? 1. The distinction between parole and langue was made by ________. ? A. Halliday. B. Chomsky. ? C. Bloomfield. D. Saussure.(2006 真题) ? 2. The distinction of langue and parole is similar to the distinction of _______. ? A. Speech and writing ? B. Prescriptive and Descriptive ? C. Synchronic and diachronic ? D. Competence and performance
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 30

4. Language
4.1 The definition of language

Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication.

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 31

Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication.
?a) System: combined together according to rules ?b) Arbitrary: no intrinsic connection between a linguistic symbol and what the symbol stands for ?c) Vocal: the primary medium is sound for all languages ?d) Human: language is human-specific

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

4.2 Design features of language

Slide 32

? Why language is human-specific?

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 33

Human language is ‘unique’

? Arbitrariness ? Duality ? Creativity

? Displacement
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 34

Unique and Human-specific
? ? ? ? ? ? ①Arbitrariness(任意性) ②Productivity(能产性,创造性) ★③Duality(双重结构性,两重性或二元性) ④Displacement(跨时空性,移位性) ⑤Cultural transition(文化传递性) The above 5 properties may be taken as the core features of human language.
? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

Slide 35

4.2 Design features of language
? Design features refers to defining properties of human language that distinguishing it from any animal system of communication.

symbol

sound-image sense/concept

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 36

4.2 Design features of language
? ①Arbitrariness(任意性)(convetionality) ? There is no logical or natural connection between a linguistic form (either sound or word) and its meaning. ? While language is arbitrary by nature, it is not entirely arbitrary. ? a) echo of the sounds of objects or activities: onomatopoeic words (拟声词) ? b) some compound words (某些复合词)
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 37

4.2 Design features of language
? ②Productivity(能产性,创造性) ? Language is productive in that it makes possible the construction and interpretation of new signals by its users. (Creativity or open-endedness) (duality and recursiveness)

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 38

4.2 Design features of language
? ★③Duality(双重结构性,两重性或二元性) ? Language is organized at two levels or layers simultaneously. The lower or basic level is a structure of sounds which are meaningless. The higher level is morpheme or word (double articulation)
sound-image sense/concept
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 39

4.2 Design features of language
? ④Displacement(跨时空性,移位性) ? Language can be used to refer to contexts removed from the immediate situations of the speaker (refer to past and future time and to other locations)

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 40

4.2 Design features of language
? ⑤Cultural transition(文化传递性) ? While human capacity for language has a genetic basis (everyone was born with the ability to acquire a language), the details of any language system are not genetically transmitted, but instead have to be taught and learnt.

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 41

? 结绳 岩石 泥胚 壁画 ? 竹简 绢 纸 芯片 1
1

甲骨

羊皮卷

6 5

2 7

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 42

? 1. Which of the following is NOT a distinctive feature of human language? (2005 真题) A. Arbitrariness. B. Productivity. C. Cultural transmission. D. Finiteness.
? 2. Which of the following is NOT a design feature of human language? (2008 真题) A. Arbitrariness. B. Displacement. C. Duality D. Diachronicity

? 3. _____ means the lack of relation between the form of something and its expression in sounds. A. arbitrariness B. Abstractness C. Ambiguity D. Fuzziness
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

? [A] Linguistics ? [B] The scope of linguistics General linguistics ? 1.Phonetics 2.Phonology 3.Morphology 4.Syntax 5.Semantics 6.Pragmatics ? 7. applied linguistics 8. sociolinguistics ? 9. psycholinguistics 10 corpus linguistics ? 11.computational linguistics ? [C] Some important distinctions in linguistics ? ① Descriptive vs. Prescriptive ? ② Synchronic vs. Diachronic ? ③ Speech and writing ? ④ Langue and parole ? ⑤ Competence and Performance ? [B] Design features ? ①Arbitrariness ②Productivity ★③Duality ? ④Displacement ⑤Cultural transition

Slide 43

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Six primary factors of a speech event

Slide 44

Jakobson
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 45

context
REFERENTIAL (参考的)

addresser

message

addressee

EMOTIVE(情感的) POETIC (诗学得) CONATIVE(意动的)

contact
PHATIC(寒暄的)

code
METAKINGUAL(元语言的)

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Context REFERENTIAL Addresser EMOTIVE (e.g. intonation showing anger) Message POETIC (e.g. poetry)

Slide 46

Addressee CONATIVE (e.g. imperatives and vocatives)

Contact PHATIC (e.g. Good morning!) Code METALINGUAL ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

Slide 47

? The Referential Function
– corresponds to the factor of Context and describes a situation, object or mental state. The descriptive statements of the referential function can consist of both definite descriptions and deictic words, e.g. "The autumn leaves have all fallen now."

? The Expressive (alternatively called "emotive" or "affective") Function
– relates to the Addresser and is best exemplified by interjections and other sound changes that do not alter the denotative meaning of an utterance but do add information about the Addresser's (speaker's) internal state, e.g. "Wow, what a view!"

? The Conative Function
– engages the Addressee directly and is best illustrated by vocatives and imperatives, e.g. "Tom! Come inside and eat!"

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 48

The Poetic Function

focuses on "the message for its own sake"3 and is the operative function in poetry as well as slogans. The Phatic Function is language for the sake of interaction and is therefore associated with the Contact factor. The Phatic Function can be observed in greetings and casual discussions of the weather, particularly with strangers. The Metalingual (alternatively called "metalinguistic" or "reflexive") Function is the use of language (what Jakobson calls "Code") to discuss or describe itself.

McGraw-Hill

? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

Slide 49

Metafunction of Language
? Ideational function ? Interpersonal function ? Textual function

Halliday
McGraw-Hill ? 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.


更多相关文档:

Chapter 1 My birthday 课后反思

Chapter 1 My birthday 课后反思广外小学部 但雪莲 本节课是本单元的第课时,教学内容是有关月份的单词和句型。在本节课中,我注 重激发学生的学习兴趣, 使...

Chapter 1 My favorite sport skiing

Chapter 1 My favorite sport skiing_初二英语_英语_初中教育_教育专区。牛津英语教材课件Chapter 1 My favorite sport skiing 1. promise 1)Promise sb to do ...

鹅妈妈英文童谣 Chapter1 1-19

鹅妈妈英文童谣 Chapter1 1-19_少儿英语_幼儿教育_教育专区。廖彩杏书单-My Very First Mother Goose 53 首 Chapter 1 1-19 01 Jerry Hall He is so small ...

Chapter 1-8解释句子

Chapter 1-8解释句子_初三英语_英语_初中教育_教育专区。解释句子 Chapter 1-...My parents _______ me a beautiful watch _______ _______ gift ...

chapter 1 (1-14)

1CHAPTER 1章 Accident Losses 事故损失 When the Railway Safety Act was being considered in 1893,a railroad executive said it would cost less to...

7B Chapter 1 测试

Chapter 1 Travel 4页 2财富值如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心;如要...And there are eight million people in my city. Q: What is the ...

chapter+1+练习

chapter+1+练习_工学_高等教育_教育专区。1.在一定流量下,流体在并联管路中作稳定连续流动,当并联管路 数目愈多,则( )。 B. 流体阻力损失越小 A. 流体...

初三英语测试题(chapter 1 to 4)

初三英语测试题(chapter 1 to 4)_从业资格考试_资格考试/认证_教育专区。初三...your, my ( )9. The father wished the twins to be doctors, but of ...

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction (4h) 1.1 Definition of translation What is ...Tan Zaixi for having introduced my ideas about translation theory and ...
更多相关标签:
my next chapter | chapter1 | simseh chapter 1 | 郑多燕chapter1 | fran bow chapter1 | simseh chapter1下载 | simseh chapter 1攻略 | 密室逃脱2chapter 1 |
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com