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重庆师范大学硕士学位论文

任务型教学法在初中英语口语教学中的应 用及反思

硕士研究生:学术 3 组 指导教师: 学科专业:学科教学(英语) 所在学院:外国语学院

重庆师范大学

二 0 一四年十月

Outline
Abstract Chapter One Introduction Chapter Two Literature Review 2.1 Uptake of ELT Curriculum Innovation 2.2 Communicative Approach 2.3 Task-based language Teaching 2.3.1Foreign Study on Task-based Language Teaching 2.3.2 Task-based Chinese Teaching Chapter Three Introduction of Task and Task-Based Language Teaching 3.1 Definition of Task and Task-Based Language Teaching 3.2 Theoretical Background of Task-based Language Teaching 3.2.1 Constructivism 3.2.3 Second Language Acquisition 3.2.3 Input Hypothesis 3.3 The Importance of Task-Based Language Teaching Chapter Four The Necessity of Applying TBLT to Oral English Teaching in Middle School 4.1 The Current Situation of Oral English Teaching in Middle School 4.2 The Comparison Between Task-based Language Teaching And Traditional Teaching Methods In middle School Spoken English Teaching 4.3 The Necessity of Applying Task-based Language Teaching in Oral Class Chapter Five The Application of TBLT Approach in Middle Oral English Teaching 5.1 Task-based Language Teaching on Oral English Teaching 5.2 Framework of TBLT to Oral English Teaching 5.3 Case Study of TBLT Chapter Six The Reflection of TBLT to Oral English Teaching in Middle School 6.1 Advantages of TBLT 6.2 Disadvantages of TBLT Chapter Seven Conclusion Bibliography Acknowledgements

Abstract
Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT), an extension of Communicative Approach (CA), mainly focuses on the principle of ―learning by doing‖. During the process of fulfilling the specific tasks, learners can learn the knowledge and skills with target language and learn English in real situations through participation, communication and cooperation. It is also an approach that is recommended to be applied in English teaching in New Curriculum Standard made by the Ministry of Education. What this thesis focuses on is the application of TBLT to oral English teaching in middle school. This thesis, using literature analysis and practice analysis methods, shows that TBLT is an efficient and advanced approach to improve students’

communicative competence. However, the reflection is necessary because of its drawbacks. Key Words: TBLT; Oral English Teaching; Middle School; Application;Reflection

I. Introduction
TBLT : an approach based on the use of tasks as the core unit of planning and instruction in language teaching. Under the pressure of examinations, the English teaching usually focuses on grammar rather than communication .In order to change it, TBLT is much necessary. This paper is mainly about the application and reflection of TBLT to oral English teaching in junior middle school.

II. The Theoretical Basis for TBLT Constructivism:
Definition: Constructivism is a theory of knowledge that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas. Constructivism claims that knowledge should be constructed through interaction and cooperation and emphasizes particularly learning by social interaction and cooperation.

Second Language Acquisition:
Definition: It refers to a systematic study of how one person acquires a second language subsequent to his native language. The model : Apperceived input-----<Comprehended input-----<intake-------<integration-----<output.

Input Hypothesis:
Definition: Learners progress in their knowledge of the language when they comprehend language input that is slightly more advanced than their current level.

―i+1‖
The learner improves and progresses when he/she receives second language input that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence

III. The Necessity of Applying TBLT to Oral English Teaching in Middle School Oral English Teaching in Middle School
1.Low oral English level of middle school teacher. 2. Student's psychological escape of oral English 3..Social ignorance of oral English teaching.

The Comparison of Task-based Language Teaching And Traditional Teaching Methods : The traditional oral English teaching
1.English teacher ignores the aim of oral English 1.traditional teaching methods appear inflexible and rigid

Task—based language teaching
1. The aim of oral English teaching is clearly. 2. Student—oriented teaching methods

IV. The Application of TBLT Approach in Middle Oral English Teaching
1. TBLT on Oral English Teaching 2. Framework of TBLT to Oral English Teaching 3. Case Study of TBLT

Framework of TBLT to Oral English Teaching
Willis (1996) and Ellis (2003) both proposed a three-phase framework of TBLT. That can be used to design activies of Oral English Teaching. Pre-task:1.introduction to the task topic by the teacher. 2. Necessary input and preparation for the task While-task:1.Tasking 2. Planning 3. Reporting Post-task:1. Analysis2.Practice

Case study of TBLT(“what did you do on your vocation?”)
Pre-task: 1.Teacher introducts the task topic—— my vocation 2.Teacher gives students a dialogue between the boy and his Chinese friend who talk about their vocation, and then picks up some relevant words, phrases and cultural background about vocation for students to get ready for the task. While-task: 1.Learners will be asked to complete the following task: what did you do on your vocation? 2.Learners of each group get ready for how to report their finished task. 3.Reporting Post-task: 1.Learners analyze other groups’ performance in this task. 2.Learners can practice the task again after the task analysis in order to enhance the influence of learning.

V. The Reflection of TBLT to Oral English Teaching in Middle School

Advantages of TBLT
1. Not only helps students learn English, but also helps students learn to use the language in a real world. 2. Improve spoken English proficiency effectively. 3. After implementing TBLT, learners’ linguistic and communicative competence and thinking ability etc. are developed very well. 4. TBLT can also help students learn to think about a question, learn to make a decision and deal with an emergency. 5. TBLT involves the collaboration between teacher and learners, and among learners. 6. TBLT can greatly improve the integrated ability of a student.

Disadvantages of TBLT
1. Lack of convincible foundation or criterion. 2. TBLT can’t tell the inner relationship between certain activities and learners’ current needs. 3. Learners will have many language obstacles when they carry on the task. 4. Students tend to neglect the language forms and they will heavily depend on the communicative strategy. 5. TBLT requires a high level of creativity and initiative on the part of the teacher. 6. It is very difficult to ensure the systematization and sequence of tasks 7. The classroom is difficult to control. 8. Evaluation of TBLT can be difficult.

VI. Conclusion
Teacher: a creator of language environment;an organizer of the task. Student: more opportunities to speak out;confidence;creativity. TBLT has exerted positive influence on oral English teaching in Middle School. And TBLT will be continuing to exert fundamental influence on spoken English teaching and learning in China.

Bibliography
[1] Doughty, C. & Pica, T. 1986. ""Information Gap" Tasks: Do They Facilitate Second Language Acquisition?" [J]. TESOL Quarterly, 20 (2): 305–325. [2] Dulay, H. M, Burt and Krashen, S. 1982. Language Two [M]. NY: OUP. [3] Ellis, R. 2000a. Task-based research and language pedagogy [J]. Language Teaching Research, 4(3):193-220. [4] Ellis, R. 2009b. Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstanding [J]. International Journal. Of Applied linguistics, 19:221-46. [5] Ellis, R. 2013c. Task-based Language Learning and Teaching [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press. [6] Ellis, R. 1997d. The Study of Second Language Acquisition [M]. Oxford: Oxford University

Press. [7] Fosnot, C. T. 1996. Constructivism: Theory, Perspectives, and Practice [M]. New York: Teachers College Press. [8] Gass, S. M. & Selinker, L. 1994. Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course [M]. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [9] Harmer, J. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching (3rd ed.) [M]. Essex: Pearson Education. [10] Larsson, J. 2001. Problem-Based Learning: A possible approach to language education? [D]. Polonia Institute, Jagiellonian University. [11] Long, M. H. & Norris, J. M. 1996. Task-based language teaching and assessment [M]. London: Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching. [12] Loschky, L. & Bley-Vroman, R. 1993. "Grammar and Task-Based Methodology". In Crookes, G. & Gass, S. Tasks and Language Learning: Integrating Theory and Practice. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. [13] Nunan, D. 2004. Task-based Language Teaching [M]. Cambridge :Cambridge University Press. [14] Pica, T.; Kang, Hyun-Sook; Sauro, S. 2006. "Information gap tasks: Their multiple roles and contributions to interaction research methodology" [J]. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 28: 301–338. [15] Plews, J. L. & Zhao, Kangxian. 2010. "Tinkering with tasks knows no bounds: ESL Teachers’ Adaptations of Task-Based Language-Teaching" [J]. TESL Canada Journal. [16] Skehan, P. A. 1996. Framework for the implementation of task-based instruction [J]. Applied Linguistics. 17:38-62. [17] Willis, D. & Willis,J. 2007. Doing Task-based Teaching [M]. Oxford.UK: Oxford University Press. [18] 毕 会 英, 张 琦. 2011. On Task- based Syllabus [J]. Overseas English. (10): 30. [19] 陈文化. 2009. 任务型教学法在口语教学中的应用. 《科技信息》. (8): 97. [20] 戴莉新. 2009. 任务型教学的主题设计. 《辽宁教育行政学院学报》. (7): 36. [21] 丁文. 2002. 任务型教学在初中英语课堂中的运用. 《中小学英语教学与研究》. (7): 40. [22] 李正全, 郝慧珍. 2009. 《中国语境下的英语教学:理论与实践》. 河北教育出版社. [23] 罗蓉. 2011. 任务型语言教学文献综述. 《理论探讨》. (15): 14. [24] 潘乐. 2010. 英语听力课堂里任务型教学的问题与对策初探. 《中国商界》(9): 30. [25] 铁梅. 2007 任务型英语课堂教学模式研究与实践. 《辽宁教育研究》. (9): 93—95. [26] 夏纪梅. 《现代外语课程设计与理论》. 上海: 上海外语教育出版社.

[27] 张文静 . 2009. 实施任务教学提高学生英语口语能力 . 《芜湖职业技术学院学报》 . (9):81-82.


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