贵州省思南中学 许义怀 制作
The effects of global warming
? Negative effects:
1 cause the sea level to rise; 2 severe storms
; 3 droughts; 4 famine; 5 destruction of species 6 flood
The effects of global warming
? Positive effects:
1 make plants grow faster; 2 crops will produce more; 3 make life better
Which is the most important to a country?
?Man power? ?Energy sources?
?International relations? ?…
We depend on energy to do many things in our daily lives. For example, energy lights our cities and heats our buildings. Make a list of things that use energy in your home, in your school, or any other places you can think of.
cassette player heating
micro-wave oven things that use energy stove in your home fridge
hairdryer video player
Wind energy is used as power to
produce electricity .
The coal power stations
where electricity is produced by burning coals.
in which oil is refined and made pure.
The Oil Refineries
A nuclear power plant
a facility designed to convert nuclear energy into electricity.
on the roof of a house on a bright sunny day are used to collect solar energy, making your house warm or heating your water.
The Hydroelectric dams
are used to keep back water and raise its level for irrigation or for producing electricity, etc.
An energy source is “renewable” when supplies of it never run out and “non-renewable” when one day they will run out. Which energy sources on your list are renewable and which are non-renewable?
Coal Oil Natural gas Uranium[化]铀 (nuclear energy)
Wind (wind power) Sun (solar energy) Water (hydro-electric power) Plant waste 植物性废物 (biomass energy 生物团能量 ) Hot springs or geysers 间歇泉 (geothermal energy) The sea (tidal energy 潮汐能 )
What are fossil fuels?
? Fossil fuels are Ancient animal and plant material below the surface of the earth with a high carbon content, such as coal, oil and natural gas, which can be burnt to produce energy. They are also known as non-renewable energy because once they are run out of /run out, they cannot be renewed.
What are these buildings made of and what is their purpose?
They are made of glass and plants can grow in it when it is cold outside.
How does it work?
The glass traps the heat from the sun, making the air warm so that plants can grow better.
What?s greenhouse gases effect?
Greenhouse gases perform the same function as the glass in a greenhouse --They trap the heat of the sun and keep the air surrounding the earth warm. It is called the greenhouse effect.
The Earth Is Becoming Warmer – But Does It Matter?
Translate the following words into English:
? 数据 ? 图表 graph ? 现象 phenomenon? 气候 ?每 ? 燃料 fuel ? 影响 consequence? 陈述 ? 灾难 catastrophe ? 范围 ? 副产品 byproduct ? 干旱
data climate per state range
Translate the following words into English:
? 与…比较 compare to come about ? 发生 huge quantities of ? 大量的 result in ? 导致 build up ? 增加 ? 毫无疑问 There is no doubt that … ? 继续 keep on ? 物种的灭绝 the destruction of species
Skim the text to get the main idea of the passage and each paragraph, then divide the whole passage into 4 parts and summarise the main idea of each part.
Main ideas of each part
Part1 (1) Part2 (2-5) Part3 (6) Part4 (7)
Introduce a debate over the issue of global warming
Explanation about how global warming comes about. Two different attitudes among scientists towards global warming.
Two choices of dealing with this problem.
Choose the best answer. 1. The first graph in the text is used to ________. A. attract readers? attention B. introduce the topic of global warming C. act as an example D. support the opinion and make it more convincing
2. The author probably agrees that ________. A. global warming is good for us B. we can do nothing about global warming C. catastrophes will happen if the globe keeps on warming D. much remains to be found out about the effects of global warming
Fast Reading and Comprehending
1.Who wrote the magazine article? What is the name of the magazine? 2.What are the names of the three scientists mentioned in the article? 3.What do they think about global warming? Do they agree with one another? 4.What are the two graphs about?
1.Who wrote the magazine article? What is the name of the magazine? Sophie Armstrong wrote the magazine article. The name of the magazine is “Earth care”. 2.What are the names of the three scientists mentioned in the article? They are Dr. Janice Foster, Charles Keeling and George Hambley.
3.What do they think about global warming? Do they agree with one another? There are some very different attitudes among scientists towards this issue. Some think the effects will be terrible, while some others believe that we should not worry about it.
4.What are the two graphs about? Graph 1 shows the Graph 1: temperature increase of one degree Fahrenheit between 1860 to 2000. Graph 2 shows the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere from 1957 to 1997.
What is the main topic of the article? A. The earth.
B. Global warming. C. Becoming warmer doesn’t matter.
True or false?
1. The temperature in the last century did not seem to increase much. T 2. Everyone believes that global warming is caused by the activities of humans. T 3. Janice Foster believes that she can measure the future global rise in F temperature.
4. The rise in carbon dioxide is causing
a steady increase in global warming. T 5. George Hambley believes that global warming will do good rather than harm to the earth. T
6. It is clear what the effects of global
warming will be. F
Read the article in details and finish the following task.
The different ideas between Dr. Janice Foster & George Hambley Dr. Janice Foster
Carbon dioxide has caused the global go up temperature to __________. An increase of five degrees would be a catastrophe ____________ and could be very serious ______________.
George Hambley positive More carbon dioxide is a __________ thing, which makes crops __________ produce and will a greater range of animals encourage _______________________.
Other people’s idea others severe storms The sea level predict___________, droughts ____________ famines rise by several __________,_______ floods the spread _________. ,______,__________ metres ___________, and of diseases _________________ the disppearance of ___________. species Some people
Read the text carefully and fill in the blanks. Scientists Opinion
gases like carbon ◆ We need ______ dioxide, methane and water vapour, but if we add huge quantities of extra carbon ___________ dioxide to the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels, it will cause temperature to go up. the global ________________
◆ Over the next 100 years the amount of warming could be as low as 1 to 1.5 degrees Celsius, but it could be as high as 5 degrees Celsius. ◆ An increase of five degrees would be a ___________. catastrophe
Scientists Opinions George ◆ Believes that we shouldn?t worry high levels of carbon dioxide Hambley about __________ in the air. ◆ Predicts that any warming will be mild with few bad environmental consequences ____________. States that more carbon dioxide ◆ ______ positive thing, which is actually a ________ will make life for human beings better.
Global warming has attracted the world?s attention, because it affects us and will affect our later generations. Even though we are not sure about the effects of global warming, we should still
hope for the best, prepare for the worst.
? 全球在变暖——这会带来什么影响吗？ ? 在20世纪期间，地球温度大约升了华氏1度。这 个数值对你我来说很可能是无所谓的，但是，跟 多数自然变化相比较而言，这却是种快速的增长。 这种温度的增长是怎么产生的呢？“关爱地球” 组织的索菲· 阿姆斯特朗就在探究这些问题。
? 毫无疑问，地球在变暖，（见表一，略），而地球变暖 正是人类活动导致而成的，并非是一种无规律的自然现 象。 ? 所有的科学家赞同这种观点：人们为了生产能量而燃烧 化石燃料（如煤、天然气和石油等），从而引起了地球 温度的升高。这个升温过程的一些副产品就叫做?温室? 气体，其中最重要的就是二氧化碳。贾尼丝.福斯特博 士解释说；
? “有一种科学家称之为‘温室效应’的自然现象。这种现 象发生在大气层中的少量的气体（如二氧化碳、甲烷、水 蒸汽等）吸收太阳的热量，因而使地球变暖的时候。如果 没有这种‘温室效应’，地球的温度将比现在的温度还要 低33摄氏度左右。因此，我们需要这些气体。当我们在 大气层中增加了大量额外的二氧化碳时，问题就来了。这 意味着更多的热量困在了大气层中，从而引起全球温度上 升。” ? 我们知道，在过去的100～150年期间，二氧化碳的含量 急剧增加了。有一位名叫查尔斯.基林的科学家曾经把 1957～1997年期间大气层中二氧化碳的含量作了精确的 统计。他发现，在这些年里，大气层中的二氧化碳含量从 315/1000000上升到370/1000000.（见表二，略） ? 所有科学家都接受这个数据。他们还赞同下述观点，正是 由于越来越多燃烧化石燃料导致了二氧化碳的增加。那么 气温会升到多高？福斯特博士说，在今后的100年里，全 球变暖的量可能低到1～1.5摄氏度，但是也有可能高达5 摄氏度。
? 然而，科学家们在对待升温的态度上却是大不相同的。一方面， 福特斯博士认为气温升高5度的趋势可能是一场大灾难，她说：? 对于未来的气候，我们不可能做出精确的预测，但是那时的天气 可能是很糟糕的。?同意她的观点的其他科学家认为，全球变暖 会导致海平面上升好几米；也有人预言会出现严重的风暴、洪涝、 干旱、饥荒，疾病和物种的绝灭。在另一方面，还有一些人，像 科学家乔治.汉布利，反对上面的观点，他们认为我们不必担心 空气中会有高含量的二氧化碳。他们预言说，变暖的情况不会很 严重，对环境的隐响也不会太坏。汉布利实际上是这样说的； “二氧化碳含量的增加实际上是件好事，它使植物成长更快，庄 稼产量更高，还会促进动物的生长--------所有这些都能改善人类 的生活。” ? 温室气体继续在大气层中聚集。即使我们开始减少二氧化碳和其 他温室气体的含量，在（未来）几十年或几个世纪内，气候仍会 持续转暖。没有人知到全球变暖会带来什么样的影向。这是不是 意味着我们就不必采取任何措施呢？还是说，这样不采取任何措 施危险性会很大呢？
We should do nothing about the global warming.
Debate Instructions ● Get into groups of six. Decide which three in your group are going to agree with the statement (Group A) and which three are going to disagree with the statement (Group B).
● Group A discuss why they agree with the statement; Group B discuss why they disagree. ● Group A and B get together. Tell each other the reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with the statement.
A : We shall do
something about global warming.
B: We shall do
nothing about global warming.
1. matter 要紧、有关系，= be important It doesn?t matter if I miss the train because there?s another one in ten minutes.
It is what you do rather than what you say that matters.
2. It is a rapid increase when compared to other natural changes. compare vt. 1)比较; 对照 compare…with…表示“把…与…相比 (同类相比)” 如：
Compared to/with many women, she was indeed very fortunate.
My handwriting can not be compared with my father?s. 我的书法不能与我父亲的相比。 2) 喻为; 比拟 compare…to… 表示“把…比做…(异类 相比, 比喻)” 如：
Shakespeare compared the world to a stage. 莎士比亚把人世比做舞台。
用法拓展 (1)compare notes 交换意见 (2)beyond comparison/compare 无与伦比 (3)compare...to...把……比作…… (4)compare...with...把……和……相比 Compared with your brother, you should make greater efforts to study English.和你哥哥相比，你应该更加努 力学习英语。
3. So how has this come about and does it matter? come about: 发生, 造成, 相当于happen 你能告诉我事情是怎么发生的吗？ Can you tell me how the accident came about 随着电的使用, 种种大变化发生了。 With the use of electricity, great changes have come about. come out 出现; 出版 come up 出现; 被提出
偶然遇到 绕道而来, 苏醒 出现, 形成 开始生效
come round come into being come into effect come out
出现; 出版; 显出
come down to earth
come about 是不及物短语。 Please tell me how the accident ___. D I am still in the dark. (2005 江西) A. came by B. came out C. came to D. came about
4. There is no doubt that….
doubt 1) 作不可数名词, 作“疑惑; 怀疑”
whether he'll keep his There's some doubt ________
She had her doubt ________ whether the new book would sell well.
that they will ask you There is no doubt ______ for help. that you will succeed. I have no doubt ______
不能肯定; 不大相信”解, 一般不用进行时态。
①用于否定句或疑问句, 后接that引导的宾语 从句。 ②用于肯定句, 一般接whether 或if引导的宾语 从句。 如: that he is telling the truth. I don't doubt ______ 我毫不怀疑他在讲真话。 that he will win the match? Do you doubt ______ 你怀疑他会赢这场比赛吗? I doubt __________ whether/if we will make a profit out of it. 我认为我们不可能从此事中获利。 whether/if she will be persuaded. We doubt __________ 我们不知道她会不会被说服。
5. subscribe to 1) 同意; 支持 I don?t subscribe to such views. 我不同意这样的观点。 2) 对...捐款 Many people subscribed liberally to the relief fund. 许多人为救灾基金慷慨解囊。 3) 订阅(书籍等) He subscribed to Reader?s Digest. 他订阅《读者文摘》。
6. Without the ?green house effect?, the earth
would be about thirty-three degrees Celsius
cooler than it is. 如果没有温室效应, 地球会比现在冷33℃。 这是一个含蓄虚拟条件句。 有时假设的情况并不以条件从句形式表示
表示。常用的词或短语有: without, but for,
otherwise, or, but等。
e.g. Without your help ( = If we had not
had your help), we could not have
succeeded． 要是没有你的帮助, 我们是不会成功的。 He felt very tired yesterday, or he would have attended the party．
7. quantity n. 数量; 量 1)“a large/small quantity of +不可数名词 或可数名词复数”表示“大量的/少量的…”, 当它修饰名词作主语时, 谓语动词用单数 2)“large/small quantities of +不可数名词或 可数名词复数”,但谓语动词用复数。 Large quantities of cotton have been shipped all over the world already. A large quantity of bamboo is used for pipes to carry water.
lots of = a lot of a quantity of = quantities of
a mass of = masses of , plenty of ②只修饰可数名词： many, a great/large number of = large numbers of, a good/great many, scores of, dozens of ③只修饰不可数名词：
much, a great/large amount of
a great/good deal of
amounts of + 不可数名词充当句子
的主语时, 其谓语动词用复数。 an amount of + 不可数名词充当句子 的主语时,其谓语动词用单数。
the amount of the number of
+ 不可数名词 + 可数名词
e.g. What are you going to do with the amount of money?
8. It means that more heat energy tends to be trapped in the atmosphere causing the global temperature to go up. 二氧化碳量的增加意味着更多的热能滞留在 大气中，结果造成地球温度的上升。
主句是 “It means”; that 引导的是宾语从句， 其中的分词短语 “causing the global temperature to go up”作结果状语。
tend vi.倾向；易于；照顾 vt.照顾；护理 1)tend to/toward sth. 有…的趋势；倾向于 tend (to) 照顾 2)tendency n.倾向 a tendency to/towards sth…的倾向，趋势 have a tendency to do sth. 倾向于做某事， 往往会做某事 Eg. My grandmother tends to go to bed early every day. He has a tendency to forget things.
go up 1) 上升 Prices have gone up again. 物价又上涨了。 2) 被建造起来 New factories are going up everywhere. 到处在兴建新工厂。
result in 产生，导致
（lead to, cause sth to happen)
result from 由…引起，产生
( lie in, occur, as a result of/because of ) from the driver?s The accident resulted ______ carelessness, which resulted _____ the death in of two passengers.
1.The experiment _____ the discovery of a cure for cancer. A. resulted in B. lead to C. resulted from D. was caused by 2. He slipped and broke his leg. ______, he will have to be away from school for two or three months. A. Resulting in C. As a result B. With the result that D. The result is that
10. On the one hand, Dr Foster thinks that the trend which increases the temperature by 5 degrees would be a catastrophe.
On the one hand, this activity is interesting ; on the other hand ,it makes people happy .
You should pay attention to the trend of public opinion.(舆论导向） ● The earthquake was a terrible catastrophe.
11. On the other hand, there are those, like George Hambley, who are opposed to this view, believe that we should not worry about high levels of carbon dioxide in the air. 在另一方面, 还有一些人, 对这一观点 持反对态度, 像科学家乔治 · 汉布利, 他们认为我们不必担心空气中高含量 的二氧化碳。
on the other hand: 另一方面
I?d like to eat out, but on the other
hand I should be trying to save money. I want to go to the party, but on the other hand I ought to be studying. 我想去参加聚会, 但从另一方面来说, 我应该留下来学习。
oppose vt. 反对; 反抗 如： be opposed to sth./doing sth. 反对某事/做某事 I am opposed to going shopping with others. 我反对与他人一起外出购物。 He is strongly opposed to the plan. 他强烈反对这一计划。 oppose sth./doing sth. 反对某事/做某事 oppose后若接动词, 则用其动名词形式， 而不用动词不定式。 The young man opposed/objected to turning to his parents for help.
12. consequence n. 结果, 后果, 影响
? in consequence 因此 ? as a consequence 结果 ? as a consequence of 由于…的结果
? It rained yesterday and in consequence the match was canceled. ? He studied hard, and in consequence he passed the exam.
v. 陈述, 声明； n. 状况, 情况; 国家；
他已公开声明他会支持那项政策。 stated ____ his _______ support for the policy. He has publicly ______
我听见那位官员说不接纳儿童。 I heard the official state that they would not accept children. 合同清楚地叙述了那项工作应在何时完成。 The contract stated when the work should be finished.
14. range n. 范围，种类 1）beyond the range of… 超越……的范围
out of one?s range 某人达不到的 in/ within range 在…范围内 a wide range of 一系列… a full range of 各种… 这家商店商品品种多。 The shop keeps ____________________. a wide range of goods
2)range from… to … 在什么范围内变动 range between…and … 在什么和什么范围内变动
温度在15度到35度之间。 ranges from 15 to 35 degrees The temperature ________________________.
15. built up逐步建立；增加；增进 (1)build up one's confidence/body 增强自信/体质 (2)build sb./oneself up 增强某人的体质；使更加强壮 (3)build on...在……的基础上发展 ①Traffic is building up on roads into the city.来往的车辆在通往市区的道路上越聚 越多。 ②You need more protein to build you up. 你需要增加蛋白质以增强体质。
16. even if /though: 即使; 虽然
He will come on time even though it rains.
I wouldn?t tell you even if I knew.
Even if she survives, she?ll never fully recover. Even though he?s 24 now, he?s still like a little child. I can still remember, even though it was so long ago.
17. keep on 继续 We kept on working in the field in spite of the rain. 尽管下雨，我们还是坚持在地里劳动。
The children kept on writing though the bell was ringing.尽管铃声在响着， 孩子们还是继续写着。
18.On the whole the warming of the earth is a phenomenon that causes great concern. 总体上来说，全球气候变暖是一种引起广泛 关注的现象。 ①His business，on the whole，was successful. 他的事业大体上是成功的。 ②My opinion is on the whole the same as yours. 我的意见大体上同你的差不多。 ③On the whole our talks were going on smoothly. 总的来说，我们的谈判进展顺利。
Discovering useful words and expressions
1 Find the words in the text that
have these two meanings. Take notice of the meaning used in the reading passage, write the words and mark their usage in the chart.
word Which used
1 n. a general tendency in the way a situation is changing 2 v. to start doing something trend that everyone copies 1 v. to make something (especially something bad) increase fuel 2 n. a substance that can be burned to make heat or energy
1 n. the physical or mental condition of someone state 2 v. to formally say or write some information or an opinion 1 v. to use time, energy, goods, consume etc 2 v. (formal) to eat or drink something 1 v. to look quickly at someone or something 2 v. to read something very glance quickly
2 Go over the new words and
phrases in the previous sections.
Then complete each sentence with
one of those new words or phrases.
1. Charles Keeling collected ______on data the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere over a forty-year period. He found that the amount of carbon dioxide _______ kept on increasing during
2. Although we are burning coal in
huge _________ quantities every year, we won't ________ run out of it for centuries. 3. If the amount of greenhouse gases continues to build _______ up we could be facing a global __________ catastrophe .
4. Many scientists believe that global
warming has come __________ about through the burning of fossil fuels.
5. The _____________ consequence of a rising sea
level would be widespread flooding.
6. On the whole the warming of the
phenomenon that earth is a _____________
causes great concern.
graph shows temperature 7. The ________
changes during the 20th century. 8. One hectare of forest can absorb 23 tons of carbon dioxide ____ per year.
9. The washing machine uses too much
energy, but __________ we buy a even if more economical one, it would still use too much water. 10. The Car accident on the main road in yesterday resulted ____________ one driver?s death.
Discovering useful structures
Review the use of “it” (1)
1.it 作人称代词,主要指刚提到的事物， 以避免重复; 也可以指动物或婴儿. 2.it作非人称代词，有时并不指具体的东 西，而泛指天气、时间、日期、距离等. 3.用以代替指示代词this, that
4. it 作形式主语，而真正的主语是动词不 定式、动名词或从句。 5. it 作形式宾语，而真正的宾语是动词不 定式、动名词或从句。
The use of “it” (2)
The Use of “it” for
Compare the two sentences below. 1.Human activity has caused this global warming. 2. It is human activity that has caused this global warming.
“It” has been used in the second sentence to give extra importance to “human activity”.
一. 陈述句的强调句型结构 :
1. Tom ate an egg at home this morning .
强调主语： It was Tom that / who ate an egg at home this morning .
强调宾语： It was an egg that Tom ate at home this morning .
1.Tom ate an egg at home this morning . 强调时间状语： It was this morning that Tom ate an egg at home. 强调地点状语：
It was at home that Tom ate an egg this morning .
Conclusion: 陈述句的强调句型结构 :
It is /was+ 被强调成分 (主语/宾语/状语等) +that/who+句子的其他成分。 （it在这种句型中本身无实际意义）
1. 除谓语动词以外的成分都可用于强调句中; 2. 如原句时态为现在时或将来时，则be 用 is, 如原句时态为过去时,则 be用 was; 3. 当被强调部分指人时，既可以用that,也 可用 who .
二.一般疑问句的强调句型： 1.It was Tom that / who ate an egg at home this morning . → Was it Tom that / who ate an egg at home this morning ? 2.It was at home that Tom ate an egg this morning . → Was it at home that Tom ate an egg this morning ? Conclusion:Is / Was +it +被强调的部分 + that / who + 其余部分?
三.特殊疑问句的强调句型： 1.It was this morning that Tom ate an egg at home. → When was it that Tom ate an egg at home?
2.It was at home that Tom ate an egg this morning . →Where was it that Tom ate an egg this morning ? Conclusion:被强调部分 (通常是疑问代词或 疑问副词) +is / was + it + that / who +其余部 分?
四. not ... until 的强调形式
not ... until 的强调形式是：It is not until + 被强调部分 + that ... ，主要用于强调 时间状语的强调句型。 He didn't go to bed until his mother came back. → It was not until his mother came back that he went to bed.
Notice:注意区别强调句和定语从句：判断是 强调句还是定语从句，可把 It is / was …that/who去掉，剩余部分在不增减任何 词的情况下可以还原成一个完整的句子， 那么这个句子就是强调句，否则就是定语 从句。 1.It was at 9 o’clock her father in the street.
A I met
2.It was 9 o’clock I met her father in the street. A. that B. when
谓语的强调方式：do / does / did + 动词原形 （1）我的确想去北京。 I want to go to Beijing. → I do want to go to Beijing.
（2）我昨天确实买了一支新钢笔。 I bought a new pen yesterday. →I did buy a new pen yesterday.
六、it 常用的固定搭配 1. make it (1)在口语当中相当于succeed,表示:成 功、做到、说定、赶上、及时到达. It?s hard to make it to the top in show business. (2)在口语中相当于fix the date for,表 示“约定好时间”。 例如: -Shall we meet next week? -OK. We just make it next Saturday.
2.take it/things easy 相当于Don?t worry or don?t hurry. 用来劝 告别人,表示“不要慌,别担心,沉住气” 。 例如: Take it easy! He will do it well. 3.It all depends/that all depends. 在口语中,相当于it hasn?t been decided yet, 表示“那得看情况,还没有定下来”。例如: -Are you going to the countryside for holiday? -It/That all depends.
4. It?s up to sb. 在口语中,相当于it?s decided by sb. 表示 “由……决定,由……负责,取决于……” 例如: -Shall we go out for dinner? -It?s up to you.
5. It looks ( seems ) as if ... 该句型中it无意义， as if 引导一个表语从句。 常译为，＂看起来好象．．．＂如果与事实 不相符合，则用虚拟语气。 It looks as if he is ill.（真的病了） It looks as if he were ill. （没有生病） It seemed as if he were dying.
Tell the function of “it”:
1.It?s difficult to remember all their names. 形式主语, 代替…… 2. It?s very quiet in the café. Circumstance
3. It rained for three days. Weather 4. He made it clear that he didn?t want to speak to me. 形式宾语, 代替…… 5. It was nice to meet you. 形式主语, 代替……
6. It was on Tuesday that Smith came. 用于强调句型中 emphatic “it”
7. It?s three miles from here to the nearest
8. A tall man stood up and shook hands. It was captain Lawrie.
9. I hear you bought a new bike. Can you show it to me? 人称代词, 代表前面提到的物
10. It was five o?clock when we got back home
yesterday. Time 11. It was dirty and wet below the ship where the slaves were kept. Circumstance
12. It was on this coast that lots of his people disappeared. 用于强调句型中 emphatic “it” 13. It was most likely that one third of them had lost their lives. 作引导词, 在句中作形式主语, 代替后面的从句
口诀 代词 it 本意它, 既可指这又指那; 时间天气均可指, 谈到距离也用它; 假主假宾均可做, 强调句型跟that。
Answer key for exercise 1 on page 29:
1.It was a scientist called Charles Keeling, who made accurate measurements of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 1957 to1997. 2.… it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has resulted in this increase in carbon dioxide.
Answer key for Exercise 2 on page 29: 1.It was scientists who warned that greenhouse gases would warm the earth by trapping heat energy in the atmosphere. 2.It is the greenhouse effect that gives the earth?s surface the average temperature of 15℃ 3.It is fossil fuels that much of the energy used to light and heat our homes comes from.
4. It is the developed countries that consume the most energy in the world. 5. It is for centuries that carbon dioxide has the tendency to stay in the atmosphere while other greenhouse gases stay in the atmosphere only for a day or less. 6. It is their very existence that low-lying countries feel is in danger from rising sea levels. 7. It is environmentalists who have tried to stop the earth?s temperature rising.
8. It is future climate changes and their effects on our environment that scientists want to find out about. 9. It is by several metres that the level of the sea could rise in the years ahead because of global warming. 10. It is outer space that might provide us with new energy sources in the future.
Answer key for exercise 1 on page 64:
1. In what year was the first children's conference on the environment organized in Australia? It was in 1996 that the first children?s conference on the environment was organized in Australia.
2. Who runs Millennium Kids? It is children that / who run Millennium Kids. 3. Where can you find out more about Millennium Kids? It is on the Internet that you can find
out more about Millennium Kids.
4. Where do the young people decide which projects they want to concentrate on? It is at the yearly conference that the young people decide which projects they want to concentrate on.
5. What is Millennium Kids asking
you to reduce, reuse and recycle at
It is plastic bags that Millennium
Kids is asking you to reduce, reuse
and recycle at the moment.
Answer key for Exercise 2 on page 64: 1. Indeed, it was four Australian children who started it in 1996 when they organized the first children's
2. It is at this conference that we decide
which projects we want to work on
in the following year.
3. It was through one of these projects about five years ago that I first became involved in Millennium Kids.
Reading and writing
What can we do about global warming?
Skim the letters and find who
the writers are and what their
purpose of writing the letters is.
The first letter is written by a student who is asking for suggestions for his project — global warming. The second letter is written by an editor of Earth Care magazine. He offers the student some suggestions on what to do about global warming.
Read Ouyang’s letter and answer: 1. What?s the purpose of Ouyang Guang?s letter? To get some suggestions for what he can do about global warming. 2. Sometimes he has a commitment, what?s it?
Individuals can have little effect on global warming.
Read Earth Care’s reply and answer:
1. Does Earth Care agree with Ouyang Guang’s opinion that individuals can have little effect? No, Earth Care doesn’t agree.
2.What suggestions does Earth Care give him? ( in your own words)
2.What suggestions does Earth Care give him?
①Turn electrical appliances off when not using them. ② Don?t turn up the heat. Put on more clothes. ③ Walk or ride a bike. Don?t drive.
④ Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags and newspapers.
⑤Buy things made from recycled materials. ⑥ Buy products that use less energy. ⑦Plant trees.
⑧ Talk with family and friends about global warming.
? 关于全球变暖,我们能干些什么呢? ? 亲爱的“关爱地球”组织: 我正代表学校做 一项关于全球变暖的课题研究。有时候我 觉得,像这样一个巨大的环境问题,个人是起 不了什么作用的。然而我仍认为人们应该 支持改善日常能源的消耗方式。由于我还 不清楚我该从哪里着手开始我的研究。我 希望能得到你们的建议。 谢谢! 欧阳光
? 亲爱的欧阳光: ? 有许多人承担你这样的义务,而他们不相信自 己有能力来影响环境。这种想法是不正确的。 众人拾柴火焰高。我们不必去忍受污染。 ? 空气中的温室气体,二氧化碳的增长的确是来 自我们许多的日常活动。这儿有几条关于减 少空气中二氧化碳含量的建议。这些建议应 当能够促进你的研究。 ? 1.在室内我们会用大量的能源。在用电器设 备时你可以让它开着,如果不用就把它关掉! 不要对此疏 忽大意。因此,你如果不用电灯、 电视、电脑等时,要把它们关掉。如果你觉得 冷了,就多穿点衣服,而不要把暖气开大 。
? 2.机动车要用大量的能源。因此,只要有可能,你 就步行或骑自行车吧。 ? 3.把罐头盒、瓶子、塑料袋和报纸回收利用起 来。用新材料来做这些东西要花费大量的能源, 因此,只要有可能,就买那些用回收材料制成的 物品吧。 ? 4.劝你的父母去买那些节约能源的产品,包括汽 车和像冰箱、微波炉之类的小件物品。 ? 5.在你的花园或校园里栽种树木,它们能吸收空 气中的二氧化碳,还能在你观赏的时候使你感觉 清爽。 ? 6.最后,也是最重要的是,做一个教育者。同你 的家人和朋友谈一谈全球变暖的问题,并把你学 到的东西告诉他们。 记住,你的贡献是很有价值的。
List Earth Care’s suggestions and then in groups, discuss whether you think you can carry out each suggestion.
Earth Care?s suggestions
If you are not using electrical appliances, turn them off.
Can you Reasons carry it out? Save Yes energy
If you?re cold, put on more clothes instead of turning up the heat.
Save Yes energy
Motor vehicles use a lot Save Yes of energy, so walk or energy ride a bike if you can.
Recycle cans, bottles, Save plastics and newspapers Yes energy and buy things made from recycled materials.
Get your parents Save energy or friends to buy Yes products that are made to save energy. Plant more trees. Yes Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air.
Talk with your family and friends about global warming and tell them what you?ve learned.
Together, individuals can make a difference.
Read the text carefully and fill in the blanks. What can we do about global warming? electrical appliance off when ◆ Turn a(n) _________________ you?re not using it. ◆ Put on more clothes instead of turning heat up the _____. ◆ Walk or __________ ride a bike instead of taking motor vehicles.
Recycle cans, bottles, plastics and ◆ ________ newspapers. ◆ Buy things made from __________ recycled __________. materials ◆ Buy products that are made to save energy ________. Plant trees in your garden or your ◆ __________ school yard. ◆ Talk with your family and friends global warming about _______________.
Make a poster for your school that tells students various ways they can reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air.
Fight global warming
Cut down on energy. Cut down on carbon dioxide. ●If not using an electrical item, turn it off. ●If you suddenly feel cold, don?t turn the heat up, put a jacket instead.
●Walk or ride a bike and save fossil fuels.
●Recycle paper, cardboard and newspapers. ●Buy products made from recycled materials. ●Buy energy-saving products like low energy light bulbs. ●Plant trees to absorb CO2.
●Tell your friends about global warming.
Every effort counts!
Let us save energy
We have only and protect one earth!
1. on behalf of He accepted the cup on behalf of the team.
2. advocate v. 提倡,主张,拥护,鼓吹/ n.提倡者
He advocates building more schools. The public advocated passing the law.
3. commitment n.承诺,信奉,忠诚,预先安排的事
His political commitment is only skin-deep. 他政治上的承诺只是表面文章。 commit v.犯罪,犯错误,使承担义务,为某人作 出保证 commit a crime 4. pollution n. / pollute v. Many young people could not resist the spiritual pollution. 很多年轻人不能抵制精神污染。 Many lakes have been polluted by industrial waste.
5. We do not have to put up with pollution. put up with: suffer or bear patiently; tolerate 忍受；容忍 I cannot put up with the toothache. We can't change the bad weather, so we must put up with it. I won?t put up with her rudeness any longer!
6. electrical 关于电方面的,被修饰的名词 本身不带电 electric 导电的,电动的,发电的,被修饰 的名词本身带电 借喻”像电一样的 令人骤然激动的” He is an electrical engineer. I bought an electric rice cooker last month. The atmosphere in the theatre was electric.
7. so long as / as long as as long as 只要，如果
As long as there is life, there is hope.
留得生命在,不怕没希望. You can go out, as / so long as you promise to be back before 11 o'clock. 你可以出去,只要你答应在11点以前回来. I'll accept any job as / so long as I don't have to get up early. 只要不必早起,任何工作我都可以接受. I will stay as long as I can.
8. make a difference 1)有很大差别, 有很大不同
2)有很大的关系/影响 常跟to… 锻炼对你的健康产生很大的影响。
Exercise can make a great difference to your health. make no difference to对…没有关系 那对我没有影响。 That makes no difference to me.
9. casual adj. 随便的,漫不经心的,偶然的，休 闲的,便装的 His casual manner annoyed me . 他无所谓的态度令我恼火 Don?t be casual about this. 不要对此漠不关心
10. contribution n. / contribute v. All contributions, however small, will be greatly appreciated. He has an important contribution to the company?s success.
contribute to 1)为 ... 作贡献 we should contribute more to our beautiful country. 我们应该为我们美丽的祖国做出更多的贡 献。
2)捐助;帮助 How much did you contribute to the relief fund? 你为那笔救济金捐了多少? 3)促成, 导致 Does smoking contribute to lung cancer? 吸烟会导致肺癌吗? 4)为...写稿 She has been contributing to the paper for 5 years. 五年以来,她一直在为那家报纸撰搞。
Listening and Speaking
1 Listen to the tape and decide which statements Professor Keeling does NOT agree with. 1. We should stop depending on fossil fuels for our energy. 2. 90% of our energy comes from fossil fuels.
3. We can replace fossil fuels with cleaner sources of energy. 4. Nuclear power is a good source of energy.
2 Listen to Part 1 again and tick the energy sources that are mentioned. Complete the notes on them. Sources of Notes energy Fossil fuels ? Produce carbon dioxide ? cheap and concentrated form of energy
Wind power ? clean ? not practical: need huge areas of land to provide enough energy ? clean Energy from the sun ? not very practical with present technology ? does not produce Nuclear carbon dioxide power ? dangerous
3 Listen to Part 2 and the list three things we can do to save energy. First we must try to find ways to use fossil fuels that does not put carbon dioxide into the air. Second we must produce products that are economical with energy. Third we must ask people to cut down on the energy they use.
4 Listen to part 2 again and fill in the blanks. factories LI BIN: …What about ________?
They don?t cut down on their use of energy ______.
KEELING: No, they don?t. However, that is a ________ problem we must global work on as a _______ community. That means developing _________ developed and __________ countries will have to work
LI BIN: But it?s not the __________ developing countries that put most of the carbon _______ dioxide into the air. The developed countries are blame really the ones to ______.
Note: The USA is the largest energy user in the world and the largest producer of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. China comes second in both of these.
China has been going through huge economic development, and has had as much growth in one decade as the industrial world experienced in nearly a century. However, it has been at a high cost to the environment.
FOSSIL FUELS AND OTHER
FORMS OF ENERGY
(L = Li Bin K = Keeling)
Li Bin, a university student, is interviewing Professor Keeling on the local student radio station about the use of fossil fuels and other sources of energy.
L: Professor Keeling, I?ve read that we must stop using fossil fuels if we want to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air. K: Yes, that?s right, Li Bin. However it?s difficult.
Our modern industrial societies depend on the energy we get from fossil fuels. It?s a very cheap and concentrated form of energy. L: Is it true that about 90% of the world's energy comes from fossil fuels? K: Yes, that's correct. And there is enough to last for centuries.
L: Could we replace fossil fuels with clear sources of energy like sun or wind power? K: I'm afraid not. We just can?t produce enough. You need huge areas of land to produce enough wind energy. The technology we have at present cannot provide enough sun energy.
L: So what about nuclear power?
That doesn?t produce carbon dioxide.
K: True, but it?s very dangerous.
Remember the accident at Chernobyl. People are still dying of the radiation that was produced by THAT disaster!
Part 2 L: So what CAN we do? K: Well, there are three things. First we must find ways of using fossil fuels that won?t put carbon dioxide into the air. Second, we must produce products that are economical with energy. Third, we must ask people to cut down on the energy they use.
L: But that?s on a personal level. What about factories? They don?t cut down cut down their use of energy. K: No, they don?t. However, that is a problem we must work on as a global
community. That means developed and
developing countries will have to work
L: But it?s not the developing countries that put most of the carbon dioxide into the air. The developed countries are really the ones to blame. K: That?s true. So we must work together because global warming will affect everyone. If we want the future generations to have a good life, we must ALL look after the planet.
AGREEMENT Exactly. That?s true. You?re right. That?s right. That?s correct. I agree.
DISAGREEMENT I?m afraid I disagree with you. I?m afraid not. No, I don?t agree. I don?t think so. No way. I doubt ....
Professor Keeling: Whatever we do, we have to do it as a global community. That means developed and developing countries will have to work together. Li Bin: But it?s not the developing
countries who put most of the carbon
dioxide into the air. The developed
countries are really the ones to blame.
Sample Dialogue S1: I agree with Li Bin. It is the developed countries that are really the ones to blame and to pay for that. S2: Well, I don?t think so. I think Professor Keeling is right. Whatever we do, we have to do it as a global community. Developed and developing countries should work together to improve the environment.
S3: I hold the same viewpoint as Li Bin. In developed countries people are producing a large amount of carbon dioxide, which contributes to global warming. Isn?t it their duty to do something to decrease the speed of global warming? S1: Exactly.
S2: It is true that the developed countries are the ones to blame and they should do something. But is it right for developing countries to look on without doing anything? Remember we have only one earth, which is like a big family. All of us are family members. Think about this: in a family, if one child makes a mistake,
what should his brothers or sisters do— blame him without doing anything or help him correct the mistake? S1: I see. We should take part in the action instead of looking on and complaining. S3: I agree, too. Thank you. I?ve got a better understanding about this.
Suggested answers to Exercise 1 on page 63: 1. I think our conference was very successful on the whole. Pro Brown?s presentation was warmly received. 2.There is a wide range of energy sources, coal, oil, natural gases, water power, nuclear power and so on. 3. Now that (Since) your bike was broken, you can use mine so long as you take care of it.
4. Sue often buys food at the near store and heats it in the microwave for lunch. Then she drinks a can of cola to refresh herself and goes back to the office. 5. I?d like to thank Mr. Smith on behalf of the school for his work as a scholar, an engineer and an educator. 6. She is opposed to war, cruelty to animals, racism and so on with a commitment to help all living things.
7. His programme has been passed smoothly because most of the representatives in the conference subscribed to it. 8. In recent years, the winter temperature in this region tends to go up, and one of the main reasons which have resulted in this consequence is the air pollution. 9. His main contribution to our country is that he suggested on controlling the population growth.
10. The chairman of the conference stated that although the people at present are in disagreement on some issues, they are in agreement with each other on environmental protection. 11. The existence of life in outer space is still a mystery. 12. Experts said that the global temperature would show a tendency to increase.
Answer key for Exercise 2 on page 64:
mild, circumstance, flood, catastrophe, steadily, casual, average,
widespread, electrical, motor, advocated, put up with, kept on
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