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宾语从句


宾 语 从 句
The Object Clause

1. I
主语

know him . (简单句)
谓语 宾语

2. I
主语 主

know who
谓语 句

he

is . (复合句)

连词 从句主语 从句谓语 宾语从句

宾语从句的概念:

宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。
句子结构: 主句 +连词(引导词)+ 宾语从句

一、连词(引导词) 1. 当宾语从句是陈述句时(包括肯定句和否定

句),连词由that引导,因为that在从句中不作
任何成分,也没有任何具体意思,因此在口语 或非正式文体中常省略
?Lin Tao feels (that) his own team is even better. ?She says (that) she won’t take part in the sports meeting

next Sunday.
?Jim thought (that) the train was like a big moving party. ?He said (that) he would like to see the headmaster.

在主句为动词be加某些形容词(如sorry,

sure, afraid, glad等)作表语时,后面所跟
的省略that的从句也可算是宾语从句

?I’m sorry (that) I don’t know .
?We’re sure (that) our team will win .

?I’m afraid (that) he won’t pass the exam .

2. 当宾语从句是一般疑问句时,由连词whether
或if引导(口语中常用if),因为if/whether翻 译成:“是否”,具有一定的意义,所以不 能省略 ?Lily wanted to know if /whether her grandma liked the handbag . ?Let’s see if /whether we can find out some

information about that city .
?She asked me if /whether she could borrow these books .

3. 当 宾 语 从 句 是 特 殊 疑 问 句 时 , 由 连 接 代 词 (what, who, whom, which, whose)或连接副词 (when, where, how, why)引导,因为连接代词 或连接副词在从句中担任一定的句子成分,具 有一定的意义,所以不可以省略

?Do you know what he said just now ? ? I don’t remember when we arrived . ? I asked him where I could get so much money . ? Please tell me who (whom) we have to see . ? Do you know what time the plane leaves ?

带how的词组也都可以引导宾语从句
?Could you tell us how much it costs to fly to Hainan ? ?Could you tell us how often you go abroad for a holiday ? ?Could you tell us how long the meeting will last ? ?I don’t know how far it is to the cinema . ?Please tell us how many students there are in your school ? ?Can you tell us how old his brother is ? ?Please tell us how soon you will be ready .

二、时态
1. 如果主句是现在的时态 (包括一般现在时 , 现在进行时,现在完成时),从句的时态可根 据实际情况而定,(包括一般现在时,一般过

去时,一般将来时,现在完成时等)
?I know he lives here .

?I know he lived here ten years ago .
?I have heard that he will come tomorrow .

2.如果主句是过去的时态(包括一般过去时,过 去进行时),那么从句的时态一定要用相对应

的过去的某种时态(包括一般过去时,过去进
行时,过去将来时, 过去完成时)

?I knew who lived here.
?I saw she was talking with her mother. ?He asked whether his father would come back

tomorrow.
?He said that he had seen it .

3.当从句是客观真理,定义,公理,定理 时用一般现在时。 ?The teacher said that the travel travels around the sun .

三、语序
宾语从句的语序用陈述语序:

连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

1. When will he go to the library?

?His brother asks when he will go to the library .

?His brother asks when will he go to the library .
2. What does he want to buy ?

? I don’t know what he wants to buy . ? I don’t know what does he want to buy .
3. Who are we going to meet ?

? Can you tell me who we are going to meet ? ? Can you tell me who are we going to meet ?

4. Does he know French ?

? We want to know if/whether he knows French . ? We want to know if/whether does he know French.
5. Will they go to Canada in summer ?

? They’ re not sure if /whether they will go to
Canada in summer .

? They’ re not sure if /whether will they go to
Canada in summer .

1. Did the students have a picnic last Sunday ? Do you know ?

Do you know if/whether the students had a picnic last Sunday ?

2. Mr. Smith have been in China for about three years . Jim told Lin Tao . Jim told Lin Tao (that) Mr Smith had been in China for about three years .

3. Which book should I read first ?
Please tell me .

Please tell me which book I should read first .
4. Light travels faster than sound . Our teacher told us in yesterday’s class .

Our teacher told us (that) light travels faster than sound in yesterday’s class .

注意事项
1.could / would是委婉语气,而不是过去式, 因此宾语从句的时态根据实际情况用不同 时态。
?Could you please tell me where we show our tickets ?

?Could you tell us which gate we have to go to ?
?Would you like to know when he will come back ?

2. 如果主句的谓语动词是ask时,连词不可能 是that;如果主句的谓语动词是say时,连 词用that ?She says (that) she will leave a message on his desk . ?He said (that) he was going to take care of the child . ?He asks if I like playing the piano . ?You may ask the man over there how you can get to the bus station .

3. 如果从句中含有or或or not时,只能

用whether而不用if
?Could you tell me whether that’s a fast
train or not ?

?Do you know whether he is right or not ?
?I don’t care whether he’ll stay here or not .

4. 连词+宾语从句

连词+to do

?I don’t know what I shall do next .
I don’t know what to do next .

?She didn’t decide which one she would choose .
She didn’t decide which one to choose .

?Please tell me whom you’ll give the letter to .
Please tell me whom to give the letter to .

1. The young man asked _____ it's summer or winter. D A. either B. that C. weather D. whether

A 2. We don't know ______ they did it . A. how B. who C. what D. which B 3. The teacher asks us ____ Jim can come back on time . A. that B. if C. when D. what time
C 4. Does anybody know ______ we will have a sports meeting this weekend or not . A. if B. where C. whether D. that

5. I wonder _______ he is crying now . B

A. that

B. why

C. how

D. when

6. Have you found out ______ we can do on Hainan A Island ? A. what B. how C. if D. whether

7. Lily said _______ she had finished her composition . B A. if B. that C. when D. where 8. I don’t know ______ he still lives here . D A. where B. what C. when D. whether

D 1. Could you show me ________ ? A. how can I get to the station B. where is the station C. how I could get to the station D. how I can reach the station 2. Please tell me _______. C A. what does he like B. what he does like C. what he likes D. what he like 3. My sister told him ________ . B A. what day was it B. when the train arrived C. who she was waiting D. where did you live

4. Could you tell me where we _______ next week . D A. would go B. to go C. had to go D. will go 5. Could you tell me how much ________to fly to D Hainan ? A.do it cost B.does it cost C.it cost D.it costs B 6. The small children don't know ______. A.what is their stockings in B.what is in their stockings C.where is their stockings in D.what in their stockings

D 7. Someone is ringing the doorbell . Go and see _______ .
A. who is he C. who is it B. who he is D. who it is

B 8. Could you tell me how long __________ ?
A. you have bought the watch B. you have kept this science book C. have you been away from China D. have you been a member of Greener China

C 9. He says that if it _______ tomorrow , he _______ fishing .
A. will rain , won't go C. rains , won't go B. rained , wasn't go D. rain , will go

have worked 1. Could you tell me if they _____________ (work) in the factory so far . 2. Did your parents tell you that the sun _______ rises (rise) in east ? say 3. ----- What ______ he _____ (say) just now ? did couldn’t hear I ____________ (not can hear) him . said planted ----- He _______ (say) that he ________ (plant) trees with his parents yesterday . to leave 4. Can you tell me when ________ (leave) tomorrow?

5. Did he say that their parents __________ would come (come) here tomorrow .

6. He told me two weeks _______(be) enough. was
7. The teacher told us that the sun ______(be) is bigger than the moon . will tell / have told 8. I think I _______________ (tell) you what _______ (do) next . Don't just stay here! to do

9. A: What are you standing here for ? B: I’m waiting here to ask Mr. Johnson if he will give ________ (give) us a talk on American history . If he _______ (have) no time , I’ll has ask Mr. Smith istead . 10. A: Do you know when Mr Green will come ________ (come) to see us next month ? B: Don't worry . I _______ (tell) you when he will tell comes really _______ (come) here .

THE END


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