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英语作文分类


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CET4 写作强化训练

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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

一、评分法 二、作文开头句型 1. 现象法、问题法 2. 对立法 三、段落结构 1. 细节支撑主题句型段落结构 2. 比较对比型段落结构 3. 问题解决型段落结构 四、驳论型议论文 五、议论文结尾句型 六、图表作文 七、写信

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– 熟悉写作评分方法,帮助你了解自己的作文水平和现 状,确定切实可行的目标; – 熟悉并操练各种体裁的作文模式:议论文(其中包括 问题分析型、个人理由型、比较型、评论型、反驳型、 图表作文等)、说明文、书信等; – 分专题讲解作文各部分的写作方法、技巧和句型(开 头段、主体段、节尾段); – 为你准备精心挑选的极为有用的作文句型和短语; – 每周作文练习(课堂讲解方法,课下写作,第二次课 讲评)。 – 对学生作文进行讲评:如何改进?如何提高得分?

一、四级作文评分标准及样文
? 评分法:总体评分法 (Global Scoring)

? 评分标准:语言+内容
准确、流畅、 多样化 句式多样 短语丰富 词汇准确 切题、充实、有 条理 “含金量”

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分数段
? ? ? ? ? 1-3分:条理不清,思路紊乱,语言支离破碎或大 部分句子均有错误,且多数为严重错误。 4-6分:基本切题。表达思想不清楚,连贯性差。有 较多的语言错误。 7-9分:基本切题。有些地方表达思想不过清楚, 文字勉强连贯,语言错误相当多,其中有一些是严 重语言错误。 10-12分:切题。表达思想清楚,文字连贯,但有少 量语言错误。 13-15分:切题。表达思想清楚,文字通顺,连贯 性较好。基本上无语言错误,仅有个别小错。 ? ? ?
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Word chosen Structure variety Sentence complexity
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何谓“严重语言错误”?

基本时态的用法 词性与成分 单复数、语态、语气、一致关系 汉语连动式 句架结构 (e.g. There are some people believe that …)

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?样文分析

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? 4-98-1 作文题目 Harmfulness of Fake Commodities Outline: ? 目前社会上有不少假冒伪劣商品。为什 么会有这种现象? ? 举例说明假冒伪劣商品对消费者个人、 社会等的危害。

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(From Range Finder)

Nowadays, more and more fake commodities appear in the market, which has aroused lose social attention. Fake commodities are very harmful to comsumers. The range from foods, clothes to radios, TV sets, and even some medicine is fake, which has brought a lot of troubles in our daily life. In addition, fake commodities have affected the manufactures too. Those who have fallen victims of fake commodities will never buy them again, even the commodities are good the next time. There are many ways to get rid of the fake commodities. First, laws should be passed to punish hose who produce fake commodities. Second, people should be educated to tell the good commodities from the fake ones. They shouldn’t buy something just because the advertisements tell them to do so. In a word, the whole society should pay close attention to the problem of fake commodities and fight a battle against them. Only in this way can fake commodities be driven out of our daily life completely in the future.

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(From Range Finder) There are more and more fake commodities today. The are filled in our life and do harm to it. First, they do harm to our health. Fake commodities, especially food, are danger. If we take them, we may get sick, and sometimes even get dead. Other fake commodities, such as toys and so on are harmful too. Second, the production of fake commodities influence the marcket. It mak the marcket can work in its right order. Good commodities can’t be trusted too. The factories which don’t make fake commodities can’t get reasonble returns. To make the fake commodities disappear, we have to do sth at once. Our government must establish laws to punish the people who make fake 8分

(By 国贸2000-1) Nowadays, we may find many fake commodities in markets, stores and even in drug stores. Fake commodities may do harm to customers. Take medicine for example, fake medicine is helpless for sick people, and even worse, it may take their lives away. Fake commodities may also do harm to our society. Usually, fake medicines are very low prices. Many customers may accept them and commodities in good quarlity but at high prices they may not. The reason why there are so many fake commodities is that the manufacturers producing fake commodities ignor customers’ benifit and our regulations and laws in this field is not powerful. So, For our long-term benifits we must take actions right now. 11分

(By 国贸2000-1) Have you had an experience that a pair of shoes were broken which you had just wore for sevaral days? Have you read a new that is about a person drank a kind of wine, not too much, but died. That kind of shoes and wine are called fake commodities. Why merchants product fake commodities? Because producting fake commodities will bring they big profits. It costs them more less than normal goods, but this kind of goods can sell on the same price in the market. Maybe it is good for merchants, but it does big harm to cosumers and society. Firstly, fake commodities will waste people’s money. You pay the money, but you can’t get the same value of goods. Secondly, fake commodities will do harm to people’s heath, especials fake drugs and foods. Thirdly, it’s not good for society’s development. Normal merchants which don’t product fake commodities can’t gain profits as big as that merchant which in this. They don’t product any normal products any more.

8分

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二、作文开头句型

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1. 现象法、问题法
1. Recently the problem /phenomenon of + n.( that+从句) has aroused wide concern /public attention. According to a recent study /investigation, X% of people / teenagers /students … are interested in /addicted to /indulged in + n. /ving, as compared to only X percent a couple of years/months ago. Several factors may account for this phenomenon. 2. With the rapid development /improvement / expansion of + n., people become increasingly aware /conscious of the necessity /importance to + v. 3. One of the main problem with today?s + n. is that …. The problem will exert a harmful / destructive effect on ….

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? 4. Recently, the focus of the majority / masses / public has been attracted / arrested on the issue of … ? 5. Presently, never in history has the issue of … been more popular / visible / arguable/ discussible. ? 6. Currently the issue of … has become the talk of the town by all walks of life.

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? 7. Obviously, a lot (amount / variety / majority / sea / ocean / army) of elements can explain (interpret / account for / be responsible to) … ? 8. It is widely (globally / universally / generally / frequently) believed (agreed / admitted / acknowledged / commented / supposed) that…

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Sample 1
?
? ? ? Why college students take a part-time job 1. 最近几年越来越多的大学生加入打工的队 伍。 2.为什么大学生要打工 3.大学生打工的意义。 Recently the phenomenon that more and more college students hold a part-time job has aroused public attention. According to a recent survey, about 35 percent of college students now take a part-time job. Several factors may account for this phenomenon.

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Sample 2
? With the rapid development of science and technology, people become increasingly aware of the importance of Internet. According to a recent investigation, nearly 70 percent of teenagers are interested in surfing the net, as compare d to only 20 percent 3 years ago. Several factors may account for this trend.

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Your Task
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Task 1: Children Attending Training Courses 1.许多中小学生报名参加各种各样的培训班 2.家长和学生选择培训班时所考虑的主要因素 3.孩子参加培训班的益处和可能产生的弊端 (《专项训练》P. 24) Task 2: How to Deal with Cheating 1. 学生作弊的现象比较普遍 2. 产生这种现象的原因 3. 怎样杜绝作弊 (《综合训练》Model Test 5 )

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2. 对立法
? There is a public debate today on the problem of + n. Those who criticize /object to + n. argue that +从句.They believe that +从句. But people who advocate /favor it, on the other hand, maintain that … There is no consensus(一致) of opinion among people as to the view of + n. Some people suggest that +从句, while some other people argue that +从句. As far as I am concerned, ….

?

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Sample 1
? My View on Opportunity(6-9306) ? Instructions : 有些人认为机会是极少的, 另一些
人则认为人人都有某种机会。你的看法如何?写 出你的观点,说明你的理由并举例。在文章结尾 处不要忘记写出结论

? There is no consensus of opinion among people as to the view of opportunity. Some people suggest that opportunities are rare and only the luckiest person can obtain them, while some other people argue that in a sense everyone has opportunity from time to time.

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Sample 2
? Why I Take the College English Test Band 6 (6-9601)
? 1. 有人认为没有必要参加大学英语六级考试(简称CET6)。 ? 2. 我参加CET-6考试的理由。 ? There is a public debate today on the problem of taking the college English Test Band 6. Those who object to it argue that there is no need to take part in it. They believe that the purpose for us to learn English is to be able to understand it and use it properly, instead of having high scores in the test, or gaining the certificate. ? But people who advocate it, on the other hand, maintain that …I am one of them.

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Your Task
? ? ? ? ? Task 1: On the “Golden Week” Holiday 1. 有些人支持“黄金周”长假制 2. 有些人提出取消“黄金周” 3. 在我看来 (《专项训练》P. 9)

? ? ? ?

Task 2: My View on Job-hopping 1. 有些人喜欢始终从事一种工作。 2. 有些则喜欢经常换工作。 3. 你的看法。

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三、段落结构 Paragraph Patterns
Six Patterns:

1. Cause and Effect 2. Comparison and Contrast 3. Time Sequence 4. A Set of Sequential Actions 5. A General Point Supported by Details, Examples, and a List of Things 6. A Problem-Solution Pattern

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1. A General Statement Supported by Details

A general statement(G.S.) Detail 1

Detail 2
Conclusion

Detail 3

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Sample

G.S.

D1
D2

D3

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Sample 2
Computers will play an increasingly important role in our daily life. For one thing thing, computers could measure brain activity to determine the quality of our work. For another another, mechanics will use computers to evaluate and identify motor problems, figure out repair Besides costs and locate repair shops. Besides, home computers will take care of regular duties at home, help with homework and order food.

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Link Words for Listing
1) For one thing, … For another, …. Finally, … 2) To begin with /To start with , … 3) In the first place, … In the second place, … 4) On one hand, … On the other hand, … 5) 除此之外: in addition (to), besides, moreover, furthermore, what?s more,

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Sample:

A List of Reasons

Basketball is popular in many countries. In the first place, it’s inexpensive. A ball and a hoop are all you need. In the second place, it’s exciting. There’s always lots of action. What’s more, it’s a healthy sport that both men and women can play. Finally, it’s both an indoor and outdoor game. In warm countries the game is played outdoors all year, while in cold countries, it’s a winter game played indoors.

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Topic Sentence
? ? ? ? 写好主题句的三条原则: 1) 要有能说明段落中心的内容; 2) 要有能体现中心思想的关键词; e.g. A new way of controlling cancer has been developed. / There is a new way to control cancer. ? A variety of reason have led me to choose this job. ? Riding bicycles has quite a few advantages over taking buses.



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? 3) 尽量使用简洁明了的句子(丢掉冗余成分)。

? ‘Pride and Prejudice? was a book which in my opinion I enjoyed reading very much. ? I enjoyed reading ?Pride and Prejudice? very much.
? One of these changes is that the computer emerged, which can nearly be seen in every corner of the world. ? One of these changes is the emergence of the computer in nearly every corner of the world. ? As people are getting busier and busier today, they rarely have chance to exercise. ? People today are often too busy to exercise.

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Now you try!
? ? ? Task 1: Children Attending Training Courses 1.许多中小学生报名参加各种各 样的培训班 2.家长和学生选择培训班时所考

虑的主要因素

?
?

3.孩子参加培训班的益处和可能 产生的弊端 (《专项训练》P. 24)

Several factors may contribute to the phenomenon that many parents send their children to attend training courses.

? ? ? ? ?

Task 2: How to Deal with Cheating 1. 学生作弊的现象比较普遍 2. 产生这种现象的原因 3. 怎样杜绝作弊 (《综合训练》Model Test 5 )

Several reasons may account for this problem /phenomenon.

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? Task 3: Why I Take the College English Test Band 6 ? 1. 有人认为没有必要参加大学英 语六级考试(简称CET-6)。 ? 2. 我参加CET-6考试的理由。

Several reasons may account for my taking the college English Test Band 6.

? Task 4: How do Students Spend their Summer Vacations? ? 1. 过去学生是如何度过暑假的 ? 2. 现在许多学生在暑假期间也非

常繁忙

Summer holiday is a busy period of time for many students.

? 3. 我对此现象的看法 ? (《综合训练》P. 4-2)

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Tips for Writing
1) Decide the topic. 2) Write the topic sentence . 3) Before writing, outline details & reasons of the questions.

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Sample
Topic: “Protection of the environment has become a major concern of society. ”
Outline: Specific details: *teachers & pupils, specific meeting, discuss the protection of environment *city planners, environment problems,take … into consideration *factories, reduce pollution, at a high cost

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Your task
Write a short composition with a general statement and its corresponding supporting details. Topics : 1. Life without television 2. Studying abroad is (not) a good choice for me.

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Six Patterns:

1. Cause and Effect 2. Comparison and Contrast 3. Time Sequence 4. A Set of Sequential Actions 5. A General Point Supported by Details, Examples, and a List of Things 6. A Problem-Solution Pattern

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2.比较对比型段落结构
? People used to think that +从句 / It was once thought that +从句. In the old days, +句子(使用过 去时). But with the development of science and technology /economy, few people now share this view. They now tend to believe that +从句. Sample : City Life and Suburban Life – 1. 最近几年越来越多的人迁往近郊居住 – 2. 城市生活和近郊生活各有特点 – 3. 比较起来,我喜欢的是…… People used to think that city life is far better than suburban life. But with the development of science and economy, few people share this view. They now tend to believe that living in suburb is as good as living in city.

?

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Two major ways of organizing paragraph of comparison:
A. Examine one thing thoroughly a n d t h e n t h e o t h er. ( b l o ck comparison / contrast) B. Examine two things at the same time, discussing them point by point. (alternative comparison / contrast)

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Sample A
The importance of books leads some people to furnish their homes with a bookcase or personal library. In this way, useful works such as dictionaries and textbooks are always at hand. However, sometimes, book-collectors buy texts they never read. Public library, by contrast, are blessed with advantages. On a social level, they are preferable because they allow people with low incomes to better themselves. Knowledge is available for most people, instead, not the few.

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Sample B
The same qualities that make people good house guests make them good hospital patients. Good house guests can expect a reasonable amount of service and effort on their behalf, and hospital patients can also. Guests have to adjust to what is for them a change, and certainly hospital patients must do the same … Just as house guests must …, so patients must …

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Useful Words and Phrases
Comparison: similar to, similarly, like, alike, likewise, correspond to, correspondingly, resemble, as, just as, in the same way, have sth. in common, common characteristics, etc. Contrast: differ from, however, otherwise, even so, less than, unlike, in contrast to, on the contrary, on the other hand, while, although, rather than, etc.

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Complete the following sentences:
In contrast 1. __________ to living on the farm, living in the city is an intense struggle to survive in a concrete wasteland. however 2. Before 1880 many people died of smallpox; _______, the percentage of deaths from smallpox is small today. 3. The development of transportation and the development of communications __________ in many ways. are similar more 4. There is ______ hard work in writing than in physical labor.

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Sample 1
Both the city and the country have their disadvantages. Air pollution is very

serious in the city. Moreover, cities are usually so crowded that many people don’t want to go out. In the country, it is inconvenient to buy things. Besides, people can find no way to kill the long and tedious nights.

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Sample 2
Ways of manners are different between America and Japan. For example, Americans eat with knives and forks; Japanese people eat with chopsticks. Another example is that Americans say “Hi” when they meet, while Japanese bow. Besides, many Americans open doors for women; Japanese men do not. On the surface, it appears that good manners in America are not good manners in Japan. In fact, that?s just the different ways of expressing kindness.

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Your task 1
? How do Students Spend their Summer Vacations? 1. 过去学生是如何度过暑假的 2. 现在许多学生在暑假期间也非常繁忙 3. 我对此现象的看法 (《综合训练》Test 9)

? ? ? ?

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Your Task 2
Write one paragraph based on the following topic:
<综合训练>Test 3 My First Impression of College 1. 这是我在大学的第一天

2. 大学生活与中学生活有何不同
3. 我理想中的大学生活应是……
<综合训练>作文题目分析

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?3. 问题解决型段落结构 ?Problem-Solution Pattern

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A composition written in problem-solution pattern often deals with topic, problem and solutions, which are presented respectively in different part of the composition in turn of

topic → problem → solution
as follows:

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TV plays a very important role in children’s daily lives. People have different opinions on the effects of television on children. In my opinion, most of the effects TV have on children are bad. Children have obviously been robbed of creative impulses by watching television. By the time children reach school, they have spent one-third of their waking hours in front of the television. While watching TV they just sit back and let things happen to them, so they become passive and less inventive.

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It’s time for parents to take charge and supervise their children, instead of parking them by the tube and hoping it will act as a baby-sitter. The influence of TV is so important that parents will have to be on their guard to make sure that their children are not being harmed by too much exposure to it.

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Topic: 用现象法、问题法开头句型
? How to Keep ? Recently, the problem of people?s psychological health Psychologically Healthy? has aroused public attention. (综合训练p.2) According to a recent survey, ? 1. 心理健康问题往往是导 over 60% of people believe that 致疾病的原因 the problem in psychological health may lead to illness, as ? 2. 分析人们产生心理问题 compared to only about 20% 2 的原因 years ago. ? 3. 你认为人们应该如何保 持心理健康

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Problem: 用列举法分析问题

(A general statement followed by a list of reasons)
? How to Keep Psychologically Healthy? (综合训练p.2) ? 1. 心理健康问题往往 是导致疾病的原因 ? 2. 分析人们产生心理 问题的原因 ? 3. 你认为人们应该如 何保持心理健康
? Several reasons may account for the problem in psychological health. First of all, the competition in today?s society is so intense that people have to stand a lot of pressure in their lives. For another, the relationship among people has become cold and indifferent, so many people feel isolated and helpless when they meet with some difficulties. Last but not the least, most people are not aware of the importance of psychological health. They only put a lot stress on their physical health.

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Solution: 用列举法
? How to Keep Psychologically Healthy? (综合训练p.2) ? 1. 心理健康问题往往是导致疾 病的原因 ? 2. 分析人们产生心理问题的原 因 ? 3. 你认为人们应该如何保持心 理健康 ? As far as I am concerned, in order to keep psychologically healthy, the most important is to have a peaceful mind. … Beside this, we need to keep physically healthy, so that we will be energetic enough to deal with the stresses and problems we will meet with in our life. What’s more, we need to have a harmonious family and get along well with our classmates or colleagues. …Only by doing these, can we keep psychologically healthy.

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Your Task
Write a composition in the pattern of problem-solution on the topic: 1. Say NO to Smoking

? 2. How to Deal with Cheating
? ? ? ? 1. 学生作弊的现象比较普遍 2. 产生这种现象的原因 3. 怎样杜绝作弊 (《综合训练》Model Test 5 )

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四、驳论型议论文
merits advantages strengths faults disadvantages weaknesses

strong points
virtues

weak points
drawbacks

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? 1998年6月CET作文题目

? Do “Lucky Numbers” Really Bring Good Luck?

?
?

1. 有些人认为某些数字会带来好运。
2. 我认为数字和运气无关,......

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? 2000年6月CET作文题目

? Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary?
? 1. 很多人认为有必要举行英语口语考试,理由是...... ? 2. 也有人持不同意见,...... ? 3. 我的看法和打算

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? 2006年1月四级作文题目

? Should the University Campus Be Open to Tourists?
? 1.名校校园正成为旅游新热点 ? 2.校园是否应对游客开放,人们看法不同; ? 3.我认为……

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? Model 1
? Recently, the issue of whether … has been brought to public attention. Some people believe that 从句. This explanation, however, does not really hold water. Others maintain that 从句. It sounds reasonable, but … ? The real answer, in my opinion, lies partly in … To start with, … Besides, … What?s the most important is …

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? Model 2
? Should ….(题目)? This is a question much talked about by many people. People?s opinions about it vary from person to person. Some people appreciated that …. They believe …/ They base their argument on the fact that …. ? At first thought /glance, it /this may seem a/an sound (attractive) idea /suggestion /solution, but on second thoughts /on close examination / considering it in detail, I / we find …For one thing, … For another, … Last but not the least, …

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Sample 1
There is a general debate on Jiao Da campus today over the phenomenon of college students doing a part-time job. College teachers and professors have different opinions over it. Those object to it argue that students should not spend their precious time this way. But people who advocate it, on the other hand, claim that by taking a major-related part-time job or summer job, students can not only improve their academic studies but gain much experience on the society, which they will never be able to get from the books. ? As far as I am concerned, … ?

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Sample 2: Should Firecrackers Be Banned? ? 1.有人认为放鞭炮是好事,为什么? ? 2.有人认为放鞭炮是坏事, 为什么? ? 3.我的看法。 ? ? Suggested key words: ? firecrackers 鞭炮 set off / let off [放鞭炮]

?

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?

Recently the issue of whether firecrackers should be banned or not has been brought to public attention. People?s opinions about it vary from person to person. Some people appreciate that letting off firecrackers is a traditional means to celebrate our special days, particularly spring festival. If firecrackers were banned, our festivals would become too quiet for us to enjoy. ? On the contrary, some other people hold opposite opinions. In their opinion, too much emphasis placed on one side of the problem may neglect other factors. As far as letting off firecrackers is concerned, there exist some side-effects which we should pay close attention to. Because of the explosion of firecrackers, too many fires have broken out during festivals which brought so much damage to people. In addition to this, firecrackers make noise and cause pollution. ? Personally I am on the side of the latter argument. It is true that firecrackers make our festivals more enjoyable. However, we can think out some other entertainments. And also, we can appreciate the sound of firecrackers by listening to a recorder of setting them off. In a word, firecrackers should be banned for the benefit of all people!

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Other Useful Sentence Patterns
? Although everyone believes that …, I doubt whether the argument bears much analysis. ? They may be right in saying that …, but they seem fail to take into account the fact that … ? It is true that …, but it doesn?t follow that …. ? We have been brought up with the idea that … Yet with the development of science and technology / economy, … ? The great problem with this view is that it is ignorant of the basic fact that … ? The obvious drawback in the idea is that it fails to take … into consideration. ? Too much emphasis placed on one side of the problem may neglect other factors.

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? ? ? ? ?

Your Task
Task 1 Overseas Studying 1. 目前出国留学现象很普遍 2. 形成这种现象的原因及不同人对此的看法 3. 我的观点 (《综合训练》6-2 P124)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Task 2 Should Teenagers Be Encouraged to Attend TV Shows? 1. 越来越多的青少年出现在各种电视选秀节目中 2. 人们对此看法各不相同 3. 你的看法 (《专项训练》P16)

Useful expressions:

idol n. 偶像 to become successful overnight enthusiastically adv. / be crazy about … Frown (v.) on /upon … 对…嗤之以鼻 give priority to … over …

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五、议论文结尾句型

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1.结论性
? 用于通过文章前面的讨论分析,引出文章的中心思想和论

点。

? 1. From what has been discussed above/Taking into account all the factors mentioned above, we may safely arrive at the conclusion that … ? 2. All the above opinions make sense. As the proverb goes, fire is a good servant, but a bad master. What we must do is to maximize favorable factors and minimize unfavorable ones (of ….) ? 3. Anyhow both the ways have their merits and their faults, but a combination of their merits might be a step in the right direction. ? 4. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that advantages of … far outweigh its disadvantages.

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2. 后果性
? 用于揭示如果所讨论的问题不能解决,或不采取某种行动

的话,将会产生什么样的的后果。
? 1. We must search for an immediate /a quick solution, because the current situation /tendency of …, if allowed to proceed, will certainly result in (the destruction / heavy cost of …) ? 2. Obviously, if we cannot improve the situation, there is every chance that … ? 3. We need to take a fresh look at the … more seriously, otherwise, it is very likely that …

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3. 号召、建议性
? 用于呼吁读者行动起来或敦促采取行动,或对某一问题提起注意或提 ? 出建设性意见。 ? 1. There is no doubt that adequate attention must be paid to the problem of … and it is essential that effective measures should be taken to … ? 2. Although the problem mentioned above cannot be solved immediately, still there are ways. The most important is … Another method is … ? 3. No quick solution is at hand to solve the problem of …, But the general awareness of the importance of … might be the first step toward the final /ultimate goal. ? 4. We have a long way to go before we reach the final destination. But once we are on the road, the chance to reach it is great. ? 5. There is no better time to act than right now, for you will never be offered a greater opportunity that you are at this moment.

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特别推荐
? Only by doing this, can we … ? e.g.
? Only by doing of … ? Only by doing thoroughly. ? Only by doing society. ? Only by doing success. this, can we get rid of the bad habit

this, can we solve the problem of …
this, can we build a more harmonious this, can we achieve greater academic

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Sample 1
? Why I Take the College English Test Band 6 (6-9601) ? 1. 有人认为没有必要参加大学英语六级考试(简称CET-6)。 ? 2. 我参加CET-6考试的理由。 ? Recently, the issue of whether we should take part in … has aroused public attention. People?s opinions about it vary from person to person. Some people maintain that it?s not necessary for us to take this test. They base their argument on the fact that … ? On the contrary, I hold the opposite opinion. Several reasons may account for my choice. For one thing, …For another, … Last but least, … ? Taking into account all the factors mentioned above, I may

safely arrive at the conclusion that taking the College English Test Band 6 is quite necessary for me. Of course, I know I have
a long way to go before I reach the final destination. But once I am on the road, the chance to reach it is great.

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Sample 2
? Children Attending Training Courses ? 1.许多中小学生报名参 加各种各样的培训班 ? 2.家长和学生选择培训 班时所考虑的主要因素 ? 3.孩子参加培训班的益 处和可能产生的弊端 ? (《专项训练》P. 24)
? 结尾句: ? From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that advantages of sending children to attend training courses far outweigh its disadvantages. As the proverb goes, fire is a good servant, but a bad master. What we must do is to maximize favorable factors and minimize unfavorable ones.

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You Try
? What are college students doing on the internet? (综合训练p.24) 1. 据统计,在网上聊天交友、 玩网络游戏是目前我国大学生 上网的主要活动内容。 ? 2. 专家认为,沉迷于聊天和游 戏不仅耗费金钱、时间和精力, 还影响正常的学业和人际交往。 ? 3. 我们应当如何看待大学生上 网的问题。

? 结尾句:?
?From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that advantages of surfing the internet far outweigh its disadvantages. As the proverb goes, fire is a good servant, but a bad master. What we must do is to maximize favorable factors and minimize unfavorable ones of internet.

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You Try
? On Old People Living in the Nursing Home
? (《专项训练》P. 23) ? 1. 有些年轻人将自己年老的父 母送到养老院生活 ? 2. 他们这么做出于怎样的考虑 ? 3. 老年人住在养老院的好处和 可能产生的问题

? 结尾句:?

六、图表作文
bar(chart): 柱状图 table: 图表 pie: 饼状图 graph: 曲线图 As is illustrated / manifested / signified / demonstrated in the chart, etc. that…

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? 1. Useful words and expressions
?

?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

上升:increase、grow, accumulate, rocket from…to…, rise、 ascend 、 core、 surge 、go up 、climb 、mount、 level up 下降: decrease、 fall 、drop、 descend、 decline 、reduce, shrink, go down, lessen、 level down 平稳: stable 、steady、 stay/remain/maintain/keep/be the same as/similar to, keep unchanged 波动: fluctuate、 fluctuation、 rise and falls、 up and down 占: cover, occupy、 take up、 account for、gain the percentage of 而: while、 however、 whereas、 on the other hand、 actually/in fact 相比: by contrast、 on the contrary、 likewise、 compared with 最高点: the highest 、the top、 the summit 、the peak、 the most 最低点: bottom 、less 、least 、rock bottom 平均: mean、 average 趋势: tendency 、trend、 inclination 预见: prediction 达到顶峰: mount to

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? 写作模板——图表式作文
?

It is obvious in the graphic/table that the rate/number/amount of X has undergone dramatic changes. It has gone up/grown/fallen/dropped considerably in recent years. At the point of …, X reaches its peak value of …(多少). ? What has caused this change? Mainly there are … (多 少)reasons behind the situation reflected in the graphic/table. First of all, …(第一个原因). More importantly, …(第二个原因). Most important of all, …(第三个 原因). ? From the above discussions, we have enough reason to predict what will happen in the near future. The trend described in the graphic/table will continue for quite a long time (if necessary measures are not taken)(括号里的使用于那 些不太好的变化趋势).

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? ? ? ? ? ?

The Reading Population in China 1。描述图表所是我国国民读书情况 2。分析读书率变化的原因 3。你的看法 (《专项训练》P. 11)

Sample

It is obvious in the chart that the number of the reading population in China has undergone gradual decline from 1999 to 2005. According to the chart, in 1999, more that 60% of Chinese people practiced certain readings. The percentage dropped dramatically to 48.7% in 2005. ? What has caused this change? Mainly there are three reasons behind the situation reflected in the chart…. ? As far as I am concerned, although the problem mentioned above cannot be solved immediately, still there are ways. The most important is … Another method is …

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Tour Task

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? The Increase in the Number of Chinese Traveling Abroad ? ? As can be clearly observed from the table above, the trend of Chinese traveling abroad is going up these years. In the past three years, the number of Chinese traveling abroad was on a steady rise. According to the table, the number increased from 7.5 million in 1999 to 10 million in 2000 and to 12.1 million in 2005.? I think there are at least three reasons to account for the above mentioned changes. First and foremost , the changes are primarily concerned with the income of Chinese. They are better off and can afford to travel abroad. What’s more, they have a lot to do with the development of the travel industry in China. More and more travel agencies are attracting more people to join in their tours abroad. Last but not the least, the changes are closely related to our policy of opening up to the outside world.? From what has been discussed so far, it is obvious that the increase in the number of Chinese traveling abroad is of great concern of our life. It reflects the improvement of our living standards and the development of our economy.??

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七、写信
1. Letters of Consolation

安慰信

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Sample One
A letter to a relative

who was hurt in a car accident

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Sample Two
A letter to a friend

who got a low score on the TOEFL

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Your Task
? Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter to console Wang Xiaoping, one of your classmate who is having an operation in his /her hometown hospital. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below.

? A Letter of Consolation
? 1. 询问同学病情,表示关切。 ? 2. 谈谈班级近期发生的一件事情,并表达思念之情。 ? 3. 表达希望同学早日康复返校的良好祝愿。

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2. Letters of Application for Studying Abroad
When you apply for school admission, you’ll have to introduce yourself in writing. The purpose is to give others information about yourself so that others may know you.

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? Dear Sir, ? My name is Li Kang. I am going to graduate from Department of Mathematics in Nanjing University in June next year. I am very eager to enter the Graduate School of your University next fall to study applied mathematics for master?s degree. I entered … University in 2003. During my 3 years at this university, I passed all the required courses of study with satisfactory marks, wining scholarship each semester. In addition, I also took an active part in extracurricular activities. I won the second prize in the National English Contest in 2005, and have been the chairman of students? Union of my department for 2 years, from which I accumulated plenty of social and work experience. … Enclosed in the letter are my materials concerning the application. Please feel free to write to me and ask for further information and documentation if you have any question. It would be very kind of you if you will consider my application and give me the earliest reply. Yours sincerely, Li Kang

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Letters of Application for A Job
Dear Sir: I was pleased to see your ad in ChengDu Shang Bao on May 10, 2007 for a sales engineer. In July 1 I will receive my Bachelor?s degree in Electronic Engineering from SWJTU, and I would like to be considered for the post. I believe I could do a satisfactory work for your company because both my education and work experience have bee in line with the duties you outlined in your ad. As indicated in my attached resume, my main degree course is concerned with basic electronic topics. But I also have taken such courses as Marketing, Consumer Behavior Strategies and Psychology, and all available opportunities to increase my knowledge in both fields. As for my English ability, I have already passed the national CET (Band 4) with excellent results and I have even worked two summers as an English interpreter at Chengdu Travel Service. I will be available for interview at any time, and look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, …

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Your Task
For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write A Letter of Inquiry about applying for admission to an English Course.
假如你是某大学学生,叫王明,你从报纸(电视、 网络)上获悉美国一所大学举办一个为海外学生 设计的为期三个月的英语短训班。写一封信说明 你的情况并索取一份申请表。

(《综合训练》5-2 P111)

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3. Letters of Complaint

投诉信

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Sample One
A letter to the Editor of a Newspaper ? Directions: For this part you are allowed 30 minutes to write A Letter of Complaint to the editor of a newspaper. You have bought an English-Chinese Dictionary. You find it in poor quality, but the bookstore’s service is even worse. Your letter should include the following contents: ? 1. 事情的起因 ? 2.与书店交涉的过程 ? 3.呼吁服务行业提高服务质量

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? ? ?

?

? ?

Dear Editor, I am writing this letter to reflect some problems I came across recently and. appeal to the improvement of the service industry. This weekend I bought an English-Chinese dictionary in a bookstore near my home since its cover is elaborately designed. But when I went home and read carefully, I found that the several pages of the dictionary have been cracked and befouled. What is worse, the misprints spread everywhere in the dictionary and seriously affect my comprehension. Since there was such damage and misprint to the dictionary, I went to the bookstore to require for a replace. But to my surprise, the staff of the bookstore turn down my request rudely and even denied the poor quality of the dictionary. It goes without saying that today’s face-paced and market-oriented economy calls for much higher standard for service industry. However, to my regret, many of the commercials fail to achieve this standard and the quality of the staff needs to be improved. It’s self-evident that the poor quality of practitioners in the service industry will not only deeply disappoint customers but also hamper the development of our country’s economy. As a result, I expect your newspaper to appeal to the service industry to attach more importance to the service improvement. Thank you for your attention! Sincerely yours, Sam

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Other Useful Expressions
? 1. I venture to write to you about a most frustrating experience I had several days ago. ? 2. I do hope those concerned may read this letter and take this problem into serious consideration. ? 3. There is no doubt that adequate attention must be paid to the problem of … and it is essential that effective measures should be taken to … ? 4. We must search for an immediate /a quick solution, because the current situation /tendency of …, if allowed to proceed, will certainly result in (the destruction / heavy cost of …) ? 5. Obviously, if we cannot improve the situation, there is every chance that …

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4. Other Letters

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Travel-mate Wanted
? Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a notice to find a foreign travel-mate. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below. ? 假期即将来到,你打算做一次为期三周的旅行,希望找个 外国朋友作为游伴,拟一个巡游伴的启示。启示需包括以 下几点: ? 1. 交代日程安排 ? 2. 费用情况以及对对方的要求 ? 3. 你的联系方式

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A Letter of Inquiry
? Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write A Letter of Inquiry about applying for admission to an English Course. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese.

? 假如你是某大学学生,叫王明,你从报纸(电视、网络) 上获悉美国一所大学将举办一个为海外学生设计的为期三 个月的英语短训班。写一封信说明你的情况并索取一份申 请表。

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?CET 4, CET 6 真题

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A letter to a Schoolmate
? 2001年6月CET4作文题目 ? Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter. Suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday. You should write a t least 100 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese. ? 1. 表示欢迎 ? 2. 提出对度假安排的建议 ? 3. 提醒应注意的事项

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A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus
? 2002年1月CET4作文题目 ? Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic: A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus You should write at least 100 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below: ? 假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信, 内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以 是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼有而有之。

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An Eye-Witness Account of a Traffic Accident
? 2003年6月CET4作文题目 ? 假设你在某日某时某地目击一起车祸,就此写一 份见证书。 见证书须包括以下几点: ? 1、车祸发生的时间及地点 ? 2、你所见到的车祸情况 ? 3、你对车祸原因的分析 ?

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A Letter in Reply to a Friend
? ? ? ? 2004年1月CET4作文题目 1.建议报考的专业及理由 2.报考该专业的基本条件 3.应当如何备考

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参考范文]A Letter in Reply to a Friend December 27, 2003
Dear sir, When it comes to which major you should choose, I propose that you apply for the major of English. To begin with, English is the most popular language in the world, which is widely used in all fields such as teaching, translation, foreign trade and so on. What’s more, it goes without saying that English majors are more likely to find a good job in the tighter and tighter job market. In order to study at English Department, you have to meet the following requirements. In the first place, you have to spend a lot of time on it, just as the old saying goes, “Practice makes perfect”. In the second place, the basic skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking are necessary, because they are the foundations for your future study. Last but not the least important, you need an intense interest in learning English since “interest is the best teacher.” As far as the preparation work is concerned, you should first of all review all the required vocabulary. In addition, you’d better spend some time on reading and writing. Only through these measures can you hope to enroll in our university. Yours, Li Ming

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A Brief Introduction to a Tourist Attraction

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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

2004年6月CET4作文题目 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition entitled A Brief Introduction to a Tourist Attraction. You should write at least 120 words according to the following guidelines: Your role: a tour guide Your audience: a group of foreign tourists Your introduction should include: · some welcoming words · schedule for the day the · description of the place the tourists will be visiting a (e.g. a scenic spot or a historical site, etc.) You should make the introduction interesting and the arrangements for the day clear to everybody.

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A Letter to the Editor
? 2004年6月六级作文题目: ? 设想你买了一本英文词典,发现有这样那样的质 量问题,书店的服务态度又不好,因此给报社编 辑写信。信中必须包括以下内容: ? 1、事情的起因 ? 2、与书店交涉的经过 ? 3、呼吁服务行业必须提高服务质量

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A Campaign Speech
? 2005年1月CET作文题目 ? 四级作文题目:A Campaign Speech ? 1 你认为自己具备是什么条件(能力,性格, 爱好)可以胜任学生会主席工作, ? 2 如果当选你将会为本校同学做什么?

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Your Help Needed
? 2005年1月六级作文题目: ? Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an open letter on behalf of the student union asking people to give help to a student who is seriously ill. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below: ? 对病人的简单介绍:目前的病情和家庭情况 ? 目前的困难:无法继续承担医疗费用,需要护理 ? 希望捐助,联系方式 ?


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