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用于表示命令、决定、建议、等词 语后的that分句中


用于由if,though,whatever, lest,so long as等引导的分句中 用于某些公式化语句中


用于某些状语分句中 用于某些名词性分句中 1.用动词的过去形式表示假设意义 2.用情态动词过去式表示假设意义




a .用在,demand,suggest, decide,prefer,vote等动词 后that分句中。
Conggress has decided/voted that the present law be maintained. I prefer Mary to type the letters. I prefer that Mary type the letters.


b.用在advisable,appropriate,desirable,essential, obligatory,proper,imperative等形容词之后that分句中。
It is essential the all the facts be examined first.


c .用在decision,decree,demand,instruction, resolution等名词后的that 分句中。

The board has given instructions that the agent fly to Boston.

在这一用法中be-型虚拟式能与should+不 定式,to-不定式交替使用。

He order that the books be sent at once =He order that the books should be sent at once =He order that the books to be sent at once



用于由if,though,whatever,lest,so long as等 引导的分句中表示推测、让步、防备等含义。
If he be found guilty ,John shall have the right of appeal .


上述用法现在只适用于正式书面语体,在非正式语体中通常 用动词陈述式或者用should或may+不定式。如:
If the rumor be true,everything is possible。 If the rumor is true,everything is possible。 Whatever be his defense,we cannot tolerate this disloyalty. Whatever his defense may be,we cannot tolerate this disloyalty.

Be-型虚拟式用于某些公式化语句中可表示祝愿、诅咒、禁 止的意思。
Long live the people’s Republic of China! Far be it from me(我极不愿) to spoil the fun 。 He will remain here if need be . 练习中修改句子 the ambassador will stay there if necessary . the ambassador will stay there if need be . . It suffices to say that the open policy will remain unchanged. Suffice it to say that the open policy will remain unchanged. (只需说什么就够了) Home is home ,be it ever so homely.



1.用于某些状语分句中(if,if only,as if ,as though,though 引导的) ? If I were you ,I should wait till next week.

2.用于某些名词性分句中 ? 常用于wish,would rather,suppose,imagine之后的that-分句 ? 中 表示一种臆想的情况(通常是不可能发生的)
Suppose the earth were flat。

在第一、三人称单数主语后可为was 所取代
If it was to rain,the game would be put off.


但是,在If I were you 这一分句中,通常倾向用were,而不 用was。在某些倒装句中只用were。
Were I to do it,I should rely on you. He is my best friend,my second self ,as it were .(好像,宛如)


现代英语中,许多改用虚拟式的地方常为陈述式所取代。 Imagine you are the salesman for Franco’s product.


? a)It

is time (that)...

It is time we went to bed.
? b)I

would rather/sooner(that)you/he/they...

I’d rather he told me the truth.
? c)if

only ...

If only I knew her address.

d)he behaves as if /as though...
They are staring at me as if I was /crazy.

在as if /as though结构中的动词形式通常决定说话人的 意图。比较:
I feel as if I was /were going to faint.(我感觉我好像要晕倒了) I feel as if I am going to faint.(我感觉我(真的)要晕倒了)


这就是说,在某些语境中,如果不表示假设意义,就不 必用过去式形式。如: The apple tatses as if it is sour.

e)I wish (that)
1.与过去相反的主观愿望 I wish I hadn’t said that . ? 2.与现在相反 I wish you were coming with me,Peter. ? 3.表示对将来的主观愿望,通常用情态助动词的过去式形式。 I wish you wouldn’t smoke in public places . ? I hope (that)也表希望,但并不表示假设,随后的动词形式 除表示委婉口气外,很少用过去式。 I hope you are coming to our party.

I hope the weather would be favourable.



If I were you,I would not miss this opptunity If you should change your mind, do let me know.

? 这里的should是什么意思、作用。表如果?if 不是这个意思了么?或仅是修饰

But for your help, I couldn’t have achieved anything.


Anyone who should violate the law would be punished

To think that he would marry such a nasty woman.


提到条件句,人们一般会想到if引导的条件句,而英语中某些假设的条件句不是通过if从句 表达出来,而是包含在某些短语、上下文或其他方式中,其谓语也常用虚拟语气,我们称 此种结构为含蓄条件句。

“But without the impressionists, many of these painting styles would not exist.” 这里假设的条件没有通过条件从句表达出来,而是隐含在without介词短语中,故名含蓄条件 句。。

Ⅱ. It would be only partly right to follow in this way. 如果用这种方式,仅仅对了一半。 (动词不定式暗示了条件)
Ⅲ. Having known in time ,we might have prevented the accident. 要是及时得知的话,我们也许能阻止这场事故。

(-ing 分词做条件状语,暗示条件:If we had kown in time)
Ⅳ. Given more attention, the tree could have grown better. 如果多留心的话,这树本来可以长的更好。 (-ed 分词做条件状语,暗示: If the tree had been given more attention) Ⅴ.I was too busy at that time, otherwise, I would have called you. 我当时太忙,否则我就给你打电话了。 (副词otherwise暗示条件) 由此可知,在特定的上下文或一目了然的情况下,if条件句可以省略,或使用介词短语、 副词或非谓语动词等形式来代替if条件句,这种虚拟语气表达形式叫做含蓄条件句。

IT 句型!

出现于表示气候、天气温度、时间、地点、距离等意义 的句子中。 It is very warm and wet in south china these days. ? 表示一般的笼统的情况 It was dull when Mary was away. ? 常见于下列结构 It looks as if the college is very small . It seems as though our plan’ll be perfect. It’s my turn. ? 习惯用语中 You will catch it (=will be scolded )for breaking the glasses. Hop it (=go away ).you are in the way here.等

it’s illegal to drive without a license. 后置的真正主语可以取代先行it的位置,而出现句首。 To drive without a license is illegal.

It was a parcel that she brought .
? ?

说话人还可根据上下文和语义意图分别强调主语、间接宾语、直接宾语。 分裂句的谓语动词be还可以采取复杂形式。 It may have been at Christmas that john gave Mary a handbag.


分裂句可以强调多种状语成分。如时间、地点、方式、由because引导的 原因状语等。 It was when she was about to go to bed that the telephone rang.


单一方式副词通常不做分裂句中心成分 It was very reluctantly that she agreed to agree to help。


主语补语通常不被强调,但是宾语补语可以 It is beautiful that she is. It is chairman of the committee that he is . It is chairman of the committee that they selected him.

一般分裂句是不可以用谓语动词作中心成分的,可采用假分裂 句。 I gave her a book---what I did was (to) gave her a book. ? What-分句中主动词do 以-ing分词形式出现 What he will be doing is taking a place to Beijin. ? What-分句中主动词do是个-ed分词 What he has done is to give/ give /given her a birthday present. ? 可采用其他形式,what-分句+be+名词词组 What he gave her was a handbag . ? 名词词组+be+what-分句 A handbag was what he gave her.

分裂句中的that与who在非正式文体中可以省略,如: It was the President himself spoke to me. (省去从 句主语who) ? 有时还可省去句首的it is,如: A good, honest trade you are learning, Sir Peter!


分裂句中的被强调部分有时可放在句首,如: Now was it that his life was done, and the fate which he could not escape was upon him.

When was it that he arrived at the village?

Why was it that he was late for school?


1.分裂句引导词it与先行词it的区别: It is surprising that Mary should have won the first place. 玛丽本应获 得第一名,真令人吃惊!(先行词it) It is Mary that has won the first place. 是玛丽获得了第一名。(分裂句 引导词it)


2.虚义it与分裂句引导词it的区别: It was three o?clock in the morning when his father came back.

(虚义it指时间) 他父亲回来时是凌晨3点。 It was at three o?clock in the morning that his father came back. (分 裂句引导词it) 他父亲是在凌晨3点回来的。

3.分裂句中that/who- 从句与that/who引导的定语从句之区别。 比较: It is money that is most needed.(分裂句中的that-从句) 最需要的是钱。 This is the money that is most needed.(that引导定语从句) 这就是最需 要的钱。


区别方法:如将句型It is/was… that结构去掉,而句子能还原成普通陈述

Let it be understood that both sides are willing to reach an agrement. Be it undersood that ...? ? If i __(feel)overtired,i wouldn’t go on. were feeling ? __(be)that as it may be,our expenditure is bound to increase. be ? If it __(rain)tomorrow, the match would be postponed.
were to rain

Suppose he __(see)us! were to see ? I proposed he __(excuse). be excused ? I move the meeting__(adjourn).

be adjourned

我们常说的“虚拟”包括:与(过去、现在)事实相反、 对将来的推测两种情况,为何不能说与将来相反呢? 这是个逻辑问题,“将来”还没有成为事实,怎能 与之相反?过去我20几岁,现在我30几岁,都可以与此 相反,如果我那时是40岁,如果我现在是5岁。但将来 我一定能活到50、60、70吗?如果我明天就那个什么了, 还相反吗?只能推测了! ? 若表示推测,为何不用陈述语气而用虚拟呢?陈述语气 主要功能是表示事实的,也可以表示推测 I wish I was going to be the president就是用陈述 语气表示对将来的推测。如果说I wish I were going to be the president就是用虚拟式表示的推测了。(平时 用was的概率多大?)

2.用于某些名词性分句中 ? 常用于wish,would rather,suppose,imagine之后的that分句中 表示一种臆想的情况(通常是不可能发生的)
Suppose the earth were flat.
Suppose you didn't know where your next meal was coming from?为何不用hadn't known

句中有这些标志词时,根据什么原则选择主、从句的时态? 填空题中,是与现在、将来事实相反用一般过去时,与过 去事实相反用过去完成时呢,还是揣摩句意根据说话人的 意图具体分析而无定规律? ? 答:省略了主句what would you do? 或what would happen?的一个条件从句suppose相当于if, 该从句表示的 是于现在事实相反的假设条件,真实的情况是you know where your next meal is coming from.所以不用过去完 成

高中学的语法具有概括性、全面性。大学语法要更 注意细节。比如强调句。 ? 就我自己的实际情况,我觉得目前如果能够在高中 基础上更熟练把握语法知识就可以了,一般语法题 目就可以应对了。从理解层面去掌握语法,还是有 些难度的,必须建立在对语法具有较好地掌握基础 上,这应该是第二步目标。



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