动词不定式 一.非谓语动词的种类 分 词 动 名 词 非谓语动词具有动词以外的许多词的特征,但是仍具有动词的某些 特征: 即仍有时态和语态的变化;可以带宾语,表语或被状语所修饰. 在考虑时态时应注意其时间坐标----“句子的谓语动词”;考虑语 态时必须弄懂其“逻辑主语”.非谓语动词的否定式是 not + 非谓 语动词
r />二. 动词不定式 ( 1 ) 动词不定式的形式
to do to be doing
to be done
to have done to have been done
( 2 )不定式的语法功能
To die for the people is weightier than Mount Tai.(作主语)
It is difficult for me to understand it. (作主语) Our main task is to finish the job in a week. (作表语) Laser science began to develop in 1958.(作宾语) To prepare their lessons, the students worked till midnight. (作状语) It’s time to get up. (作定语) The teacher told us to clean the classroom.(作宾语补足语)
The book is said to have been translated into English.(作主语补足语)
（3）不定式的逻辑主语 A)作主语时其逻辑主语为泛指 To move such a big stone is very difficult.
To be laughed at in public is miserable.
B）作表语时不定式的逻辑主语 The problem remains to be further discussed.(句子的主语) The next step is to control the energy.(与主语是对等关系时为泛指) Our plan is to finish the job in a week.(通过逻辑关系表示) C）作宾语时其逻辑主语为句子的主语 I began to learn English six years ago. When the teacher came into the classroom, the students pretended to be reading the text.
I have a lot of work to do. （不定式与先行词为动宾关系）
I need a room to live in. （不定式若是不及物动词时须有介词） I have no time to listen to your excuse.
2）先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时，先行词为逻辑主语 He is the last person to come to school this morning.
There is no way to solve the problem.
E）作状语时不定式的逻辑主语 He stood on a chair so as to see better.（句子的主语）
Put the picture higher so as to be seen better.（句子的宾语）
English is very difficult to learn.(逻辑主语为泛指，并且不定式与句 子主语为动宾关系） F）作补语时不定式的逻辑主语 The teacher told us to clean the classroom. （句子的宾语） We were told to clean the classroom.（句子的主语）
It’s very difficult for us to master a foreign language in such a short time. It is very kind of you to help us out.
在不定式的复合结构中，不定式无论担当什么句子成分其逻辑主语 总是介词的宾语。同时要注意 for / of 的区别。 （5）独立使用的不定式 No further discussion to follow, the meeting was over. （不定式前的名词为不定式的逻辑主语） To be frank, I don’t like him.（逻辑主语为说话人） （6）特殊疑问词 + 不定式 When to start has not been decided. I don’t know which bus to take. The question is how to put the plan into practice. He did not know what to do. why 不能和不定式连用 whether 却能 Why not join us ? I have not decided whether to go or not.
（7）不定式 to 的省略 A)在下列动词后宾补不定式不用 to : see (look at )/ watch / notice /
observe / hear (listen to) / have / feel / make / let
I saw him come this morning. Mother let me go home for lunch. 但是当句子变成被动语态宾补变成主补时就得加上 to I was made to do the maths exercises again.
help 后的宾语不定式和宾补不定式都可以省略 to B）下列句式不定式也不用 to
You’d better do your homework first. I would rather stay at home than go to the cinema.
having done 过去分词 done
being done having been done
（2）分词的语法功能 The man standing by the window is our teacher. （定语） Being a student, I must study hard. （状语）
The news is inspiring. / The glass is broken. （表语） We saw the teacher making the experiment.（补语）
A）作定语时为被修饰的词 The excited people rushed into the building.
The boy standing under the tree is my brother.
B）作状语时总是句子的主语 While reading the book, he nodded from time to time. They walked along the street, laughing and singing.
Seen from the top of the hill, the city is more beautiful.
C）作表语也是句子的主语 The book is very interesting. I’m very tired. D）作宾补为宾语；作主补为主语 We saw him coming. He had his clothes washed. She was heard singing there.
He lay in bed with all the windows broken.
E） 不受逻辑主语限制的分词 (1).Generally speaking, men can run faster than women. (一般说来,男人比女人跑得快些.) (2).Broadly speaking, dogs are more faithful to man than cats.
(3).Judging from his expression, he’s in a bad mood.
(4).Considering everything, it wasn’t a bad holiday. (考虑到各种情况,这次假日过得不错)
(5).I’ll lend you the money providing / provided you pay it back before Easter.
(6).Supposing there was a war, what would you do? (假设发生战争,你怎么办?) (7).Taking everything into consideration, they ought to be given another chance.
(8).Having suffered such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. (已经污染得这么严重了，现在清理这条河可能太晚了.）
四. 动名词 动名词和现在分词同形,只是语法功能不同
（1）动名词的语法功能 Walking on the moon is very funny. （作主语） My job is teaching.（作表语） I have finished doing the work. （作宾语） The swimming pool is wonderful. （作定语） We call this changing.（作补语） 动名词不能单独做状语，必须和介词一起做状语 On arriving in Beijing, I will go to see him.
（2）动名词的逻辑主语 A）作主语时其逻辑主语为泛指（参考上面例句） B）作宾语时其逻辑主语为句子主语（参考上面例句）
Many tall buildings have been built in our city recently.
My father’s coming made me very happy. I don’t like his (him) coming.
五.非谓语动词的差异 （1）作主语 分词不作主语，不定式和动名词区别如下 A）不定式动作具体,动作性强且时间上表示将来；动名词概念抽 象动作性弱且没有时间性 To move away a large stone is not easy.
Moving in a near vacuum requires little energy.
B）在 it作形式主语时，当表语是 no good / no use / useless / senseless / waste / dangerous 等词时常用动名词 It’s not much good saying so. It is dangerous playing with fire. C）在 there be 结构中只用动名词 There is so much walking to do.
（2）作宾语 分词不作宾语，不定式和动名词区别如下 A）不定式动作具体,动作性强且时间上表示将来；动名词概念抽 象动作性弱且没有时间性 I like swimming but I wouldn’t like to swim this afternoon. B）remember / forget / regret 等词后接动名词表示做过的事，接
I regret to tell you that you will be dismissed. I regret not studying hard when I was in middle school. ---Don’t forget to buy me a gift. ---I remember buying you one several days ago!
C）在 stop / try / mean 和 go on 之后不定式和动名词表达的意 思不同 When he came into the classroom, the students stopped talking.
Although he was very busy, he stopped to help me.
After supper, he went on to do his homework. After supper, he went on doing his homework. I will work hard, and try to improve my English. Try doing more exercises and you’ll soon lose weight. Smoking means setting fire. I didn’t mean to hurt you yesterday.
D）在 begin / start 之后，在下列情况下用不定式 The ice began to melt. （主语是物）
She is beginning to leave. （谓语是进行时）
I began to understand it. （宾语是表示思想意识方面的词） E）在一些动词后只接不定式：want, wish, hope, manage, ask, offer, decide, agree, choose, learn, pretend, promise, expect, seem happen等 They seemed to be eating something. The book seems to have been translated into Chinese. F）在一些动词后只接动名: suggest, finish, avoid, allow, appreciate, can’t help, mind, enjoy, admit, forbid, require, delay, consider, advise, excuse, practise, escape, miss, pardon, imagine, risk, put off, leave off, set about 等
G）表示“需要”等词的动词主语是物时宾语用主动语态的动名 词或被动语态的不定式 The room needs (wants) cleaning (to be cleaned). F）不定式不作介词宾语（except / but 除外）；作表语形容词 宾语时不定式和动名词所表示的时间不同
I have nothing to do but (except) wait.
I have no choice but (except) to wait.
I’m glad to meet you. Welcome to our school.
I’m glad meeting you. See you later.
（3）作表语 A）不定式，动名词与分词的区别 不定式和动名词与主语是对等关系；分词与主语是从属关系 Our plan is to finish the work in a week. （表示将来） My job is teaching.（没有时间性） The book is interesting. （表示主语的特征）
The glass was broken. / I’m very tired. （表示主语的状态或心理感受） B）不定式与动名词的区别 C）现在分词与过去分词的区别 D）现在分词作表语和进行时的区别 The book is interesting all of us.
E）过去分词作表语与被动语态的区别 The glass was broken by Tom. The house was surrounded by the police. The house was surrounded with tall trees.
（4）作定语 A）现在分词与动名词的区别 a sleeping boy （现在分词与被修饰词有主谓关系） a sleeping car （动名词与被修饰词没有主谓关系） B）分词与不定式的区别 I need a room to live in. （不定式只能在被修饰词之后） He is the first person to leave. （先行词被最高级或序数词修饰时） He is a retired worker.（分词可在前也可在后）（状态 /被动） The boy sitting in front of the house is my classmate. （动作 / 主动）
（5）作状语 动名词必须与介词一起做状语；分词多用来表示时间，原因，条件 和伴随情况；不定式多用来表示目的和结果.常出现下面一些固定 结构：too…to…/ so as to / in order to / enough to;若分词用来表示 目的，结果时就要注意时间上的差别：不定式表示现在或将来；分 词表示过去 （例句略）
（6）作补语 A）主动语态的不定式和现在分词的区别 I saw him come. （ 过程 ） I saw him coming. （ 情景 ）
B）被动语态的不定式和过去分词的区别 Would you like the door closed? （ 状态 / 门在关着 ） Would you like the door to be closed? （动作 / 门在开着）
C）现在分词和动名词的区别 I found it melting. （分词与句子宾语有主谓关系）
I call it melting. （动名词与句子宾语为并列关系）
六. 非谓语动词的化简功能 （1）化简主语从句 It is very important that we should master a foreign language. It is very important for us to master a foreign language. (不定式化简） That my father came to see me made me very happy.
My father’s coming to see me made me very happy. （动名词化简）
（2）化简宾语从句 I didn’t know whether I should laugh or cry.
I didn’t know whether to laugh or cry.
I was thinking what I should do next and how I should do it. I was thinking what to do next and how to do it. She taught her little girl what she should say when her aunt came. She taught her little girl what to say when her aunt came. 被化简的宾语从句的主语必须与主句的主语相同；或在带双宾语的 句式中，从句的主语和间接宾语一致。被化简的从句多为由特殊疑
问词或 whether 引起的宾语从句。
（3）化简定语从句 The boy who is standing under the tree is my brother. The boy standing under the tree is my brother. The building which is being built there is a hospital. The building being built there is a hospital. The glass which was broken yesterday is mine.
The glass broken yesterday is mine.
He is the first boy who comes to school every morning.
He is the first boy to come to school every morning.
的关系；动名词要借助介词构成短语来化简从句 After we had finished the work, we went home. Having finished the work, we went home.（主从句主语一致） After the work had been finished, we went home.
The work having been finished, we went home.（主从句主语不一致）
Since there is no bus, we have to walk home.
There being no bus, we have to walk home.（主从句主语不一致）
I was surprised when I heard ( was told ) of his sudden death.
I was surprised to hear ( to be told ) of his sudden death.
Get dressed so that we may be ready to start out at any time.
Get dressed so as to be ready to start out at any time.
The child is so old that he can go to school.
The child is old enough to go to school.
As soon as I arrive in Beijing, I will go to see your uncle.
On arriving in Beijing, I will go to see your uncle.
简而来的。不但非谓语动词可以化简并列句，其它短语或单词也 可以化简并列句。 They walked along the street and they laughed and sang happily. They walked along the street, laughing and singing happily. The teacher stood there and a book was in his hand.
The teacher stood there with a book in his hand.
The teacher stood there, book in hand.
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