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M3 Unit 3 Back to the past


Unit 3 Back to the past

1、辨析remain, stay

(1) remain与stay表示“留下,继续保持某一状态”时,
常作连系动词,可以互换,其后接名词、形容词、 介词短语等作表语。 (2) 当表示“剩下”(即其余的一切都被拿走、除去、 破坏等),通常只用remain而不用stay。

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(3) 当表示“在某处或在某处住下”时,常用stay而不
用remain。 (4) remains n.(常用复数)所剩下的,遗留下的东西

◆He stayed / remained outside while we entered the

room.
他留在外面,我们进了屋子。 ◆What remains of the orginal art collection is now in the city museum. 原来的艺术收藏品剩下来的现在都在市博物馆里。

◆He wants to stay with a friend in the country for a
week. 他想和一个朋友在乡下待一个星期。

◆The remains of the meal are in the fridge.
剩下的饭菜在冰箱里。 ◆With only 20 dollars remaining in his wallet, he

couldn't order even a decent supper.
钱包里只剩下20美元了,他连一份像样的晚餐也

买不了。

Ladies and gentlemen, please remain ______ until

the plane has come to a complete stop.
A. seated C. to seat B. seating D. seat

A 句意:女士们,先生们,请在飞机完全停下来之

后再离开座位。考查非谓语动词作表语。remain“仍
然是,保持不变”,是连系动词,后接不定式表示 将要发生的动作,seat是及物动词,“使某人就座”

为seat oneself,故用过去分词作表语。

2、 protect vt. 保护(使不受……的影响或破坏)

其 常 用 句 型 为 : protect…from / against… ,
against后接能带来伤害或损害之物。

from /

◆He wore a pair of sunglasses to protect his eyes (from /

against) strong light.
他戴上太阳镜以保护他的眼睛不受强光影响。 ◆ In this shelter, the injured birds are protected from human hunting. 在这个栖身之处,受伤的鸟儿们不会受到人类的猎杀。

At minus 130℃, a living cell can be ______ for a
thousand years. A. spared C. preserved B. protected D. developed

C 句意:在-130℃,一个活细胞可以保存1000 年。考查动词词义辨析。A抽出;B保护;C保 护,保存;D发展,研制。根据句意选C。

3、influence v. 影响,感化 n. [U] 影响力,感化力, 势力,权势

◆Don't let me influence your decision.
不要让我影响你的决定。 ◆Listening to the music has a calming influence on her.

听音乐对她起了一种镇静的作用。
◆According to Freud, one's childhood experience will have a huge influence on their ideas of life when they are adults. 根据弗洛伊德的说法,一个人年少时的经历会对

其成年后的思想产生很大影响。

have a good / bad…influence on / upon / over 对……有好
的/坏的……影响 under the influence of 受……的影响 influence sb. (to do sth.) 支配/左右某人做某事 表示“对……有影响”还可以用:

affect / influence…; have…effect on / upon…
但要注意,强调“因果关系”时,用cause and effect。

China has got a good ______ for fighting against the flu

with its careful and smooth organization.
A. reputation C. impression B. influence D. knowledge

A 句意:在抗击流感中,中国以细心和顺利的组织而

获得良好的声誉。考查名词词义辨析。A声誉;B影
响;C印象;D知识。注意它们与介词的搭配, have…reputation for…,have influence on,make an

impression on,have a good knowledge of。

4、aware adj. 意识到的,察觉到的 be aware of… be aware that…

◆Were you aware of the risks at the time?
你当时意识到风险了吗? ◆I suddenly became aware of (= started to notice) him looking at me. 我突然注意到他在看着我。

4、aware adj. 意识到的,察觉到的

◆I was not aware of / was unaware of his anger then.
我当时没有意识到他的愤怒。 ◆The headmaster didn't seem to be aware that there should have been so much dispute about the decision. 校长好像没有意识到这个表决竟然有这么多分歧。

awareness n. 意识
◆Public awareness of the problem will make politicians take it seriously. 公众对于这个问题的关注将会使政治家们认真对待它。 “be + adj. + of”结构短语常见的还有: be afraid of 害怕 be worthy of 值得

be proud of 以……为骄傲
be fond of 喜欢 be short of 缺少

be guilty of 犯(某种罪,过失)

5、judge n. & vt. 判断

◆His father used to be a judge.
他的父亲曾是个法官。 ◆She's a good judge of wine. 她是一个很好关于酒的鉴赏家。 ◆Don't judge a man by his looks.

不要以貌取人。

judge sb. / sth. by/from 通过……判断……

judging from/by… 根据……判断
judge between right and wrong 判断是非 in one's judgement 依某人看;依某人判断 as far as I judge 在我看来 ◆Don't judge a book by its cover. 不可凭外表作出判断。 judging from/by…是一个独立成分句型,一般地说,

它只用其v.ing形式作状语。

用与judge相关的词汇填空
①________ from his appearance, he must be a rich man. ②_______________(根据她的判断), he must be from the south.

①Judging ②In her judgment

1、no doubt 毫无疑问

◆No doubt she will call us when she gets there. 她到达那里必定会给我们打电话。 ◆There is no doubt of his success. =There is no doubt that he will succeed.

=I have no doubt that he will succeed.
=He will succeed without doubt. 对他的成功毋庸置疑。

2、 take over 接管,接替,接任 ◆When she fell ill her daughter took over the business from her. 她生病时她女儿接管了她的生意。 ◆Mr. Collins will take over my duties for a week after I leave. 在我离开后柯林斯先生将接替我的工作一个星期。 ◆After the UK ruled Hong Kong for 100 years, China took over this area, which was already an international financial center. 英国统治了香港 100年后,中国接管了这个已经成为 一个国际金融中心的地区。

take after sb. 与某人在性格或相貌上相似
take off 脱去(衣服);起飞;(理念,产品等)成功

take on 承担(工作、责任等);呈现;雇佣,聘用
take up 开始从事(某工作或爱好);占(时间、场所等) take in 吸收;理解;领会;欺骗

take back 收回;退回(事物)

Einstein liked Bose's paper so much that he ______ his own work and translated it into German. A. gave off C. took over B. turned down D. set aside

D 句意: Einstein 非常喜欢 Bose 的论文,便把 自己的工作置于一旁,把论文翻译成德语。考查 动词短语辨析。A发出;B拒绝,调低;C接管; D不顾,把??置于一旁。根据句意选D。

3、run through 跑着穿过……;(使)在……流过; 反复练习,复习;匆匆阅读,贯穿于……之中;挥霍 ◆Run through your notes before class. 上课前把笔记复习一下。

◆This theme runs through the whole book.
该主题贯穿全书。 ◆The heir soon run through his fortune. 那个继承人很快就把财产挥霍完了。

get through 完成,到达,接通电话,结束,及格

go through 检查,审查,搜查,完成,做完,练习,
遭受,经受,经历,穿过,通过 see through 看破,看穿 look through 浏览,快速查看

The girl is working very hard, expecting to ______ the test. A. get through C. look through B. see through D. run through

A 句意:这女孩正在努力学习,希望通过考试。 A 通过,及格; B 看穿; C 浏览; D 流过,贯穿。根 据句意选A。

4、 stop sb. from doing sth. (=prevent/keep sb. from doing sth.) 防止/阻止某人做…… 在主动语态中,stop/prevent sb. from doing 中的 from 可以省略,但是在被动语态中不可以省。keep sb.

from doing sth. 中的from主动、被动语态中都不能省,
因为keep sb. doing 意为“使某人不停地做某事”。 ◆The heavy rain stopped/prevented her (from) going out. = The heavy rain kept her from going out. →She was stopped from going out by the heavy rain.

大雨阻止了她出去。

As citizens, we should do what we can to stop our river ______.

A. from polluted
C. polluting

B. from polluting
D. being polluted

D 句意:作为市民,我们应该尽力防止我们的 河流被污染。A中from后要加being才对。“河流被 污染”表被动,故选D。

1、When I walked around the city, I saw streets just as they had been, with stepping stones along the road so you did not have to step in the mud on rainy days! 当我在城中漫步时,我看到保持着原样的街道,沿路都 有垫脚石,这样下雨天你就不用在泥泞中行走! 本句为并列复合句,以so为分界点,I saw streets…

和you did not have to…为两个平行的句子,when引导
时间状语从句,just as从句和with复合结构均为streets 的后置定语。

2、By the age of thirty, he had already occupied more than land than anyone before… 到30岁时,他已经占领比以前任何人更多的土地…… 句子中有 by +过去时间的时间状语以及 by the

time +过去时的时间状语从句,谓语动词使用过去
完成时。 ◆By the time he was fourteen, Einstein had learned advanced mathematics all by himself. 到爱因斯坦14岁时,他已经自学了高等数学。

When I talked with my grandma on the phone, she sounded weak, but by the time we ______ up, her voice

had been full of life.
A. were hanging B. had hung

C. hung

D. would hang

C 句意:当我与奶奶在电话中交谈时,她的声音听 起来很虚弱,但到我们挂断电话时,她的声音已经充 满了活力。考查动词时态。据题干 her voice had been full of life为过去的过去,因此我们挂断电话为过去的 动作。by the time +一般过去时的从句,主句用过去完 成时,表示“到……时候为止,已经……”。

1. — Her father is very rich. — ________ She wouldn't accept his help even if it were

offered.(2010· 山东)
A. What for? B. So what?

C. No doubt.

D. No wonder.

1. B 本题考查交际英语在具体语境中的使用。句意 应为“ —— 她父亲非常富有。 —— 那又怎么样?即使 主动给她帮助,她也不会接受的。”表示“那又怎么 样?”用So what。What for?表示“为了什么?”;no doubt 表示“毫无疑问”; no wonder 表示“毫不奇 怪”。

2. — So you gave her your phone? — ________, she said she'd return it to me when she

could afford her own.(2011· 全国大纲卷)
A. My pleasure B. Not exactly

C. No doubt

D. All right

2. B 句 意 : “ 如 此 看 来 , 你 把 你 的 手 机 给 了 她?”“也不完全是。她说她能够买上自己的手机 时就把它归还给我。” my pleasure 不客气; not exactly 不完全是; all right 好吧。

3. — Jack, you seem in high spirits. — ________ We won the match 4-0.(2011· 陕西)

A. Guess what?
C. No wonder.

B. So what?
D. No doubt.

3. A “——杰克,你看起来情绪高昂。” “—— 你猜怎么着?我们以4比0赢了比赛。” So what 那又 如何? No wonder. 难怪。

4. The palace caught fires three times in the last century, and

little of the original building ________ now.(2010· 重庆)
A. remains C. is remaining B. is remained D. has been remained

4. A remain表示“留下来,剩下来,继续存在”, 无被动语态;此处作为“继续存在”无进行时态。

动词的语态(Ⅰ)
表达句子主语与谓语动词逻辑上的主谓关系或动 宾关系的谓语动词形式叫动词的语态,其中主谓关系 是主动语态,动宾关系是被动语态。动词的语态是动 词的属性之一。 各种时态的被动语态句式结构(以do为例) 1.一般现在时: 主语+am/is/are done +其他 2.现在进行时: 主语+am/is/are being done+其他 3.现在完成时: 主语+has/have been done+其他 4.现在完成进行时: 主语+has/have been being done +其他

5.一般过去时: 主语+was/were done+其他
6.过去进行时: 主语+was/were being done+其他 7.过去完成时: 主语+had been done+其他 8.过去完成进行时: 主语+had been being done +其他 9.一般将来时: 主语+shall/will be done+其他

10.将来进行时: 主语+shall/will be being done +其他
11.将来完成时: 主语+shall/will have been done+其他 12.将来完成进行时: 主语+shall/will have been being done+其他

13.过去将来时: 主语+should/would be done+其他
14 .过去将来进行时: 主语+ should/would be being done+其他

15.过去将来完成时: 主语+should/would have been
done+其他

16 .过去将来完成进行时: 主语+ should/would have
been being done+其他

英语中,大多数情况下用主动语态比较简练、有力。 但是,被动语态也有其特殊的用途,它也是表达思

想、描述事物的需要。人们通常在下列情况下使用
被动语态: 1.不知道或不必说出动作的执行者 How is this word pronounced? 这个单词怎么发音?

Scientists say that work is done whenever a force moves.
科学家们说,力移动时就做了功。 After war, everything had been destroyed. 战争结束后,一切都被毁坏了。

2.强调动作的承受者
Xiao Li was elected monitor of the class. 小李被选为班长。

3.动作的执行者不是人而是无生命的事物
The bridge was washed away by the flood. 桥被洪水冲走了。 Many accidents were caused by careless driving. 许多事故都是开车不小心造成的。

4.修辞的需要,为了使句子更加简练、匀称
He appeared on the stage and was warmly applauded by the audience.

他出现在舞台上,受到了观众的热烈鼓掌。
The old professor gave a lecture on American history and was well received. 这位老教授作了一个有关美国历史的讲座,受到大 家的热烈欢迎。

5.为了表示委婉或礼貌,避免提及动作执行者或说
话者自己 Everybody is expected to obey the following rules.

希望大家遵守以下规定。
6.科技文献中为了客观地描述事情及其过程 The film is coated with lightsensitive chemicals, which are changed by the different shades and colours of light. 胶卷上涂了一层感光的化学物质,这些物质因光的

不同色度与颜色而改变。

7.新闻报道中为了体现新闻的客观性 The westeast gas pipeline project was kicked off on

July 4, a big event in the nation's west development
campaign. 西气东输工程7月4日开工,这是国家西部大开发战 略的一件大事。 8.有些动词习惯上常用被动语态

He was born in this city.
他出生在这个城市。 The school is situated in the suburbs.

这所学校位于郊外。

注意:被动语态中的by短语通常可以省去。但如果by

短语是句子的重点所在,或者没有by短语全句的意思
不完整时,则要保留by短语。 The vegetables didn't taste very good. They had been cooked too long. 蔬菜的味道不好,煮的时间太长了。 ( 不需要动作的

执行者)
He arrived at the airport, where he was met by his friend. 他到达了机场并受到朋友的迎接。(没有by his friend, 句子的意思不完整)

主动语态变被动语态 1.主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 “主语 + 谓语 + 宾语”结构中只有一个宾语,变 为被动语态时,将宾语变为主语:

They will discuss the plan at the meeting.
他们将在会议上讨论这个计划。 The plan will be discussed at the meeting. 这个计划将在会议上讨论。

2.主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 在这个句型中,谓语动词跟有两个宾语。变成被动语态 时,一般将通常指人的间接宾语转化成主语,但有时也 可将指物的间接宾语转化成主语: We gave the student some books. ?The student was given some books. ?Some books were given to the student. 注意:用直接宾语作被动语态的主语时,通常要在间接 宾语前加上适当的介词(如to, for, of等),以加强间接宾语 的语气。 They awarded him the Nobel Prize. ?The Nobel Prize was awarded(to) him.

3.主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 在这个句型中,谓语动词后有一个宾语和一个宾语补 足语,变成被动语态时,宾语转化成主语,宾语补足 语也随之变为主语补足语: All the villagers painted the houses white. ?The houses were painted white by all the villagers. 注意:有些使役动词和感官动词,如make, see, hear, watch, notice, observe, listen to等,在主动结构中跟不 带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语,在变为被动结构时, 不定式应加上to。 We heard him say goodbye to his friends. ?He was heard to say goodbye to his friends.

4.含有情态动词的主动句变被动句

含有情态动词的谓语变成被动语态时,用“情态动
词+ be done”构成。 The machine must be operated with care.

这机器必须小心操作。
Such a sentence ought not to be used here. 这个句子不应该用在这里。

5.含有“be going to do”和“be to do”等结构的主 动句变被动句

含有“be going to do”和“be to do”等结构的谓语动
词,变成被动语态时,分别用“be going to + be

done”和“be to + be done”。
The problem is going to be discussed at the class. 这个问题将在班上讨论。

This new film is to be shown on TV next week.
这部新片下周将在电视上放映。

6.含有宾语从句的主动句变被动句 带有宾语从句的句子变成被动语态时,通常用 it 来作 为被动句的形式主语,宾语从句保留不变。 They said that he had gone abroad to study English. ?It was said that he had gone abroad to study English. 注意:带有宾语从句的句子变成被动语态时,为了简 练,还可把从句的主语变为被动句的主语,从句的谓语 部分还可以变为不定式短语。 We believed that he would succeed. 我们相信他会成功。 He was believed to succeed. 人们相信他会成功。

7.动词短语构成的被动语态 一般情况下,只有及物动词才能跟宾语,而不及物 动词不能跟宾语,所以只有及物动词才有被动语态, 不及物动词则没有被动语态。但有些不及物动词后面

跟上介词或副词后,变成一个动词短语,相当于一个
及物动词,因此就可以有被动语态。 They have put off the meeting till next Saturday. ?The meeting has been put off till next Saturday.

1. The bridge, which ________ 1688, needs repairing.

A. is dated from
C. dates from

B. was dated from
D. dated from

C 此题容易误选B或D,认为句中用了 1688 这个过 去时间,所以应选过去时态,又因为 date from 不用于 被动语态,所以只能选D。其实此题的最佳答案应是C, 因为 date from 的意思是“自某时起存在至今” ( = have existed since),它通常用于一般现在时,而不用 过去时态 ( 尽管其后接的总是表示过去的时间 ) ,除非 所 谈 论 的 东 西 现 在 已 不 复 存 在 , 如 : The church, which dated from the 13th century, was destroyed in an earthquake two years ago.(那座教堂是13世纪建成的, 两年前在一次地震中被毁了。) 注意:与date from同义的 date back to 也有类似用法。

2. — Do you like the material?

— Yes, it ________ very soft.
A. is feeling B. felt

C. feels

D. is felt

C

此题容易误选 D,想当然地根据“这布

料摸起来很柔软”这一句意,认为“布料”

应是“被摸”,所以 feel 选用被动语态。其
实,此题正确答案为C,因为 feel 在此为连 系动词,而所有的连系动词均为不及物动词, 不能用于被动语态,尽管有时其汉语意思有 被动意味。

3. My dictionary________. I have looked for it everywhere

but still ________.
A. has lost; do not find B. is missing; do not find C. has lost; have not found D. is missing; have not found

D

lose 是个及物动词,如果要表示某物

丢失了,只能用被动语态。 A 项与 C 项使用 的都是其主动形式。missing是形容词,其词

义是:lost;not to be found(丢失了),据此,
第一空应填入is missing。根据语境,第二空 应填入使用现在完成时的否定形式,因为它 可以表示目前还未发生的动作。


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go back to the past | back to the past | back light unit | a window to the past | past和to的用法 | past to | from past to present | a link to the past |
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