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高考复习 定语从句


高考复习—定语从句

张晨

一.什么是定语和定语从句?
定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的单词、 短语或句子,汉语中常用“……的”表示。
单词作定语一般前置,句子或短语作定语则必须后置.句子 作定语则叫定语从句.

a blue sea a handsome boy

例句


1. The car, which my uncle had just bought, was destroyed in the earthquake. 2. This is the city where I was born. 定义:修饰名词或代词的从句。 先行词:被定语从句修饰的词。 关系词/连接词:连接主句和定语从句的连词。引导定语 从句的连接词,一定要在从句中充当成分。

二.定语从句分类
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限定性定语从句 The restrictive attributive clause 从句是不可缺少的一部分 非限定性定语从句 The non-restrictive attributive clause 没有从句不影响主句完整

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三.关系代词(作主语/宾语/定语):

1.who/whom(that) 2.which(that) 3.that 不能放在介词的后面 4.whose=of which 或 of whom 5.as

三.连接词
关系副词(作状语) : 1.where=介词+ which 2.when=介词+ which 3.why=for+which 4.way的特殊用法

关系词的作用:

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1)连接; 2)代替先行词; 3)在定从中作成分。

1. 关系代词who

1. who

作定从的主语/宾语 指人 作主语时不可省略 指代先行词

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(10湖南28) I've become good friends with several of the students in my school I met in the English speech contest last year. A. who B. where C. when D. which

2. whom

作定从的宾语 指人 可省略 指代先行词

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(10浙江3) The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of left their village homes for a better life in the city. A.whom B.which C.them D.those

3.which
作定从的主语或宾语 指物 作宾语可省略 指代先行词

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(山东24) Whenever I met her, _________ was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile. A. who B. which C. when D. that

4. that

作定从的主语或宾语 指物或人 作宾语可省略 指代先行词

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(10全国Ⅱ16) I refuse to accept the blame for something ________was someone else’s fault. A. who B. that C. as D. what

5. whose

作定从的定语 指物或人 不可省略 指代先行词=sb's/sth's

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(陕西11) The old temple _______ roof was damaged in storm is now under repair. A. where B. which C. its D. whose

6.as 引导的非限制性定语从句

as you know/ see/plan/ as we expected/understand/think/ believe 也可以将它们用于被动结构中: as is known/seen/planned

2.as和which引导非限制性定语从 句的区别:
1. which引导的从句只能放于逗号后面。 2. as引导的从句可前可后,常用于 as is said above as we know (我们都知道), as is well known, as is often the case(正如往常一样)等结构中,as含 有“正如,正像”之意。

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〖天津〗The Beatles, many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool. A.what B.that C.how D.as

关系代词用法总结

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1.做主语用who/which和that 2.做宾语用that/which/who/whom 3.做定语用whose 4.做表语只能用that,它既指人,也指物,但时 常省略

四、难点1 whose

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The teacher praised the student His English is the best in our class 合并为:The teacher praised the student whose English is the best in our class Whose 实际是先行词的所有格

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The house is mine The window of the house is broken 合为:The house whose window is broken is mine 或 The house of which the window is broken is mine 或The house the window of which is broken is mine

五.关系副词的用法
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When指代时间 做时间状语 不可省略 Where指代地点 做地点状语 不可省略

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Why指代原因
Way的特殊用法

做原因状语 不可省略

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1. when

作定从的时间状语 指时间,在从句中表示"在...时间 "=in/on...+which 先行词为时间名词

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(2011江苏卷)24. Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, _______ the audience can buy ice-cream. A. when B. where C. that D. which

2. where

作定从的地点状语 指地点,在从句中表示"在...地点 "=in/on...+which 先行词为地点名词(situation, business, case,point,surroundings,environment, scene等为地点概念的名词)

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(2011浙江卷)A bank is the place ______ they lend you an umbrella in fair weather and ask for it back when it begins to rain. A. when B. that C. where D. there

3. why

作定从的原因状语 指原因,在从句中表示"因为...原 因"=for which 先行词为reason

3. why

This is the reason why we love our maths teacher

way 方式, 方法
1.连接词如果在从句中作状语时, 用that或者in which且可以略。 2.连接词如果在从句作主语或宾 语,用that或which

I don't like the way ____ he chose to do it.

A. that B. in which C. as D. how

注意
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When和where可以引导限定性定语从句和非 限定性定语从句 that和why只能引导限定性定语从句

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何时可以省略? 做宾语时可以省略

指人 that

指物

主语

宾语

which
who whom

√ × √ √

√ √ × ×

√ √ √ ×

√ √ √ √

定语从句使用中的特殊情况
一、只能用that的情况: 1. 先行词既有物又有人时。 He spoke of the persons and things that he had seen abroad.

2.先行词是something, anything, all, nothing等不定代词 时。 Is there anything that I can do for you?

只能用that的情况:
3.当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时或者 被,all,the very,the only,the just修饰时。 This is the best film that I have ever seen.

二、不用that的情况:
1.介词后禁用关系词that。 I heard of the man, about whom he talked.

about that(X)

2. 非限制性定语从句。 She was late again, which made me unhappy.

that(X)

六.介词+关系代词的问题。

介词+关系代词的情况 1
Are these two sentences right?

The man scientist. The city

who/whom you spoke
in

to

was a

that/which she lives

is far away

介词+关系代词的情况 2
Are these two sentences right? The man

to who/whom you spoke

The city in that/which she lives

×

was a scientist.

×

is far away.

可见,who、that 不能用与介词之后

介词+关系代词的情况 3

The man

whom you spoke

to

was a scientist.

The city

which she lives

in

is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 4
Join the following sentences:

He has three sisters. All of them are abroad. He has three sisters,all of ________

whom

are abroad.

只能使用whom/which, who和that
不能用于介词后

3. 固定动词或介词短语搭配
介词+关系代词的情况
下面两句中的介词能提前吗? Is this the watch that you are looking for? The old man whom I am looking after is better .

在固定短语中介词不能提前

介词+关系代词的问题。

1.of which/whom 结构很多时候表示“其中 Class 14 has 75 students, of whom 35 students are girls.= 35 students of whom are girls.

介词+关系代词的问题。
2. when/why/where很多时候可转换为介词+关系代 词。 This is the house where I live. Everyone knows the reason why he succeeded.

in which

I remember the day when I visited the temple.

for which

on which

一.引导非限制性定语从句的连接词 who/whom/ whose/ which/where/when /why/as 来引导,不能用that

1.which引导的非限制性定语从句: 此时无论它在从句中充当什么成分它都不能省约,也不能换 为that 1)和主句之间的关系不密切,只起附加说明作用: We all like the book,which was written by LuXun. 2)用来代替整个先行分句的内容。这时它所引导的定语从 句只能放在主句之后: Bush was elected president again,which made Jim very sad.

限定性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别:

① 限定性定语从句用于修饰和限定先行词。如果删去,则剩 下的部分意思就会含糊不清。如: This is the man who gave me the money.这就是给我钱 的那个人。 上句如删去从句who gave me the money,则成了This is the man.(这是那个人。)

② 非限定性定语从句,在意义上,它是先行词的一个附加 修饰语,是对先行词的进一步说明。如果删去它,不影响 整个句子的基本意思。如: Wang Dong,who is in the room,wants to ask you some questions. 王东,他在房间里,想问你几个问题。

③ 另外,在意思上,有时限定性和非限定性定语从 句的区别还是较大的。如: In their class,there are fifteen students who can speak English well. In their class,there are fifteen students, who can speak English well

(限定性定语从句)

(非限定性定语从句)

形式

作用

能否省略

翻译

限制性定 语从句
非限制性 定语从句

修饰限定
插入成 分 补充解释

不能


….的

八.解题方法和技巧

1.首先是确定关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中作 什么成分。若是作主语、宾语,则在关系代词中选择。 若是作状语,则在关系副词中选择。
2.其次是看先行词是人还是物;是时间、地点还是 reason,way。

九.高考真题练习
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1.(2011全国卷I) 31. The prize will go to the writer ____ story shows the most imagination. A. that B. which C. whose D. what

九.高考真题练习
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2.(2011全国卷II)7. Ted came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a T-shirt, ____ is a stupid thing to do in such weather. A. this B. that C. what D. which

九.高考真题练习
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3.(2011北京卷)26. Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was to the others, _________, of course, make all the others upset. A. who B. which C. what D. that

九.高考真题练习
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4.(2011江西卷)34. She showed the visitors around the museum, the construction _____had taken more than three years. A. for which B. with which C. of which D. to which

九.高考真题练习
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5.(2011浙江卷)10. A bank is the place ______ they lend you an umbrella in fair weather and ask for it back when it begins to rain. A. when B. that C. where D. there

九.高考真题练习
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6.(10福建24) Stephen Hawking believes that earth is unlikely to be the only planet _life has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose

The End
? Work ?& ? Dream

Hard Big


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