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外研社选修六module 1 small talk


戴氏教育蜀汉路校区 话题 功能 语法 Small Talk(闲谈)

学生:

Talking about obligation or lack of obligation(谈论“有义务”和“无义务”) Didn't need to do and needn't have done(没必要做与本没必要做)

/>1.lack v.缺乏;缺少(作不及物动词时常接 for 或 in) n.没有,不足,缺乏 归纳拓展 (1)lack (for) sth.缺少……(不用于被动语态,多用于否定句中) lack common sense/courage 缺乏常识/勇气 lack for nothing 应有尽有 (2)be lacking in 缺少(品质、特点等),……不足 (3)for/through/due to/because of (a) lack of 因缺少…… no lack of 不缺少;足够 例句:She seems to be lacking in common sense. 她似乎缺乏常识。 Lack of heat made us cold when we were staying in that small hotel. 住在那家小旅馆时,没有暖气让我们觉得很冷。 The project was in vain for lack of money. 工程因缺乏资金而作废。 同类辨析 (1)lack 是普通用词, 指完全没有或部分缺少, 既可指具体事物, 也可指抽象概念, 如智力、知识、勇气等。 (2)shortage 指“短缺”,是就需要量而言。 例句:Our main difficulty in the quakehit area is a shortage of food and medicine. 我们受灾地区的主要困难是缺乏食物和药品。
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戴氏教育蜀汉路校区 【链接训练】

学生:

①The explorer got a disease in blood for the ________ of fresh vegetables and fruit. A.sake C.ignorance B.lack D.benefit

②I don't think he is the suitable person,for he______experience,______is essential for the job. A.lacks;which C.lacks of;which 2.advance 归纳拓展 (1)adj.预先的;在前的 an advance copy 样书 advance party/team 先头部队,先遣队 advance planning/warning/booking 预先的计划/警告/订票 (2)n.前进;进步 in advance (=ahead of time)预先;事先;提前 in advance of 在……之前 make an advance in sth.在某方面取得进步 (3)v.向前,前进 advance towards a place 向……前进 advance in sth.在某方面有进步,前进 advance sb.to a higher position 使某人提升 advance sb.some money=advance some money to sb.预付某人……钱 (4)advanced adj.高级的,进步的,年老的;发达的,先进的 advanced English/maths 高级英语/高等数学 advancement n.前进;进展 例句:We sent out an advance party of soldiers. 我们派出一支先头部队。
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B.lacking;as D.lacked;that

戴氏教育蜀汉路校区

学生:

Let the world know more about China,let China advance towards the world. 让世界了解中国,让中国走向世界。 It’s cheaper if you book the tickets in advance. 预订票要便宜一些。 They are going to start an advanced course in English in that institute. 他们要在那个学院开一个英语高级班。 【链接训练】 You'll have to pay one month's rent in ________,plus a ________ of $500. A.advance;check C.advance;deposit B.reservation;cash D.check;deposit

3.certain adj.确凿的;无疑的;可靠的 归纳拓展 (1)和 of(有时和 about)连用,后接名词或动名词(用 about 时不跟动名词),“确信; 有把握”,只能用人作主语。 (2)表示“无疑; 确定”时, 后面接不定式, 可以用人作主语, 也可以用事物作主语; 也可用 It is certain that...句型表示“(某人做某事)肯定无疑”。 (3)作定语,意思为“一定会来到、发生或生效的,有把握的”。 (4)稍微的;轻微的;微小的 (5)for certain/sure 确凿地;肯定地 make certain/sure (of)把……搞清楚,弄明白 例句:He is certain to agree./It is certain that he will agree.他肯定会同意。 There is no certain cure for this disease. 这种病没有特效药。 I felt there was a certain coldness in her manner.我觉得她的态度有点冷淡。 I think there’s a train at 8:20,but you ought to make certain. 我想 8 点 20 分有一班火车,不过你应该打听清楚。 【链接训练】 It's almost ________ that he will lose the next election. A.certain B.sure
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戴氏教育蜀汉路校区 C.confident D.right

学生:

4.imagine v.想象;想,推测 归纳拓展 (1)imagine+名词/代词/doing sth./thatclause imagine sb./sb.'s doing sth.想象某人做某事 imagine sb./sth.as 把某人(物)想象成…… imagine what/how/why...想象…… You can’t imagine...你想象不到…… (2)imagination n.想象力,创造力 imaginative adj.富有想象力的,爱想象的 imaginable adj.可以想象得到的(常与形容词最高级或 all,every,only 等连用,可 放在被修饰的名词后) 5.apologize v.道歉 归纳拓展 (1)apologize to sb.for (doing) sth.因某事/做了某事而向某人道歉 (2)apology n.道歉 make an apology to sb. for (doing) sth.因……向某人道歉 accept sb.’s apology 接受某人的道歉 owe sb.an apology 应向某人道歉 例句:I apologized to her for stepping on her foot. 我因踩了她的脚而向她道歉。 I must apologize for the delay in replying to your letter.未能及时回信,我必须向你 道歉。 I owe you an apology for what I said last night—I’m really sorry. 我该为昨晚说的话向你道歉——真对不起 【链接训练】 ①One should apologize ________ his taking the wrong glass at the party. A.to B.on C.for D.of

②I________you an apology for what I said this morning.Anyway,I meant no
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戴氏教育蜀汉路校区 offence. A.owe B.make C.demand D.accept

学生:

1.in addition 除此之外;另外 归纳拓展 (1)in addition 该短语为副词短语,作状语,可置于句首、句中或句末。用于句首 和句中时,一般用逗号隔开,但在句末时,则不需分开。 (2)in addition to 除……以外,相当于 besides,后接名词结构。 (3)as well=besides=in addition 除此之外(用作副词) (4)as well as=besides=apart from=in addition to 除……之外(用作介词) 例句:First you have the ability.In addition,you must pass the driving test. 首先你要有能力。另外,你必须要通过驾驶考试。 I have other things to do in addition. 此外,我还有其他事要做。 In addition to the names on the list,there are six other applicants. 除了名单上的名字之外,还有 6 个申请人。 【链接训练】 ①—Why didn't you buy that dress? —I disliked its pattern._______,the colour didn't suit me. A.In addition C.In return B.In turn D.In fact

②________ these arrangements, extra ambulances will be on duty until midnight. A.In addition to C.Except for B.Except

D.With the exception of

2.leave out 省去,遗漏,不考虑 归纳拓展 leave for...动身去……
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戴氏教育蜀汉路校区 leave sb. alone 不打扰某人 leave sth. alone 别管某事 leave over 留下,剩下;推迟 leave off 停止 leave sth./sb.behind 忘了带某物;将某人抛在后面或落下 例句:These are questions left over by history. 这是些历史遗留问题。 I left off in the middle of page 10. 我读到第 10 页中间停下来了。 Slow down,we're leaving Mike behind. 慢点儿,我们把迈克落在后面了。 同类辨析 leave out 与 cross out (1)leave out 遗漏,漏掉 (2)cross out 划掉,除去

学生:

例句:In your written work,you left out an important detail,so you couldn't score a high mark. 在书面表达中,你漏掉了一个重要细节,因此你不能得高分。 This word in the sentence is unnecessary.Cross it out.这个单词在句中多余, 删掉它。 【链接训练】 ①This article is too long.You should____________the unimportant details to make it shorter. A.find out C.make out B.pick out D.leave out

②—How did________feel to run 3,000 metres at the sports meet? —Terrible!Especially when I saw I was left so far________by the others. A.that;alone C.that;behind B.it;alone D.it;behind

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戴氏教育蜀汉路校区

学生:

疑问词+不定式”句型结构 归纳拓展 疑问词可用 who,what,which,when,where 及 how,后接不定式构成带有疑 问词的不定式结构在句中作主语、宾语、表语。 注意:(1)不能用 why to do 结构。(2)疑问词前有时可用介词。(3)不定式常用主动 语态形式。 例句:When to go for the picnic hasn’t been decided. 什么时间去野炊还没定下来。 I don’t know who to turn to for help. 我不知道该向谁求助。 The difficulty for the little horse was how to cross the river.小马的困难是怎样过河。 【链接训练】 I've worked with children before,so I know what ________ in my new job. A.expected C.to be expecting B.to expect D.expects

didn’t need to do 与 needn’t have done 1.need 既可用作实义动词,也可用作情态动词。 (1)need 作为情态动词,主要用于否定句、疑问句及表示疑问的从句中。 例句:That's all settled.It needn't be talked about. 已经完全解决了,不必谈了。 Why need you go today? 为什么你今天需要去? 回答由 need 引起的问句时,肯定回答一般用 must,否定回答用 needn't。

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戴氏教育蜀汉路校区 (2)need 用作及物动词和不定式连用,可用于各种时态。 例句:You don't need to do it yourself. 这件事你不必亲自做。 Does he need to know it? 他需要知道这件事吗?

学生:

在个别情况下,need 作为及物动词和情态动词的句子在意思上略有差别。 例句:He doesn’t need to be told. 不必告诉他了。(告诉他没好处) He needn’t be told. 无需告诉他。(他已经知道了) 2.当主语为“物”的名词时,need 后的宾语用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义, need doing=need to be done,用法同 want/require。 例句:The garden doesn’t need watering/to be watered;it rained last night.花园无需 浇水,昨晚下雨了。 3.didn't need to do sth.表示“过去没有必要做某事”。 例句:I didn't need to clean the windows.My brother did it. 我没有必要擦窗户,我哥哥已经擦了。 needn't have done sth.表示“本没有必要做某事而实际却做了”。 例句:You needn't have taken a taxi here,for it was very near to my house. 你本没有必要打车来,因为那儿离我家很近。 【链接训练】 ①—Would you like me to go to the dentist with you? —No, you ________ with me. A.need not to go C.need not go B.do not need go D.need go not

②My watch needs______,but I have no time to go downtown to have it________. A.to repair;repaired B.to be repaired;repairing C.repairing;repaired
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戴氏教育蜀汉路校区 D.being repaired;repaired

学生:

③Those who failed to get in ________ disappointed as many of the artists who should have appeared did not come. A.didn’t need felt C.mustn’t have felt B.needn’t have felt D.couldn’t have felt

④It was Sunday.I________up early, so I stayed in bed until 10 o'clock a.m.. A.don't need to get C.shouldn't have got B. didn't need to get D. needn't have got

练习: 一. 单项填空 从 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 1. You might have sent us a message. You A. needn’t have come C. don’t have to come here yourself.

B. mustn’t come D. didn’t need to come

2. David is always late for school and doesn’t work hard. I can hardly imagine him the examination. B. to be passed D. to pass the bill, so it was passed and became a law. B. in hopes of D. in favour of , it caused

A. being passed C. passing 3. All the representatives were A. in honor of C. in return for

4. The hurricane damaged many houses and business buildings. hundreds of deaths. A. In fact C. In total 5. It was because of A. failure C. absence B. In all D. In addition of funds that the project had to be put off. B. lack D. drop
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戴氏教育蜀汉路校区 6. You’ve made a serious mistake—you’ve A. left out C. put out B. made out D. taken out

学生: one letter “p” in the telegram.

7. The journalist interviewed a handful of successful businessmen, and he summed up the characteristics they have A. in nature C. in common in his report. B. in relation D. in theory

8. —Have they taken measures to control the spread of the disease? —No, they haven’t. They don’t seem to be A. aware C. afraid B. cautious D. careful , all the roads in the city are of its danger.

9. The heavy snow has lasted for seven days. blocked for the time being. A. As a rule C. In case B. As a consequence D. As usual

10. —We’ll have three weeks off for the Spring Festival. Let’s make a trip to Hong Kong. — ! I’m looking forward to that. B. Have a good time D. Sounds fine to me

A. Never mind C. Well done 二. 完形填空

阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C 和 D)中,选出可以 填入空白处的最佳选项。 I can never forget the unexpected car accident several years ago. It was very late. I was with my 2 1 and sister in a car on vacation at a farm close to Medellin. We

a car accident. It is said to be very 3 to stop and help strangers in some places in Colombia, , I did hear of many cases in which people were 5 .

because it can be a trick. 4

just because they stopped and tried to help those who seemed to be in 6
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戴氏教育蜀汉路校区 So, we didn’t know 7

学生:

we should stop or not. But in the end, fortunately, my 8 some of the passengers were 9 10 . We

parents decided to. There was really an

took them to the hospital, and they were really help them. I can still remember what happened the we had done, they 12 thought we were 14 11

, and we felt very happy to

day. After we told my uncles what 13 , for it was too risky. They us to promise we

that we shouldn’t have

to be alive to tell the story. They 15

would never do that again in the future. Personally, I think it was risky, but I also think it was worth taking the 16 we hadn’t helped them this time, who knows what would happen to one day? But I also believe that one of the reasons why we fact that we were four people together and felt have stopped if I was 1. A. parents 20 19 18 17 . If

in return

to stop was the

enough. Maybe I wouldn’t

because I wouldn’t have felt safe. C. children D. friends C. ended with C. interesting C. Actually C. aided C. matter C. whether C. event C. murdered C. interested C. next D. heard of D. dangerous D. Fortunately D. loved D. trouble D. how D. experience D. treated D. worried D. last D. demanded D. walked D. lonely D. required

B. uncles

2. A. escaped from 3. A. exciting 4. A. Eventually 5. A. robbed 6. A. darkness 7. A. where 8. A. incident 9. A. injured 10. A. grateful 11. A. first

B. came across B. worthwhile B. Surprisingly B. questioned B. failure

B. when B. accident B. survived B. embarrassed B. earlier B. expected B. stopped B. hurried B. notified B. danger

12. A. imagined 13. A. driven 14. A. lucky 15. A. cautioned 16. A. hazard

C. complained C. left C. tired C. informed C. risk

D. adventure
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戴氏教育蜀汉路校区 17. A. one 18. A. refused 19. A. mighty 20. A. deserted 三. 短文改错 B. us B. forgot B. secure B. isolated C. them D. it C. remembered C. strong C. lonely

学生:

D. decided

D. powerful D. alone

此题要求改正所给短文的错误。请根据上下文对标有题号的每一行作出判断;如 无错误,在该行右边横线上划一个勾(√);如果有错误(每行只有一个错误),则按 下列情况改正: 此行多一个词:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉,在该行右边横线上写出该词,并用斜 线划掉。 此行缺一个词:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧) ,在该行右边横线上写出应加的 单词。 此行错一个词:在错词下划一横线,在该行右边横线上写出改正后的单词。 注意:原行没有错误的不要改。 It was a long time since we last saw each other. You can hardly imagine how I miss you. How are you getting with your first job? I remember you once tell me you were eager to graduate and to become an English teacher. Now you must 1. 2. 3. 4.

have many first hand experience. How do you find your English 5. teaching? Is teaching kids English as interested as you expected 6. in college? And do your student enjoy your classroom teaching? Anyway, I believe you must be very popular with the kids, for 7. 8.

you are a born teacher. Hope you great success in your work! Yes,9. why not give me a call or come for get? together this weekend? 10.

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