[复习讲义] 短文改错专题 NMET 短文改错的解题基本思路应该是：一．以句为单位，找行中错误，每行必 有一个判断（错词、多词、少词和正确），而判断的依据一定是上下文，最小单 位是一个完整的句子。二．以篇为单位，找句中错误。许多时候，就某一行或某 一句单独而言常常难以判断其是否正确，错误何在，而必须以全篇为一整体才可 对该句，进而对该行作出判断。 具体解题过程中，应该注意把握九个
一致问题： 一．时态一致 短文中谓语动词的时态与上下文，特定语言环境及该句的时间状 语是否保持了呼应与一致。 例 1. My favorite sport is football. I was a member of our football team. (NMET’98)全文都是一般现在时，此句中 was 虽然与上下问不一致，应改 为 am。 例 2.I remembered her words and calm down.( NMET’ 2000) 此处为一描述过去事件的语境，应与前文 remembered 保持一致，须改为 calmed。 例 3．Today, it is much easier to be healthy than it is in the past. (NMET’ 93)第一个 is 与时间状语 today 保持一致， 地第二个 is 则应改为 was, 使 之与其时间状语 in the past 一致。 二．主谓一致 谓语动词在人称和数上是否与主语保持一致。
例 4．Now my picture and the prize is hanging in the library. (NMET’2000) 主语为 A and B 时，谓语动词一般为复数，应改为 are。
例 5．The new boy or girl in school quickly become one of the class after a few games.(NMET’93)主语为 A or B 时，应由靠近谓语的主语来决定谓语的 单复数，become 应改为 becomes . 例 6 ． Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong? (NMET’98) 此处与例 4，例 5 不同，谓语动词 makes 与上下文保 持一致，为正确的用法，而 play 须改 Playing 才可与此处其它部分一致。 三．平行一致 not only?but also?, either?or?, neither?nor?以及 and, but, or 等并列连词或词组连接的结构可称为平行结构。在平行结构中，词性时态等形 式须保持前后一致。
例 7．Playing football not only makes? but also give us a sense of fair play and team spirit.( NMET’98)依据平行一致原则，此处 give 应与前文 makes 保持一致，改为 gives. 例 8．It was very kind of them to meet me at the railway station and drove me to their home. (NMET’96) 此句中的 drove 应与前文 to meet 保持 平行，故改为 drive。 四．数的一致 名词的数须与其修饰语保持一致
例 9．We study quite a few subject, such as maths, Chinese?(NMET’97) quite a few 只修饰复数名词，保持一致,subject 应 改为 subjects. 例 10．They ? asked me lots of question.(NMET’96)与 lots of 保持一致 的只能是复数名词，应改为 questions. 五．主饰一致 句中的主要词（中心词）应与其修饰词间保持一致。
除了例 9，例 10 外，还有 例 11．?so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject.(NMET2001) all 若修饰可数名词时，其后名词应为复数。subject 该为 subjects。 例 12．She said that she and my schoolmate all wished me success.(NMET2000) 为 schoolmates. all 修饰的主语部分应是三者以上， schoolmate 应 故
例 13．Unfortunate, there are too many people?(NMET’99) Unfortunate 应作状语，修饰整个句子，此时应为副词 unfortunately 才可 保持一致。 例 14．I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together.(NMET’95) 修 饰名词，应为 a wonderful time. 六．指代一致 用于指代的各类代词应在数、格、性 上与上下文保持一致。
例 15．The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home. (NEMT’96) The Smiths 为一复数概念， 故指代词也应为第三人称复数 their. 例 16．I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China. (NMET’97)
此处应为作主语的关系代词 which. 例 17． And I can’t forget the food you cooked for I. (NMET’95) 此处 I 应作介词的宾语，故改为 me 才可保持一致。 七．语态一致 句中谓语动词或非谓语动词应与上下文语态保持一致。
例 18．Books may be keep for four weeks. (NEMT’94) 与其主语 Books 相对应，此处应为被动语态，故 keep 应改为 kept。 八．搭配一致 句中的固定搭配应保持完整并与上下文一致。
例 19． I felt so nervous as I shook like a leaf. (NMET’2000) 后 跟从句，保持一致须用 so?that 结构这一固定搭配。as 改为 that. 例 20．I look forward to hear from you soon. (NMET’97) look forward to 中 to 是介词，其后应为动名词 hearing。 例 21．But it didn’t matter that I would win or not. (NMET’2000) 与其后 or not 保持一致时应用 whether。 例 22．I have neither brothers nor sisters---in any other words, I am an only child.(NMET2001) in any other words 意为“换言之”，应为 in other words。 九．逻辑一致 这是一种隐蔽性较强且年年必考的错误，检查时应通篇考虑，重点在连词、 代词，肯定与否定，及相对应的动词如 come 与 go 等。 例 23．She was smiling but nodding at me.(NMET’2000) 上下文看， 应为 She---my English teacher 微笑且点头鼓励我， but 应为 and。 例 24．Now someone at home reads instead. (NMET’99) 从上文可知，因为无电视可看，人人都只好读书，someone 改为 everyone 或 everybody. 例 25．And they must not break the rules too often if we want to win the
game.(NMET’98)通读全文，都是用第一人称，这时突然用到 they,显然不一致， 应改为 we.
[实战演练一] ⑴ Most families in China hoped their single children will 76．_______ have a happy future, so they are very strict in their children. 77．_______ So do teachers in schools! Many children are given so much 78．_______ homework that they have hardly any spare time have sports. 79．_______ The children are forbidden to do anything but to study. No 80．_______ wonder so many children are tired of lessons. Some even 81．_______ attack or kill his parents and teachers! I believe many people 82．_______ already read this kind of news in newspapers or magazines. 83．_______ Shouldn ’ t we draw lesson from the accidents? Now our 84．_______ government is making out a plan to solve the education problems .85．_______ ⑵ Nowadays, almost every family has TV set, and almost 76．_______ everyone likes watching TV. TV has become part of our lives. 77．_______ TV has many advantages, for example, it informs us the 78．_______ latest news which is happening in the world; it can open our 79．_______ eyes, enlarge our knowledge and also help us to see more
80．_______ about the worlD ． But, it also has some disadvantages. People 81．______ waste too much time in watching TV and his normal life 82．_______ and work are affecteD ． To the children who they spend too 83．_______ much time in watching TV, it can do harmful to their sight 84．_______ and healthy. So we should control the time of watching TV. 85．_______ ⑶ A few months after returning the US from Germany, I took 76._______ part in a college course in French. Since I have learned 77._______ to say German well in Germany, I thought it might be 78.______ interested to begin studying another language. At the 79._______ first class, the teacher asked us to do a pronunciation 80._______ exercise in it he would say a word or two in French, and 81._______ each student would do their best to copy. When he got to 82._______ me, he kept having me to say more words, and I 83.______ finally asked him why. “ I find it great fun, ” she explained 84._______ it. “In 25 years of teaching at school, it’ the first time s 85._______ I’ve heard an American speak French with a German accent.” ⑷ The Huaihe River has been serious polluted. Day and nigh76._______ millions of tons of waste water is being poured down to from 77._______ ? hundreds of factories. The waste water is harmful. At present 78._______ ? there is no fish in it. The river water cannot be drunk. People in 79._______ either bank have to dig wells to take drinking water. The Huaihe 80. _______ River is such dirty and poisonous that people don ’ t dare swim 81._______ ? in it. Something must be done to stopping the pollution. The 82._______ ? government and the people near the river must try to clear water 83._______
as soon as possible. Now special attention has paid to the 84._______ pollution by the government and more scientists. The pollution 85._______ will be prevented in the near future.? ⑸ Dear Abby, How are you? Today I ’ ve got a wonderful news to tell you. 76._______ I have offered a scholarship at a university in Australia for my 77._______ further education. One hundred and twenty students took exam 78._______ for it, but only a few was chosen and I was one of them. However, 79._______ my parents are not happy about it. They are strong against me 80._______ going there. They say it is too far away that they will not see me 81._______ for a whole year and they are afraid of I will feel lonely. They 82._______ can ’ t imagine a girl so young live alone. They advise me to study 83._______ in the capital instead. Then I ’ ll be able to continue living with 84._______ them. How can I persuade them to accept the fact I have grown up? 85._______ Best wishes, Jane ⑹ A person’s age no longer tells you something about 76. ________ his social position, marriage or healthy. There’s no longer, 77. ________ a particular year which one goes to school or goes to 78. ________ work or gets married or start a family. The social clock 79. ________ that kept us on time and told us when go to school, get 80. ________ a job, or stop working isn’t as strong as it was used to be. 81. ________ It doesn’t surprise us to hear a 28-year-old university 82. ________ president or a 35-year-old grandmother, or 70-year-old 83. ________
man who has become a father for the first time. What we ________ all know, public’s ideas are changing nowadays. ________
⑺ It is difficult for parents to teach your children to be responsible 76.________ (有责任的) for housework, but with one of the followed suggestions, 77.________ you really can get your children help you at home. If you give your 78.________ children the impression which they can never do anything quite right, 79.________ then they will regard themselves unfit or unable persons. Unless they 80.________ believe they can succeed, they will never become totally independence. 81.________ Don ’ t always scold and give lots of praise instead. Talk about 82.________ what they’ve done right, but about what they haven’t done. If your 83.________ children complete a difficult task, reward (酬劳) him with a Sunday 84.________ trip or a ball game of Dad. 85.________ ⑻ Before I went to senior middle school, some peoples told 76._______ me. “ A life of senior middle school is unforgettable. ” 77._______ While I first entered my senior middle school, everything 78._______ seemed unpleasant. Face all the strange things around me, 79._______ I often miss my old friends and classmates. I didn ’ t want 80._______ to talk others or make friends with others. Little by little, my 81._______ school record went from bad to worse, especially my 82._______ maths. I couldn ’ t even pass the exam. I lost the heart and 83._______ missed the happy times all day long. I told me, “ I don ’ t 84._______
belong to 85._______
⑼ Tom and Dick are next door neighbour who work 76.________ in the same office so they walked together to and from 77.________ office. Some day as they were walking home together it 78.________ sudden started to rain. Tom quickly opened his umbrella 79.________ and said, “ My wife surely has foresight ( 预 见 ) . She said 80.________ on this morning it would rain and told me to carry my 81.________ umbrella with me. ” Dick smiled and walked to him, said, 82.________ “ My wife has even great foresight. She told me not to 83.________ carry an umbrella and as she knew you would certainly 84.________ have with you. ” 85.________ ⑽ Dear Sir or Madam, I see your advertisement in a student magazine and ______ I’m interesting to know more about your diving courses. ______ First of all, I should explain that although I can swim I’m ______ not very confident in the water. But you mentioned your ______ advertisement that your instructors are full qualified(称职), ______ so I believe they’ll able to teach someone like me to dive. ______ I have one week’s holiday in the three week of June ______ and would like to know that if there’s a course running at ______ that time. How much does a week’s course worth? Finally, ______ if I decide to go ahead, are there any special equipment I
76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85.
______ need to buy or is everything provided by your company? I look forward to hearing from you. Sincerely yours, Tom ⑾ Dear Xiaohua, It is four days since Mother accepted the operation. She is feeling much more better. The doctors told me the operation was successful, but because her old age she had to stay in hospital for other two weeks. The doctors also say it was quite necessary for her to do so. We expect to get a full report in two and three days. Please tell the good news to the rest of family as soon as possible. You needn’t to come here. I’m able to look after Mother by myself. You’d better send flowers to Mother. She will feel happily.
76._______ 77._______ 78._______ 79._______ 80._______ 81._______ 82._______ 83. _______ 84. _______ 85. _______ Yours, Xiaohui 76._______ 77._______ 78._______ 79._______ 80._______ 81._______ 82._______ 83._______ 84. _______ the adults.
⑿ Football is most popular game in England: one has only to go to one of the important match to see this. Rich and poor, young and old, one can see them all there, shout and cheering for one side or the other. One of the surprised things about football in England to a stranger is the great knowledge of the game which still the smallest boy seems to have it. He can tell you the names of the players in most of the important team, he has photographs of them and know the results of large numbers of matches. He will tell you his opinion which is usual as valuable as that of 85._______ ⒀ Climbing is my favourite sport. I am very food it, especially in later autumn. One day early in the morning, my friends and I put on our sports shoes and start off. After climbing for half an hour, we got at the top of the mountain. There we had a good view miles around. In the north, a big river crossed the city. There were many ships sail busily. A lot of beautiful trees were there, too. The sun started to go down, for it was time for us to go back. On the road back, we were laughing and talking all the time. We had a good time on that day. ⒁ Before lunch Allen happened to see a man fished in
76. _______ 77. _______ 78. _______ 79. _______ 80. _______ 81. _______ 82. _______ 83. _______ 84. _______ 85. _______ 76.______
a ditch about five metre outside a bar. Allen stopped regarded him like a foolish man. Allen’s heart went out of him. He said kindly to fish-catcher, “Hello, will you please do me a favor and have a drink with me in the bar?” The man gladly received his invitation. After buying the man several cups soft-drinks, Allen asked, “You are fishing there, right? May I know how much fish you have caught this morning?” “You are the number 8,” said the man humorously.?
77.______ 79.______ 80.______ 81.______ 82.______ 83.______ 84.______ 85.______
⒂ What should you do when your parents become angry? If 76.________ your parents got mad, try to have a conversation with them 77.________ about it. Remembering not to shout at them. They usually 78.________ will try to change, but they will take some time because 79._________ they get angry all their life, and that is all they know. You 80._________ might have to change for your method a couple of times. 81._________ Do any nice things for your parents that they don’ expect t 82._________ — `like cooking, doing the dishes, washing clothes, or clean 83._________ the floors. If this doesn ’ t work, bring in friend that you 84._________ feel comfortable, and have him or her help you. 85._________ ⒃ In Feb. 2nd 1979, China’s Vice-premier Deng Xiaoping was at a visit to the U.S. He was in the space flight center near to Houston Texas. Sat in the pilot’s seat of a model of a space shuttle（航天飞机）,he was asked to touch a button to make it landing on the earth from a height of 95,000 feet, that he did. From windows of the craft, he could see the earth coming up to meet him as a returned space pilot would see it. Millions of people in both China and the US watch this on TV with delight. [实战演练二] A We’ll never forget a day when my classmates and I paid a visit a chemistry factory. It 76．_______ 77．_______ 78．_______ 79．_______ 80．_______ 81．_______ 82．_______ 83．_______ 84．_______ 85．_______
1. ____ 2. ____
was a large one with nearly 20, 000 workers. It looks 3. ____ like a garden and we saw colorful flowers, grass and trees 4. ____ there. We also visited some workshop and found workers 5. ____ working hard. We talked to them and learned a lot of. We 6. ____ understood them further. On the way home we felt very tiring, 7. ____ but we both thought we had a very good day. 8. ____ We really hoped what we could get more chances 9. ____ of leaving the school and learn about society. 10. ____ B The children next door often play the football in 1. ____ the garden after my house and sometimes break my 2. ____ windows. Last Saturday afternoon I stay at home and 3. ____ read a book. After a while, I closed my eyes and went 4. ____ to sleep. A loud knock on the door made me to wake 5. ____ up suddenly. Soon a little boy turned out. “You haven’t 6. ____ broken one of my window again?” I asked. “Oh, no!” 7. ____ answered the boy. “Your windows were all opened this 8. ____ time and our football is in your bedroom. Could you 9. ____ mind getting in to get our ball?” I was at a loss at the 10. ____ moment. C I ever worked as a tour guide. One day I saw advertisement 1. ____ on the newspaper. I rang up the company, and 2. ____ I was given the job immediate. They asked me to take 3. ____ a tour around the city the next morning. The manager 4. ____ just told me to say anything that I could think about the 5. ____ city. My first tour is terrible. The old bus was not 6. ____ air-conditioned, because it was the middle of summer. It 7. ____ was uncomfortable inside the bus. The tourist soon became 8. ____ very hot and angry. I owned a very hard time. I stayed there 9. ____ for a few weeks,and then left and joined in a better 10. ____ company. D Sue and Ann often meet at a cheaper restaurant to eat 1. ____ and talking about life and school after their morning 2. ____ class. Sometimes, instead of talking ,they play a 3. ____ game that they call it “people watching”. They start the 4. ____ game in observing and listening to people around 5. ____ them carefully and make guesses about their lives as 6. ____ ages, jobs, likes, dislikes and so on. Of course, 7. ____ they never really knew whether they are right or wrong. 8. ____ Therefore they usually have good reasons for thinking 9. ____ that what they are. “The game is fun,” they often say. 10. ____ E
At a party, it is quite normal of someone to have 1. ____ a short conversation with you and then go on to talking 2. ____ to other people! Don’t think they dislike you or they 3. ____ are impolite. It has the custom at many parties 4. ____ in Britain, particularly there people are standing up rather 5. ____ than sitting down. Here are two ways of finishing conversation 6. ____ at a party. “Excuse me. I think I’ll go and get another drinking.7. ____ See you later, perhaps?” “Oh. Excuse me. I’ve just seen 8. ____ Mary Jennings over here. I’ve got to discuss a meeting we 9. ____ are been having on Thursday. Would you excuse me for a moment?”” 10. ____ F I felt sadly yesterday when our teacher told us something 1. ____ about Project Hope in class. It has set up to help the 2. ____ children in the countryside who can’t pay to go to 3. ____ school. After school I came home. I was wondering if I 4. ____ could do something for the Project then I caught sight 5. ____ of money-collecting box on the table. Then I made 6. ____ up my minds to send my pocket money which I 7. ____ had saved for nearly one year for the children who 8. ____ wanted to go to school. I wrote a letter to them and 9. ____ hurried to the post office. Together with the letter I posted the money and sent with my best wishes to them. 10. ____ G Last night when Steven and I was having a walk in the 1. ____ Street, we suddenly heard a painful cry for help under 2. ____ a tree nearby. We quickly ran to the tree and found a boy laying 3. ____ on the ground with a stick in his leg. He had fallen of the tree. 4. ____ Steven suggested we pulled the stick out at once, but I disagreed, 5. ____ Because I had learned little about first aid at school. The stick 6. ____ in the leg would help controlling the bleeding. As there was 7 . ____ no telephone,we managed to find a taxi. We took the boy to the 8. ____ hospital. The doctors examined the boy fast and we got to 9. ____ know where the boy lived. So we telephoned his parents and left after he came to the hospital. We did a good deed. 10. ____ H Last summer I learnt to ride a bicycle. At first?,I was 1. ____ unable to control its direction. Sometimes I fall to 2. ____ the right or to the left. But I worried my father to tell me 3. ____ how I could ride straightly. He didn’t answer me 4. ____ directly. Instead,he took me to side of the street. 5. ____ “Can you find some bike track that is really straight?” 6. ____ asked my father. I watched more carefully and shook my 7. ____ head .“No?” he said, “in factneither of the tracks is 8. ____
always straight. But just by correct the direction every now and then, you had already gone forward.” I Boys and girls, Attention, please. I’ve got a good news for you. A new book How to Improve Your English is now on sell in the nearby bookstore. Xinhua Bookstore. I think the book is a great help on our English study and suitable for us middle school students. Here I’ve got it. You may go to have a look to see whether you like it or not. The price is five yuan every. Those who want to buy the book should get your money ready for. By eleven o’clock tomorrow morning the money should be give either to me nor to our League Secretary. We’ll go to buy the books tomorrow afternoon.
9. ____ 10. ____
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
短文改错专题之答案 1. 76. hoped→hope 77. in→with 78. do→are 79. have 前加 to 80. 去掉第二个 to 81. √ 82. his→their 83. already 前加 have 84. lesson 前加 a 85. making→carrying 2. 76. has 后加 a 77. lives→life 78. us 后加 of 79. which→that 80. √ 81. But→However 82. his→their 83. 去掉 they 84. harmful→harm 85. healthy→health 3. 76. returning 后加 to 77. have→had 78. say→speak 79.interested→ interesting 80. √ 81. it→which 82. their→his 83. 去掉 to 84. she→he 85. 去掉 it 4. 76. serious→seriously 77. to→into 78. √ 79. in→on 80. take→get 81. such→so 82. stopping→stop 83. water 前加 the 84. paid 前加 been 85. 去掉 more 5. 76. 去掉 a 77. have 后加 been 78. exam→exams 79. was→were 80. strong→strongly 81. too→so 82. 去掉 of 83. live→living
84. √ 85. fact 后加 that 6. 76. something→anything 77. healthy→health 78. which→when 或 which 前加 in 79. start→starts 80. when 后加 to 81. 去掉 was 82. √ 83. 70-year-old 前加 a 84. What→As 85. public’s→public 7. 76.your→their 77.followed→following 78.children 后加 to 79.which→that 80.themselves 后加 as 81.independence→independent 82.√ 83.but 后加 not 84.him→them 85.of→with 8. 76. peoples→people 77. A→The 78. While→When 79. Face→Facing 80. miss→missed 81. talk 后加 to 或 with 82. record→records 83. 去掉第二个 the84. me→myself 85. √ 9. 76. neighbour→neighbours 77. walked→walk 78. Some→One 79. sudden→suddenly 80. √ 81. 去掉 on 82. said→saying 83. great→ greater 84. 去掉 and 85. have 后加 one 10. 76. see→ saw 77. interesting→ interested 78. √ 79. your 前加 in 80. full→ fully 81. able 前加 be 82. three→ third 83. 去掉 that 84. worth→ cost 85. are→ is 11. 76. accepted→received 77. 去掉 more 78. because 后加 of 79. other →another 80. say→said 81. and→or 82. family 前加 the 83. 去掉 to 84. √ 85. happily→happy 12. 76.is 后加 the 77.match→matches 78. shout→shouting 79.surprised→surprising 80. √ 81.still→even 82. 去掉 it 83.team →teams 84. know→knows 85.usual→usually 13. 76. fond 后加 of 77. later→late 78. start→started 79. at→to 80. In→To 81. √ 82. sail→sailing 83. for→so/and 84. road→way 85. 去掉 on 14. 76. fished→fishing 77. metre→metres 78. 去掉 over. 79. like→as 80. to 后加 the 81. √ 82. received→accepted 83. cups 后加 of 84. are→ were 85. much→many 15. 76. √ 77. got→get 78. Remembering→Remember 79. they→it 80. life →lives 8l. 去掉 for 82. any→some 83. clean→cleaning 84. friend 前加 a 85. comfortable 后加 with 16. 76.On 77.on 78.去掉 to 79。Sitting/Seated 80. ∨ 81. land 82. which 83. the 84. returning 85. watched A 1. a→the 2. visit后加to 3. was→is 4. √5. workshop→workshops 6. 去掉of 7. tiring→tired 8. both→all 9. 去掉what或what→that 10. learn →learning
B 1. 去掉the 2. after→behind 3. stay→stayed 4.√ 5. 去掉第二个to 6. out→up 7. window→windows 8. opened→open 9. Could→Would 10. getting前加 me或my C 1. saw后加an 2. on→in 3. immediate→immediately 4.√ 5. think后加 of 6. is→was 7. because→and 8. tourist→tourists 9. owned→had 10. 去 掉in D 1. cheaper→cheap 2. talking→talk 3. class→classes 4. 去掉it 5. in →by 6. as前加such 7. √8. knew→know 9. Therefore→But 10. 去掉that E 1. of→for 2. talking→talk3. or后加that 4. has→is 5. there→where 6. finishing后加a 7. drinking→drink 8.√9. here→there 10. 去掉 been F 1. sadly→sad 2. has后加been 3. pay→afford 4. √ 5. then→when 6. of后加my或the 7. minds→mind 8. 第二个for→to 9. wanted→ want 10.去掉with G 1. was→were 2. help后加from 3. laying→lying 4. of→off 5. pulled →pull 6. little前加a7. controlling→control 8. √9. fast→ quickly 10. he→they H 1. √ 2. fall→fell 3. But→So 4. straightly→straight 5. side前 加the 6. some→any 7.去掉more 8. neither→none 9. correct → correcting 10. had→have I 1. 去掉第一个a 2. sell→sale 3. √ 4. on→for 5. it→one 6. go →come 7. every→each8. 去掉for 9. give→given 10. nor →or
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