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默写文本中英文对照_v2.0

默写文本
北京新东方学校 史禺

写在前面的几句话 对于作文学习者而言,写作能力在微观层面的提高——正确的、符合习惯地使用单词和短语;正确、流畅、 多样地构建句子——是最难的问题。 解决这一问题的最佳方案,目前来看,是默写。和考试匹配的默写文段,是能否收效的关键。 为了这个目的,我制作了一个“默写软件”,内置了一些和托福考试匹配的文段。但由于软件兼容问题, 有些同学反映,无法打开。因此,我将文段抽离出来,制作成PDF形式,以满足这些同学默写的需要。 所有的托福文段的英文均出自我手,文责自负。汉语的翻译来自以下老师:廖歆、孙炜、王屏非、陈歌、 谢超、田宝佳。在此我表示感谢。 史禺 2011-4-30

TOEFL Passages 1. Consider the ads for medicines. Advertisements for weight-lost drugs claim that after taking

these drugs overweighed persons can lose weight without dieting and having physical exercise. In china, consumers are bombarded by various medicine advertisements claiming that these medicines are capable of curing cancer or AIDS. In fact, they have little real effects. 拿医药广告为例。减肥药品的广告宣传说,服用过该药后,超重的人们无需节食和锻炼就就 可减肥。在中国,消费者被各种各样的医药广告所轰炸。这些广告宣称它们能够治疗癌症或 艾滋病。事实上,它们几乎没有实际疗效。

2.

For politicians, maybe the ability to speak well plays a bigger role. It is because the modern

political life makes it necessary for politicians to have a strong ability to make speeches and debate to get the support of the voters. Barrack Obama won the presidency because he has a superior ability to debate than his rival, McCain. But seldom do politicians need to write their own speeches because professional writers write their speeches for them.

对于政治家来说,说话的能力更加重要。因为现代的政治生活要求政治家具有高超的演讲和 辩论的能力来赢得选民的支持。奥巴马之所以当选总统是因为他精湛的演讲能力超过了他的 对手麦凯恩。然而,政治家却很少需要亲自撰写演讲稿,因为有专业的写手代劳。

3.

Consider businessmen. They are constantly confronted with various challenges, for instance,

competition, decline of market shares, drops in profits and fluctuations of stock prices. In each situation, a mature businessman must keep hopes high and do the best: design good products and services, devise the right marketing strategy and launch aggressive advertising campaigns. Lee Iacocca, against nearly impossible odds, convinced the federal government to guarantee a loan, which saved the struggling Chrysler Company. Similarly, Steve Jobs, after taking over a nearly bankrupt Apple, designed iPods and i-Phones, which hit it big across the globe and set the company back on top. . 拿企业家来说,他们总是面临着各种挑战,比如,市场竞争、市场份额的下降、利润下滑、 股价波动等。每每至此,一个成熟的企业家一定信心满满并且全力以赴:设计最好的产品和 服务、制定正确的营销策略、雄心勃勃地打响广告大战。如李·艾柯卡奇迹般地赢得了联邦政 府的贷款,拯救了举步维艰的克莱斯勒汽车公司。无独有偶,苹果总裁斯蒂芬·乔布斯,在接 手了濒临破产的苹果公司之后,设计出了iPods和i-Phone。这两款产品在全球大或成功,并让 公司重回巅峰。。

4.

The study of music and art can even improve the academic performances of students. It is

because music and art have a soothing effect on children’s minds, helping them to concentrate better and improving the learning efficiency. A recent study can back up this point. The study, conducted by the USA Today, after following thousands of high school students, found a strong correlation between playing piano or violin and significantly better GPAs of these respondents. 学习艺术和音乐还可以提高学生的成绩。因为音乐和艺术可以舒缓孩子们的大脑、帮助他们 更好的集中注意力,并提高学习效率。最近的一项研究可以支持这一点。 《今日美国》调查 了数千高中生后发现,受访者中,弹钢琴或拉小提琴和显著较好的平均分有强关联。

5.

Outdoor activities improve physical health. By going outdoors, people can have fresh air and

more physical exercise. There is nothing more refreshing and energizing than a walk in the

morning. In contrast, indoor activities are relatively sedentary and involve less physical exercise. A few hours’ work before a computer causes pains in the neck and back. As a result, it is more likely for people to develop various diseases. 户外运动提高身体素质。在户外,人们可以吸收到新鲜的空气并进行更多的体育锻炼。没有 什么能比早晨的户外散步更加令人精神饱满、活力四射了。比较而言,室内运动相对静止, 身体锻炼较少。在电脑前工作几个小时后,人们会感到颈椎和背部的疼痛。常此以往,将会 导致各种疾病的发生。

6.

Students should achieve a well-rounded growth, which includes well-developed abilities to

speak and to write. In schools, students are required to attend various classes and complete different tasks, which require both the ability to write and the ability to speak. For instance, in an English writing class, students are asked to write an English essay, which requires a strong writing ability. But if they run for positions in the student union, they have to make public speeches to get the support, which requires a strong speaking ability. And since they usually have to write the speeches themselves, a solid writing ability is needed, too. 学生应该全面发展,包括良好的口头和书面表达的能力。在学校,学生们要学习各种各样的 课程并且完成不同的功课, 而这些内容都以说话和写作为基础。 比如, 在一堂英语写作课上, 学生们要完成一篇英语的议论文,这对英语写作能力要求很高。但是如果学生们要竞选学生 会的职位时,他们需要进行公开演讲来赢得支持,这就需要良好的口头表达能力。而由于他 们通常要自己撰写演讲稿,所以扎实的写作能力也是必不可少的。

7.

Consider entertainment. Our grandparents had to watch television which had fixed schedules

and could not be stored and watched again. In contrast, we can visit youtube.com where we can have access to millions of interesting videos and can store them in our computers in a legal way. When it comes to music, our grandparents had to buy cassettes or CDs. They were expensive. And the music was sold in a bundled way: even if what you were interested on in one song you had to buy the whole cassette or CD. In contrast, we can buy any single song from a whole album for 99 cent at iTunes Shop and enjoy it everywhere with our i-pods. 就拿娱乐活动来说, 我们的祖父母看电视。 电视有固定播放时间, 并且无法存储和重复关看。 相反,我们却可以访问YouTube,并在那里观看数百万的有趣视频,并可以以合法的方式讲

这些视频存在我们的电脑里 。在音乐方面,祖父母要购买卡带或是CD光盘。这很昂贵,并 且这些音乐是打包销售的,意味着:如即便你只对其中一首歌感兴趣,你也必须购买整个磁 带或CD。而我们却可以在iTunes商店上以99美分的价格购买整张专辑的任何一首单曲,并在 i-pods上享受它。

8.

Students can learn various life skills in colleges or universities. Universities or colleges offer a

wider range of extracurricular activities, which teach students communication skills, organizing and planning skills, and leadership. For instance, by running for the president of the student union, students get a taste of what a political life is like: talk to others, understand their needs, build mutual trust and eventually get their votes. In the process, all the essential qualities and skills needed for a successful political career can be developed and honed. 学生们可以在大学里学到各种各样的生活技能。大学提供了各种各样的课外活动,可以培养 学生们的交流能力、组织和计划以及领导的能力。比如,通过竞选学生会的主席,学生们可 以初步感受到政治生活:与人交流、了解他们所需、建立互信,并最后赢得选票。在这个过 程之中,一个成功的政治家所需要的各种基本的品质和技术都可以得到培养和磨练。

9.

Admittedly, increasing teachers’ salaries can have undesirable consequences. For instance, it

will make education more expensive because schools might raise tuitions in order to pay their faculties. Suppose an elementary school raises the salaries of the faculty by 50%. The school will be hard-pressed to strike a balanced budget without increasing tuitions. As a result, it is possible that many students from underprivileged families will choose to drop out of school. However, schools can obtain more governmental subsidies and public donations and increase teachers’ salaries without increasing the costs of education. 诚然,提高教师的工资会引发不良后果。比如,教育就会变得更昂贵,因为学校需要增加学 费来支付多出的教师的工资。设想一下,如果一个小学给全体教师增加了50%的工资,学校 如果不增加学费的话将很难维持收支平衡。结果是,很多家境贫寒的学生将会辍学。但学校 可以通过获得更多的政府补助和公众捐款来增加老师的工资,这样便不会增加教育的成本。

10. There are plenty of options which play no less or even greater roles in energy conservation. First, government can intensify the efforts to develop renewable energy and nuclear power.

Governments can invest more to build dams to generate hydro power or nuclear power stations to utilize nuclear energy. For instance, the famous Three Gorges Dam of China can generate tremendous power and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. Second, governments can improve public transportation, e.g. ?lowering charge or making public transportation more comfortable. If the public transportation is improved, a large number of city residents will ride buses or subway to work instead of driving. 在能源保护过程中,有多种选择可以起到同样甚至更大的作用。第一,政府可以大力发展可 再生能源和核能。政府可以加大投资,建造水坝或核电站。例如,著名的中国三峡大坝能够 产生巨大的能量,这就降低化石能源的消费。第二,政府可以改善公共交通。例如,降低收 费或令公共交通更加舒适。如果公共交通得以改善,大量的城市居民将乘坐放弃驾车上班, 取而代之乘坐公交车或地铁。

11. In order to make animals obey orders or perform tasks, trainers must give them proper rewards or punishments. If a dolphin does what it is asked to do, for instance, to jump through a hoop, the trainer will give it fish as a reward. If it fails, the trainer will give it some sort of punishment. By this way, the dolphin can quickly learn. This is the case in the human society. A company rewards employees who pull the quotas by giving them bonuses or promotions. And it punishes employees who do not complete their tasks by cutting their salaries or even firing them. 为了使动物服从指令或完成任务,驯兽师必须给予他们适当的奖励或惩罚。例如,如果一只 海豚完成了驯兽师要求的穿越圆圈的动作,它将得到鱼作为奖励。如果它失败了,便会受到 某种惩罚。通过这个方法,这只海豚便能迅速领会。在人类社会中也是如此。公司会给予完 成业务额的员工奖金或晋升作为奖励。 那些没能完成任务的员工会被扣减工资, 甚至被解雇。

12. Making public transportation free might have negative effects. For instance, it will reduce the income of bus or subway companies drastically, which will be hard pressed to buy fuels, pay their employees and maintain public transportation. As a result, it is possible that many public transportation companies will go into bankruptcy. However, as long as governments give these companies special subsidies, the problem will be solved. 对公共交通实行免费可能造成不良后果。例如,公交车公司或地铁公司的收入将急剧下降, 在燃料购买,员工工资支付和公共交通维护方面将面临巨大压力。结果很可能是许多公交公

司将倒闭。然而,只要政府给予这类公司特殊补贴,这个问题将得到解决

13. Advertisements provide plenty of useful information about products and services to consumers. By advertisements, we know that when we get hurt, we can use Band-Aids to prevent infection and accelerate the healing of the wounds. By advertisements, men know that Gillette razors are a safer and more comfortable way of shaving. By advertisements, we know that we can use Rejoice shampoo to prevent dandruff. 广告为消费者提供许多关于产品和服务的有用信息。通过广告,我们知道,受伤时可以用“邦 迪”创口贴防止传染,并加速伤口愈合。通过广告,男人们了解到使用“吉列”牌剃须刀是更加 安全舒适的剃须方式。通过广告,我们了解到可以用飘柔洗发水抑制头屑。

14. With the pressure intensifying and the pace of life quickening, it is foreseeable that twenty years from now people will allot less time to the preparation of meals. Instead, fast-food and take-outs will play a bigger role. People in metropolitans like New York or Tokyo will be increasingly grab a bite at Subways or Burger Kings and get back to work as quickly as possible. Or they will order more take-outs from Chinese or Japanese restaurants. 随着压力的增加,生活节奏的加快,可以预见:20年后,人们会在做饭上花费更少时间。然 而,快餐和外卖将发挥更大的作用。在诸如纽约或东京的大都市,越来越多的人们会在“赛 百味”或者“汉堡王”随便吃吃就尽快回去工作。或者他们会从中餐厅或日餐厅定更多的外卖。

15.

On special occasions, people will take time to cook for personal, religious and cultural

reasons even in the future. A wife will still spend the whole day on cooking a delicious four-course dinner for a husband who is away on business trip. Westerners cook turkey on Thanksgiving. The Chinese have Nianyefan, the Chinese yearly family reunion dinner. One of the staples of Nianyefan is Jiaozi, Chinese dumplings, which are extremely time-consuming to make. 即便是在未来,在特殊场合,人们会因为一些个人的、宗教和文化上的原因做饭。妻子会花 上一整天的时间为即将出差归来的丈夫准备一顿四道菜的美味大餐。西方人会在感恩节烹饪 火鸡。中国人则有年夜饭----每年一次的中式家庭团聚晚餐。年夜饭中的一道主食,饺子,即 中式汤团食物,要花费大量的时间去准备。

16. Renewable energy is more eco-friendly. In contrast, the burning of fossil fuels creates a variety of serious environmental problems, e.g. global warming, acid rains, and urban smog. The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide which aggravates the Green House Effect. Disastrous consequences will follow, e.g. rises in the sea level and an ice-age as depicted in the sci-fi movie The Day after Tomorrow. Besides carbon dioxide, the burning of fossil fuels releases sulfur dioxide, which contributes to acid rains. And it is known that acid rains cause death of aquatic life and destroy the balance of the ecosystem. And the particles released by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels give rise to urban smog, which cause many respiratory diseases, for instance, asthma. The infamous Smog of London in the 1950s is a case in point.可再生能源 更加环保,而化石能源的使用会带来各种各样的严重的环境问题,比如,全球变暖、酸雨和 都市雾。燃烧化石能源释放二氧化碳,这会加剧温室效应。灾难性的后果紧随其后,比如海 平面上升以及冰河时代的到来,正如科幻电影《后天》中描述的那样。除了二氧化碳,燃烧 化石能源还释放二氧化硫,这是造成酸雨的主要原因。而酸雨,众所周知,引起水生物的死 亡并破坏生态平衡。化石能源的不完全燃烧会释放微尘,造成城市雾,这会引起很多呼吸系 统疾病,比如哮喘。1950年代臭名昭著的“伦敦雾”就是一个很好的例子。

18. Traveling with a group of people is more economical. It is because a group of travelers can get considerable discounts at airlines, hotels, restaurants and even tourist attractions. Take the Summer Palace in Beijing for example. The palace, the royal residence of the emperors of the Qing Dynasty, is among the “must-sees” of Beijing. The full ticket price is as much as 50 Yuan, the equivalent of 8 dollars, a person. However, the discounted price could be 50% lower. As a result, travelers can save a considerable sum of money. And the saved money can be used to buy more souvenirs for my family and friends. 和许多人一起旅行更加经济。因为很多旅行者一起可以在买机票,订酒店,吃饭甚至旅游景 区得到更低的折扣。以北京的颐和园为例。这座供清朝帝王居住的皇家园林是北京的“必看” 景区之一。原价门票是50元(相当于8美元)一人。然而,打过折的价格甚至会便宜一半以 上。游客们因此可以剩下一大笔费用。而这些省下来的钱可以用来买更多的纪念品给家人和 朋友。

19. A tour guide provides plenty of useful information for travelers. By hiring a professional tour

guide, a traveler can gain useful and interesting information about the trip. A professional guide will tell an American visitor to China’s Great Wall that the building winds across China, measuring 5,000 kilometers in length. Or the visitor will hear from the guide The Story of Lady Mengjiang, which is about a beautiful girl who died for her newly-wed husband. 一个导游可以提供很多有用的信息。通过请一个专业的导游,游客可以得到关于旅程有用、 有趣的信息。一位专业的导游会告诉一位游览长城的美国游客,这一建筑绵延中国,有5000 公里长。或者,游客会从导游那里听到“孟姜女哭长城”的故事。这个故事关于一位为自己新 婚的丈夫而死的美丽女子。

20. Making school uniforms mandatory improves students’ academic performances. Otherwise, they will be distracted by matters like “what do I wear to school?” “Which pair of shoes go with that dress.” A recent survey can back up this point. The study, conducted by the Chinese Secondary Education Research Facility, after polling hundreds of high school female students, have found most respondents claimed that they spent an average half an hour on putting on choosing clothes before going to school. 强制学生穿校服会提高学生们的学习成绩。 否则, 他们会被诸如“我该穿什么上学?”“哪双鞋 和这条裙子搭配合适?”的问题分散注意力。最近一项调查支持了这个观点。这项研究由中 国中级教育研究机构进行。在调查了数百名中学女生之后,他们发现,大多数被调查者都声 称自己在上学前平均花费半个小时在穿着挑选服装上。

21. Compared to serious movies, entertaining movies provide the audience with a great deal of information about history, science and art in an interesting way. Many sci-fi movies have scientific backgrounds and thus are an effective source of scientific facts and theories. Time travel, fodder for many a successful movie, is based on Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. The Invisible Man deals with plenty of facts and theories of optics. Even Kung Fu Panda, a hilarious comedy based on an overweighed Chinese panda, teaches children about the Chinese culture, martial art and food. And the Day after Tomorrow raises public awareness of the dire consequences of global warming. 和现实电影相比,娱乐电影以有趣的方式提供给观众大量关于历史、科学和艺术的信息。很 多科幻电影有科学背景,因此是获取科学事实和理论的有效渠道。时间旅行,作为很多电影

的素材, 基于爱因斯坦的广义相对论。 隐形人涉及很多光学的事实和理论。 《功夫熊猫》 甚至 , 关于一个过胖的中国熊猫的搞笑喜剧,教会了孩子们中国文化、武术和饮食。《后天》则提 高了公众对于全球变暖可怕后果的意识。

22. Consider businessmen. For businessmen to make huge profits, good ideas about products or services or promotion campaigns are definitely more important. Consumers are crazy about i-Pods because of its sleek design and powerful functions but not because Steve Jobs is a hot “stud” And Windows established a monopoly of the operation system market because of its friendly user interface and powerful applications, which are the results of the ideas of software developers, but not because of Bill Gates’ looks. 以企业家为例。 企业家要赚取高额利润, 关于产品、 服务和促销活动的好想法必定更加重要。 消费者对iPod的痴狂是由于它流线型的设计以及强大的功能, 而并非史蒂芬乔布斯是个帅哥。 视窗操作系统确立了其在操作系统市场上的垄断地位,是由于它友好的用户界面以及强大的 应用软件,而这些都是软件开发者智慧的结果,而并非因为比尔盖茨的长相。

24. Computer games offer useful information about science and history. To give players a sense of authenticity to enhance their pleasure while playing the games, many computer games are extensively researched and set in real historical or scientific contexts. If a player of an online game set in the Middle Age finds that s/he could choose automatic weapons, then s/he will feel that the game is too absurd to have any fun from it. Similarly, when a player of a basketball game finds out that the guard of the LA Lakers is not Kobe Bryant, but, let’s say, Yao Ming, the player will lose any interest in playing the game. As a result, successful games are always based on reality. Naturally, when players play these games, they learn a great deal of useful information in an interesting way. By playing San Guo Zhi, a popular Chinese online game, children can learn the historic events and figures of Three Warring Kingdoms of China, for instance, the famous Battle of the Red Cliffs. Another example is Da Hua Xi You. Children can learn the characters and plots of classical Chinese novel, Xi You Ji. For instance, the courageous Monkey King helps the Monk Tang to obtain the holy religious books from India. 电脑游戏可以提供关于科学和历史的有用信息。为了给玩家一种真实感以增强乐趣,很多电 脑游戏经过深入的研发,并设置在真实的历史和科学背景中。如果一位中世纪的在线游戏的

玩家发现他可以选择自动化武器, 他就会觉得游戏太过荒谬以至于无法从中获得快乐。 同样, 当一个篮球游戏的玩家发现洛杉矶湖人队的后卫不是科比布莱恩特而是姚明,他/她就会失 去玩游戏的兴趣。因此,成功的游戏总是基于真实情况。自然而然,当玩家玩这些游戏的时 候,他们以有趣的方式学习到很多有用的信息。通过玩《三国志》 ,一个流行的中国在线游 戏,孩子们可以学到中国三国时期的重大历史事件和人物,比如,著名的“赤壁之战”。另外 一个例子是《大话西游》 。孩子们可以学到古典中国小说西游记的人物和情节,比如,勇敢 的猴王帮助唐僧从印度获取神圣的宗教书籍。

25. However, to say people should “never give up” is an overstatement. Consider students. When a college student chooses a major which s/he is not good at or is not interested in at all, s/he should change it to pursue his/her real interest instead of sticking to it. For instance, a student, for higher salaries, chooses law or computer engineering as concentration only to find out s/he is gifted with imagination and passion. Considering this, choosing literature or art might be best for his/her career. Consider businessmen. When a company or a sector continues to lose money, a wise businessman should close it without hesitation to avoid further losses. For instance, Jack Welch, famous former CEO of GE, ruthlessly closed the money-losing air-conditioner and refrigerator businesses to help the company to make profits. And when the stock market is going to nosedive selling the stocks is the wise thing for investors to do. Otherwise, they will suffer heavy financial losses. Consider marriage. When a couple finds out that they have lost their feelings for each other, they should a divorce to avoid hurting each other and find their true love. When Princess Diana found that her marriage to Prince Charles was already dead, she divorced him and left the all the glamour and wealth associated with the royal family behind to look for her true love. 然而,说人们应该“从不放弃”是言过其词的。以学生为例。当一个大学生选择了一个他根本 不擅长或从来不感兴趣的专业,他应该选择他真正兴趣所在,而不是继续坚持。比如,一个 寻求高薪的学生选择了法律或计算机工程作为专业, 结果发现自己很有想象力和激情。 , 因此 选择文学或者艺术可能最适合他的事业。以企业家为例。当一个公司或一个部门持续亏损, 一个明智的企业家应该毫不犹豫地关闭它,以避免进一步的损失。如,通用电气著名的前首 席执行官杰克韦尔奇,坚决关掉了亏损的空调和电冰箱部门,帮助公司盈利。当股票市场要 下滑的时候,卖出股票是投资家的明智举措。否则,他们将遭受巨大的经济损失。以婚姻为

例,当一个夫妇发现他们对彼此已经失去了感觉,他们应该离婚以避免伤害彼此,并寻找真 爱。当戴安娜王妃发现和查尔斯王子的婚姻已经灭亡的时候,她和他离婚,抛下了所有的与 皇室家族相关的名气和财富去寻找她的真爱。

26. Admittedly, telling the truth plays an essential role in maintaining relationships. Consider children and parents. The first thing children are taught about life is to be honest. When they accidentally break vases or neighbors’ windows when playing football, they should summon up the courage to own up instead of blaming the cats or sneaking away with the ball. Consider husbands and wives. Suppose a hard-working husband wants to spend the night with friends in bars to let off some steam. Instead of telling her the truth, he tells her that he has to work overtime to get the weekly report done because his boss needs it first thing in the morning. What happens if the wife finds out the truth after she calls his office and finds out nobody is there? The mutual trust is destroyed and every word the man says after the incident will be cast in doubt. Consider companies and customers. If a company exaggerates the functions of its products in television advertisements, consumers, after personally using the product, will lose trust in the company and even file lawsuits against it. 不得不承认的是,讲真话在维持关系扮演了不可或缺的角色。以孩子和家长为例。孩子被教 导的第一件关于生活的事情就是要诚实。当他们玩足球意外打碎花瓶或者邻居的玻璃的时候, 他们应该鼓足勇气承认错误,而并不是怪罪猫或者偷偷溜掉。以夫妻为例。试想一个努力工 作的丈夫想要去酒吧和朋友们宣泄压力。他没有跟妻子实话实说,而是告诉她他要加班来完 成周报,因为老板一早要看。如果他的妻子给他的办公室打了电话发现没有人接听,并因此 发现真相,那该怎么办?相互的信任被破坏,此后,这个男人说的每一句话都被怀疑。以公 司和消费者为例。如果公司在电视广告中夸大了其产品的功能,消费者在使用后,将对公司 失去信任甚至提起起诉。

27. For one thing, some parents are children’s negative role models, having health-damaging habits, for instance, smoking, alcoholism or even drug abuse which their children will easily copy. A recent survey, after polling teenagers who started smoking in high school, finds that most respondents reported that at least one of their parents smoked at home. In extreme cases, some parents even abuse or abandon their children. It was reported that a young Korean couple who

were addicted to online gaming neglected to feed their baby girl and caused the girl to die from starvation. And it is very common in Western countries that teenage girls, without proper sex education, get pregnant and give birth to babies. And the fathers, practically kids themselves, run out on the mothers because they simply cannot afford to raise the babies. In these cases, the indiscrete mothers and the irresponsible fathers are apparently not children’s best teachers. For another thing, compared with parents, many other factors play no less or even greater roles in children’s education in many aspects. Professional teachers can teach children more effectively because they have more knowledge, training and time. It is hard to imagine a working-class father can teach the kid calculus or French. And a mother, busy with every imaginable of family errands, will find it very hard to spend three hours on explaining to their kids the hidden meaning of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. And children can learn more information from the Internet, television programs or books in a more interesting way. A high school student who takes an interest in the extinction of the dinosaurs and comes to his father for explanations might get disappointed, but Google.com or Wikipedia can yield the satisfactory answers. 首先, 一些家长是孩子的负面榜样, 比如他们有损害健康的习惯, 吸烟、 如, 酗酒甚至吸毒, 这会被孩子很容易学会。一个最近的调查,在调查了从高中就开始吸烟的青少年之后,发现 绝大多数受访者称,他们的父母中至少有一方在家中吸烟。在极端的情况下,有些父母甚至 虐待或者抛弃他们的孩子。据报道,一对年轻的韩国夫妇沉迷于网络游戏,而忽视给他们出 世不久的女婴喂食,导致女婴饿死。在西方国家里,一个普遍现象是,缺乏适当性教育的女 孩怀孕并生下小孩。而孩子的父亲,实际上自己也还是孩子,往往会抛弃这些母亲,因为他 们完全没有能力抚养小孩。 在这些案例中, 这些鲁莽的母亲和不负责任的父亲显然不是孩子 最好的老师。另一方面,和家长比起来,很多其他因素在孩子的教育上起着同等、甚至更大 的作用。专业的老师能更有效率的教育孩子,因为他们有更多的知识,接受过更多的训练以 及有更多的时间。很难想象一个身为普通工人的父亲能教孩子微积分或者法语。一个母亲, 每天忙于各种的家庭琐事中,很难花三个小时给孩子解释约瑟夫康拉德《黑暗之心》的潜 在 含义。另外,孩子能从网上,电视节目上或者书籍中用更加有趣的方式学到更多的信息 。一 个对恐龙灭绝有兴趣的高中生去父亲寻求解释, 可能会感到失望, 但谷歌或维基百科能给出 满意的答案。

28. Admittedly, having a college education goes a long way towards achieving success in careers

and lives. For starters, in colleges or universities, students can learn general knowledge and expertise which can prepare them for future professions. For example, if a person wants to become a lawyer, s/he has to go to a law school in college or university. And if the person has his/her mind on becoming a medical doctor, s/he has to enroll at a medical school. Second, students can learn various social skills in colleges or universities. Universities or colleges offer a wider range of extracurricular activities, which teach students communication skills, organizing and planning skills and leadership. For instance, by running for the president of the student union, students get a taste of what a political life is like: talk to others, understand their needs, build mutual trust and eventually get their votes. In the process, all the essential qualities and skills needed for a successful political career can be developed and honed. Third, students can meet people of diverse backgrounds. 不可否认的是,接受大学教育对于人们日后的职业和生活上的有很大的帮助。首先,在大学 里,学生们能学到一般和专业的知识,从而为将来的职业做准备。例如,如果一个人想成为 一名律师,她/他就要去大学的法学院进行学习。如果一个人想成为一名医师,她/他就得去 上医学院。其次,学生能在大学到各种各样的社会技能。大学提供更广泛的课外活动,能教 给学生沟通技能、组织和规划技能以及领导力。例如,通过竞选学生会主席,学生能体会什 么是政治生活: 和其他人交谈, 理解他人的需求, 建立相互的信任以及最后获得他们的选票。 在这个过程中,一个成功的政治生涯所需要的所有的基本素质和技能都可以得到发展和磨练。 第三,学生可以接触到不同背景的人。

29. For one thing, college education does have its downsides. It is known that college graduates lack practical experiences compared with their high school graduate peers. And college students usually have unrealistic expectations about their salaries and positions because they invest considerable amount of time and money in their education. A recent survey, after polling hundreds of job applicants with college degrees, suggests that most respondents claimed that they expected salaries “significantly higher” than those who only graduated from high schools. For another thing, compared with college education, other factors play no less or greater roles in people’s success. Consider businessmen. Bill Gates dropped out of Harvard College in his junior year to fully commit himself to Microsoft because he felt that what really mattered was his ideas about personal computers but not a college diploma. Consider politicians. Abraham Lincoln had

not attended any school, let alone entered a college or university. But by his extraordinary persistence and self-teaching ability, he became a lawyer and was elected later as a senator. Consider sportsmen. Although Michael Jordan graduated from North Carolina University, it was not because of his college diploma that he won 6 NBA championships. His athletic talents, courage and the heart of a champion were the key to his success. As we see, it is creativeness, courage or persistence that determined a person’s success. 首先,大学教育确实有它的缺点。众所周知,大学毕业生和他们的同龄的高中毕业生相比缺 少实践经验。另外,大学生通常对他们的薪水和职位有不切实际的预期,因为他们在自己的 教育上投入了大量的时间和钱。一个最近的调查,在对数百名有大学文凭的求职者调差之后 发现,绝大多数的受访者期待的薪水比起只从高中毕业的那些人要“高出许多”。另一方面, 和大学教育相比,其他的因素对人们的成功起着同样的,甚至更大的作用。想想商人。比尔 盖茨在大学三年级的时候从哈佛大学退学,全身心投身微软,因为他认为真正重要的是他对 个人电脑的想法,而不是大学文凭。想想政治家。亚伯拉罕林肯没有上过任何学,更不用说 大学了。 但是他通过超凡的毅力和自学能力, 成为一名律师, 并被选为参议员。 想想运动员。 虽然迈克尔乔丹毕业于北卡罗莱纳大学, 但是他赢得六个 NBA 总冠军不是因为他的大学文凭。 他的体育天才、勇气和一颗渴望冠军的心是成功的关键。正如我们看到的,正是创造性、勇 气和坚持,决定了一个人成功。

30. Unhealthy eating habits have other contributory causes. First, the root cause of modern people’s love for fast-food is fast-paced modern life. For instance, employees usually have only 1 hour of lunch break, which only allows them to grab hamburgers at McDonald’s or order pizzas from Pizza Huts. Second, it must be admitted that fast-food usually tastes better than food cooked in a healthy way. The third important reason why people choose fast-food is that it usually costs less than organic food or fresh vegetables. Last but not least, culture and tradition also play a major role in the popularity of unhealthy eating habits. For instance, the Koreans’ love for salted vegetables, which increase the risks of cancer, has a history of hundreds of years. And the Chinese has the habit of eating youtiao, a fried breakfast, which has too much oil and leads to obesity. 不健康的饮食习惯的形成有着其他原因。首先,现代人钟情快餐的根本原因是快节奏的现代

生活。例如,员工通常只有一个小时的午休时间,这些时间也就只能让他们在麦当劳买个汉 堡包或者从必胜客定个披萨。其次,必须承认的是,快餐的味道经常比健康方式烹饪的食物 的味道更好。第三个重要原因是,人们选择快餐往往是它比有机食品或者新鲜蔬菜便宜。最 后,文化和传统也在不健康饮食习惯的流行上发挥了重要作用。例如,韩国人喜爱泡菜的习 惯已经有几百年的历史了,但泡菜会增加患癌症的风险。而中国人有着吃油条(一种炸制的 早餐)的习惯,而这种食品有太多油脂,会导致肥胖。

31. Admittedly, digital books will replace traditional books as the major information source in the future. Firstly, digital books are significantly cheaper than traditional paper-based books. Paper, printing and transportation all go into the costs of paper-based books. In contrast, digital books do not have these costs at all. For instance, the paper version of Harry Potter sells for 15 dollars while fans can download its digital version to their Kindles or i-pads at a significantly cheaper price. Secondly, digital books are more convenient to carry, search for information and store information. The school bags of Chinese and Korean students usually weight more than 10 kilograms, taking a toll on their physical health. But if all these paper books are converted into digital version, all they have to carry is laptops. And we all have the unpleasant experience of trying desperately to remember or find a quotation or a fact in a big book. But with a digital book, all we need to do is to type in a key word and the result will come up instantly. Thirdly, digital books are more eco-friendly. The production of traditional books causes vast areas of the world’s forests to be logged. Deforestation has two serious consequences: global warming and the desertification. 不得不承认的是,在将来,电子书籍会取代传统书籍成为主要的信息来源。首先,电子书籍 比传统纸质书籍便宜很多。纸张、印刷和运输都计入纸质书籍的成本中。相比之下,电子书 籍一点成本都没有。例如,哈利波特的纸质版本要卖到 15 美元,而粉丝们却能以一个相当 便宜的价格下载它的数字版到他们的 kindle 或者 ipad 上面。其次,电子书更便于携带、搜 索和储存信息。 中国和韩国学生的书包通常超过 10 公斤, 这正对他们的身体健康造成损害。 但是,如果所有这些纸质图书转换为电子版本,他们所携带的就是一个笔记本电脑。我们都 有这样令人不爽的经历:在一本很厚的书中拼命地试图想起或者找到一个引语或者一个事实。 但是有了电子书,我们所需要做的就是键入一个关键字,然后结果就会立即出现。第三,电 子书更环保。 传统图书的生产造成了世界森林大范围地被砍伐。 砍伐森林有两个严重的后果:

全球气候变暖和荒漠化。

32. Not all paper books will disappear from our lives in the future. First, many religious, for example, the Bible, play a unique role in billions of believers’ lives and these books will not be replaced by digital books. Can you imagine Presidents put hands on i-Pads to take their oaths in the inauguration ceremonies or priests, holding Kindles, declare couples “Man and Wife?” Second, antique books for collection have to be in the original paper form because that is where their value lies. Third, paper books for very young children will not disappear. It is because children are too young to use computers or digital readers properly. It is easy for them to damage the fragile screens. And if they use computers or digital readers at very young ages, their physical health might be affected adversely. They are more likely to suffer from myopia. 在将来,不是所有的纸质书籍都将从我们的生活中消失。首先,很多在亿万信徒的生活中起 着独特作用的宗教书籍不会消失,而且这些书籍将不能被电子书籍取代,比如《圣经》 。你 能想象总统们在就职典礼把手放在 iPad 上面宣誓或者牧师拿着一个 kindle 宣布情侣成为夫妻 吗?第二,以收藏为目的的古董书必须是原版的纸质书,因为那才是它的价值所在。第三, 提供给小孩子读的纸书不会消失。因为孩子们太小以至于不会用电脑或者恰当的运用电子阅 读器。他们容易毁坏易碎的屏幕。另外,如果他们在很小的年龄使用电子阅读器,他们的身 体健康可能受到不良影响,更容易患近视眼。

新概念文段 三册 Lesson4 The double life of Alfred Bloggs These days, people who do manual work often receive far more money than clerks who work in offices. People who work in offices are frequently referred to as' white collar workers' for the simple reason that they usually wear a collar and tie to go to work. Such is human nature, that a great many people are often willing to sacrifice higher pay for the privilege of becoming white collar workers. This can give rise to curious situations, as it did in the case of Alfred Bloggs who worked as a dustman for the Ellesmere Corporation. 如今, 从事体力劳动的人的收入一般要比坐办公室的人高出许多。 坐办公室的之所以常常被 称作“白领工人”,就是因为他们通常是穿着硬领白衬衫,系着领带去上班。许多人常常情愿 放弃较高的薪水以换取做白领工人的殊荣, 此乃人之常情。 而这常常会引起种种奇怪的现象, 在埃尔斯米尔公司当清洁工的艾尔弗雷德.布洛斯就是一个例子。 Lesson9 Flying cats 飞猫 Cats never fail to fascinate human beings. They can be friendly and affectionate towards humans, but they lead mysterious lives of their own as well. They never become submissive like dogs and horses. As a result, humans have learned to respect feline independence. Most cats remain suspicious of humans all their lives. One of the things that fascinates us most about cats is the popular belief that they have nine lives. Apparently, they is a good deal of truth in this idea. A cat’s ability to survive falls is based on fact. Recently the New York Animal Medical Centre made a study of 132 cats over a period of five months. All these cats had one experience in common: they had fallen off high buildings, yet only eight of them died from shock or injuries. Of course, New Yorkis the ideal place for such an interesting study, because there is no shortage of tall buildings. There are plenty of high-rise windowsills to fall from. One cat, Sabrina, fell 32 storeys, yet only suffered from a broken tooth. ‘Cats behave like well-trained paratroopers,’ a doctor said. It seems that the further cats fall, the less they are likely to injure themselves. In a long drop, they reach speeds of 60 miles an hour and more. At high speeds, falling cats have time to relax. They stretch out their legs like flying squirrel. This increases their air-resistance and reduces the shock of impact when they hit the ground. 猫总能引起人们的极大兴趣。它们可以对人友好,充满柔情。但是,它们又有自己神秘的生 活方式。它们从不像狗和马一样变得那么顺从。结果是人们已经学会尊重猫的独立性。在它 们的一生中,大多数猫都对人存有戒心。最使我们感兴趣的一件事情就是一种通俗的信念— 猫有九条命。显然,这种说法里面包含着许多真实性。猫在跌落时能够大难不死是有事实作 为依据的。 最近, 纽约动物医疗中心对 132 只猫进行了为期 5 个月的综合研究。 所有这些猫有一个共同 的经历:它们都曾从高层建筑上摔下来过,但只有其中的 8 只猫死于震荡或跌伤。当然,纽 约是进行这种有趣的试验的一个理想的地方, 因为那里根本不缺乏高楼大厦, 有的是高层的

窗槛从上往下坠落。有一只叫萨伯瑞的猫从 32 层楼上掉下来,但只摔断一颗牙。“猫就像训 练有素的跳伞队员,” 一位医生说。看起来,猫跌落的距离越长,它们就越不会伤害自己。 在一个长长的跌落过程中,它们可以达到每小时 60 里甚至更快的速度。在高速下落中,猫 有时间放松自己。它们伸展四肢,就像飞行中的松鼠一样。这样就加大了空气阻力,并减少 了它们着地时冲击力带来的震动。

Lesson12 Life on a desert island Most of us have formed an unrealistic picture of life on a desert island. We sometimes imagine a desert island to be a sort of paradise where the sun always shines. Life there is simple and good.Ripe fruit falls from the trees and you never have to work. The other side of the picture is quite the opposite. Life on a desert island is wretched. You either starve to death or live like Robinson Crusoe, waiting for a boat which never comes. Perhaps there is an element of truth in both these pictures, but few of us have had the opportunity to find out. 我们许多人对于荒岛生活有一种不切实际的想法。 我们有时想象荒岛是阳光终日普照的天堂。 在那里,生活简单又美好。成熟的水果从树上掉下来,人们根本无需劳动。另一种想法恰恰 相反,认为荒岛生活很可怕,要么饿死,要么像鲁滨逊那样,天天盼船来,却总没见船影。 也许,这两种都像都有可信之处。但很少有人能有机会去弄个究竟。

Lesson15 Fifty pence worth of trouble Children always appreciate small gifts of money. Father, of course, provides a regular supply of pocket-money, but uncles and aunts are always a source of extra income. With some children, small sums go a long way. If sixpences are not exchanged for sweets, they rattle for months inside money-boxes. Only very thrifty children manage to fill up a money-box. For most of them, sixpence is a small price to pay for a satisfying bar of chocolate. 孩子们总是喜欢得到一些零花钱。爸爸妈妈当然经常给孩子零花钱,但是,叔舅婶姨也是孩 子们额外收入来源。对于有些孩子来说,少量的钱可以花很长一段时间。如果 50 便士不拿 来换糖吃, 则可以放在储蓄罐里叮当响上好几月。 但是能把储蓄罐装满的只有屈指可数的几 个特别节俭的孩子。对大部分孩子来说,用 50 便士来买一大块好的巧克力,是算不了什么 的。 Lesson23 One man’s meat is another man’s poison People become quite illogical when they try to decide what can be eaten and what cannot be eaten. If you lived in the Mediterranean, for instance, you would consider octopus a great delicacy. You would not be able to understand why some people find it repulsive. On the other hand, your stomach would turn at the idea of frying potatoes in animal fat- the normally accepted practice in many northern countries. The sad truth is that most of us have been brought up to eat certain foods and we stick to them all our lives. 在决定什么能吃而什么不能吃的时候,人们往往变得不合情理。比如,如果你住在地中海地 区,你会把章鱼视作是美味佳肴,同时不能理解为什么有人一见章鱼就恶心。另一方面,你 一想到动物油炸土豆就会反胃, 但这在北方许多国家却是一种普通的烹任方法。 不无遗憾的 是,我们中的大部分人,生来就只吃某几种食品,而且一辈子都这样。

Lesson26 Wanted: a large biscuit tin No one can avoid being influenced by advertisements. Much as we may pride ourselves on our good taste, we are no longer free to choose the things we want, for advertising exerts a subtle influence on us. In their efforts to persuade us to buy this or that product, advertisers have made a close study of human nature and have classified all our little weaknesses. Advertisers discovered years ago that all of us love to get something for nothing. An advertisement which begins with the magic word FREE can rarely go wrong. These days, advertisers not only offer free samples but free cars, free houses, and free trips round the world as well. They devise hundreds of competitions which will enable us to win huge sums of money. Radio and television have made it possible for advertisers to capture the attention of millions of people in this way. 没有人能避免受广告的影响。 尽管我们可以自夸自己的鉴赏力如何敏锐, 但我们已经无法独 立自主地选购自己所需的东西了。 这是因为广告在我们身上施加着一种潜移默化的影响。 做 广告的人在力图劝说我们买下这种产品或那种产品之前, 已经仔细地研究了人的本性, 并把 人的弱点进行了分类。 做广告的人们多年前就发现我们大家都喜欢免费得到东西。 凡是用“免费”这个神奇的词开头 的广告很少会失败的。目前,做广告的人不仅提供免费样品,而且还提供免费汽车,免费住 房,免费周游世界。他们设计数以百计的竞赛,竞赛中有人可赢得巨额奖金。电台、电视使 做广告的人可以用这种手段吸引成百万人的注意力。

Lesson33 A day to remember We have all experienced days when everything goes wrong. A day may begin well enough, but suddenly everything seems to get out of control. What invariably happens is that a great number of things choose to go wrong at precisely the same moment. It is as if a single unimportant event set up a chain of reactions. Let us suppose that you are preparing a meal and keeping an eye on the baby at the same time. The telephone rings and this marks the prelude to an unforeseen series of catastrophes. While you are on the phone, the baby pulls the table-cloth off the table smashing half your best crockery and cutting himself in the process. You hang up hurriedly and attend to baby, crockery, etc. Meanwhile, the meal gets burnt. As if this were not enough to reduce you to tears, your husband arrives, unexpectedly bringing three guests to dinner. 我们大家都有过事事不顺心的日子。一天开始时,可能还不错,但突然间似乎一切都失去了 控制。情况经常是这样的,许许多多的事情都偏偏赶在同一时刻出问题,好像是一件无关紧 要的小事引起了一连串的连锁反应。假设你在做饭,同时又在照看孩子。这时电话铃响了。 它预示着一连串意想不到的灾难的来临。就在你接电话时,孩子把桌布从桌子上扯下来,将 家中最好的陶瓷餐具半数摔碎,同时也弄伤了他自己。你急急忙忙挂上电话,赶去照看孩子 和餐具。这时,饭又烧糊了。好像这一切还不足以使你急得掉泪,你的丈夫接着回来了,事 先没打招呼就带来 3 个客人吃饭。

Lesson40 Who’s who It has never been explained why university students seem to enjoy practical jokes more than anyone else. Students specialize in a particular type of practical joke: the hoax. Inviting the fire brigade to put out a non-existent fire is a crude form of deception which no self-respecting student would ever indulge in, Students often create amusing situations which are funny to everyone except the victims. 谁也弄不清为什么大学生好像比任何人都更喜欢恶作剧。 大学生擅长一种特殊的恶作剧—— 戏弄人。 请消防队来扑灭一场根本没有的大火是一种低级骗局, 有自尊心的大学生决不会去 做。 大学生们常常做的是制造一种可笑的局面, 使大家笑上一场, 当然受害者是笑不出来的。

Lesson41 Illusions of Pastoral peace The quiet life of the country has never appealed to me. City born and city bred, I have always regarded the country as something you look at through a train window, or something you occasionally visit during the weekend. Most of my friends live in the city, yet they always go into raptures at the mere mention of the country. Though they extol the virtues of the peaceful life, only one of them has ever gone to live in the country and he was back in town within six months. Evenhe still lives under the illusion that country life is somehow superior to town life. He is forever talking about the friendly people, the clean atmosphere, the closeness to nature and the gentle pace of living. Nothing can be compared, he maintains, with the first cockcrow, the twittering of birds at dawn, the sight of the rising sun glinting on the trees and pastures. This idyllic pastoral scene isonly part of the picture. My friend fails to mention the long and friendless winter evenings which are interrupted only by an occasional visit to the local cinema-virtually the only form of entertainment. He says nothing about the poor selection of goods in the shops, or about those unfortunate people who have to travel from the country to the city every day to get to work. Why people are prepared to tolerate a four-hour journey each day for the dubious privilege of living in the country is beyond my ken. They could be saved so much misery and expense if they chose to live in the city where they rightly belong. If you can do without the few pastoral pleasures of the country, you will find the city can provide you with the best that life can offer. You never have to travel miles to see your friends. They invariably live nearby and are always available for an informal chat or an evening's entertainment. Some of my acquaintances in the country come up to town once or twice a year to visit the theatre as a special treat. For them this is a major operation which involves considerable planning. As the play draws to its close, they wonder whether they will ever catch that last train home. The city dweller never experiences anxieties of this sort. The latest exhibitions, films, or plays are only a short bus ride away. Shopping, too, is always a pleasure. There is so much variety that you never have to make do with second best. Country people run wild when they go shopping in the city and stagger home loaded with as many of the necessities

of life as they can carry. Nor is the city without its moments of beauty. There is something comforting about the warm glow shed by advertisements on cold wet winter nights. Few things could be more impressive than the peace that descends on deserted city streets at week-ends when the thousands that travel to work everyday are tucked away in their homes in the country. It has always been a mystery to me why city dwellers, who appreciate all these things, obstinately pretend that they would prefer to live in the country. 宁静的乡村生活从来没有吸引过我。我生在城市,长在城市,总认为乡村是透过火车车窗看 到的那个样了,或偶尔周末去游玩一下景象。我的许多朋友都住在城市,但他们只要一提起 乡村,马上就会变得欣喜若狂。尽管他们都交口称赞宁静的乡村生活的种种优点,但其中只 有一个人真去农村住过,而且不足 6 个月就回来了。即使他也仍存有幻觉,好像乡村生活就 是比城市生活优越。他滔滔不绝地大谈友好的农民,洁净的空气,贴近大自然的环境和悠闲 的生活节奏。他坚持认为,凌晨雄鸡第一声啼叫,黎明时分小鸟吱喳欢叫,冉冉升起的朝阳 染红树木、牧场,此番美景无与伦比。但这种田园诗般的乡村风光仅仅是一个侧面。我的朋 友没有提到在电视机前度过的漫长寂寞的冬夜——电视是唯一的娱乐形式。 他也不说商店货 物品种单调, 以及那些每天不得不从乡下赶到城里工作的不幸的人们。 人们为什么情愿每天 在路上奔波 4 个小时去换取值得怀疑的乡间的优点, 我是无法理解的。 要是他们愿意住在本 来属于他们的城市,则可以让他们省去诸多不便与节约大量开支。 如果你愿舍弃乡下生活那一点点乐趣的话, 那么你会发出城市可以为你提供生活最美好的东 西。你去看朋友根本不用跋涉好几英里,因为他们都住在附近,你随时可以同他们聊天或在 晚上一起娱乐。我在乡村有一些熟人,他们每年进城来看一回或几回戏,并把此看作一种特 殊的享受。看戏在他们是件大事,需要精心计划。当戏快演完时,他们又为是否能赶上末班 火车回家而犯愁。这种焦虑,城里人是从未体验过的。坐公共汽车几站路,就可看到最新的 展览、电影、戏剧。买东西也是一种乐趣。物品种繁多,从来不必用二等品来凑合。乡里人 进城采购欣喜若狂,每次回家时都买足了外来商品,直到拿不动方才罢休,连走路都摇摇晃 晃的。城市也并非没有良辰美景。寒冷潮湿的冬夜里,广告灯箱发出的暖光,会给人某种安 慰。周末,当成千上万进城上班的人回到他们的乡间寓所之后,空旷的街市笼罩着一种宁静 气氛,没有什么能比此时的宁静更令人难忘了。城里人对这一切心里很明白,却偏要执拗地 装出他们喜欢住在乡村的样子,这对我来说一直是个谜。

ed and comfort People travelling long distances frequently have to decide whether they would prefer to go by land, sea, or air. Hardly anyone can positively enjoy sitting in a train for more than a few hours. Train compartments soon get cramped and stuffy. It is almost impossible to take your mind off the journey. Reading is only a partial solution, for the monotonous rhythm of the wheels clicking on the rails soon lulls you to sleep. During the day, sleep comes in snatches. At night, when you really wish to go to sleep, you rarely manage to do so. If you are lucky enough to get a couchette, you spend half the night staring at the small blue light in the ceiling, or fumbling to find your passport when you cross a frontier. Inevitably you arrive at your destination almost exhausted. Long car journeys are even less pleasant, for it is quite impossible even to read. On motorways you can, at least, travel fairly safely at high speeds, but more often than not, the greater part of

the journey is spent on narrow, bumpy roads which are crowded with traffic. By comparison, trips by sea offer a great variety of civilized comforts. You can stretch your legs on the spacious decks, play games, swim, meet interesting people and enjoy good food--always assuming, of course, that the sea is calm. If it is not, and you are likely to get sea-sick, no form of transport could be worse. Even if you travel in ideal weather, sea journeys take a long time. Relatively few people are prepared to sacrifice up to a third of their holidays for the pleasure of travelling on a ship. Aeroplanes have the reputation of being dangerous and even hardened travellers are intimidated by them. They also have the grave disadvantage of being the most expensive form of transport. But nothing can match them for speed and comfort. Travelling at a height of 30,000 feet, far above the clouds, and at over 500 miles an hour is an exhilarating experience. You do not have to deviseways of taking your mind off the journey, for an aeroplane gets you to your destination rapidly. For a few hours, you settle back in a deep armchair to enjoy the flight. The real escapist can watch a free film show and sip champagne on some services. But even when such refinements are not available, there is plenty to keep you occupied. An aeroplane offers you an unusual and breathtaking view of the world. You soar effortlessly over high mountains and deep valleys. You really see the shape of the land. If the landscape is hidden from view, you can enjoy the extraordinary sight of unbroken cloud plains that stretch out for miles before you, while the sun shines brilliantly in a clear sky. The journey is so smooth that there is nothing to prevent you from reading or sleeping. However you decide to spend your time, one thing is certain: you will arrive at your destination fresh and uncrumpled. You will not have to spend the next few days recovering from a long and arduous journey. 出远门的人常常需要决定是走旱路、水路,还是坐飞机。很少有人能够真正喜欢坐几个小 时以上的火车。车厢很快就变得拥挤、闷热,想摆脱开旅途的困扰是很难的。看书只能解决 部分问题。 车轮与铁轨间单调的嘎喳声很快就会送你进入梦乡。 白天是忽睡忽醒, 到了夜晚, 你真想睡了,却很难入睡。即使你走运弄到一个卧铺,夜间有一半时间你会盯着车顶那盏小 蓝灯而睡不着觉;要不然就为查票摸索你的车票。一旦抵达目的地,你总是疲惫不堪。乘汽 车作长途旅行则更加不舒服,因为连看书都几乎不可能。在公路上还好,你至少能以相当快 的速度安全地向前行。但旅行的大部分时间都花在路上,而且只有很少的服务设施,交通也 很拥挤。相比之下,坐船旅行或环游可以得到文明世界的各种享受。你可以在甲板上伸展四 肢、做游戏,还能也很见到各种有趣的人,能享用各种美味佳肴——当然,这一切只有在大 海风平浪静的情况下才有可能。如果大海肆虐起来,你就可能晕船,那种难受劲儿是任何一 种别的旅行的方式都不会带来的。即使风平浪静,坐船旅行也要占用很长时间。没有多少人 会为享受坐船旅行的乐趣而牺牲假期的时间。 飞机以危险而著称,连老资格的旅行者也怕飞机。飞机另一个缺点是昂贵。但就速度与舒适 而言,飞机是无与伦比的。腾云驾雾,在 30,000 英尺高空以 500 英里的时速旅行,这种 经历令人心旷神怡。你不必想办法去摆脱旅途的困扰,因为飞机会迅速地把你送到目的地。 几小时之内,你躺在扶手椅上,享受着旅途的欢乐。真正会享受的人还可以在某些航班上看 一场电影和喝香槟。即使没有这些消遣条件,也总是有事可做。飞机上,你可以观察世界上 非同寻常的奇妙的美景。你毫不费劲地飞越高山幽谷,你确能饱览大地的风貌。如果这种景 色被遮住了,你可以观赏一下展现在你面前的、一望数英里的、连绵不断的云海,同时阳光 灿烂,天空清澈明朗。旅途平稳,丝毫不妨碍你阅读或睡眠。不管你打算如何消磨时间,有

件事是可以肯定的,即当你抵达目的地时,你感到精神焕发,毫无倦意,用不着因为漫长的 旅途的辛苦而花几天时间休息来恢复精神。

Lesson45 The power of press In democratic countries, any efforts to restrict the freedom of the press are rightly condemned. However, this freedom can easily be abused. Stories about people often attract far more public attention than political events. Though we may enjoy reading about the lives of others, it is extremely doubtful whether we would equally enjoy reading about ourselves. Acting on the contention that facts are sacred, reporters can cause untold suffering to individuals by publishing details about their private lives. Newspapers exert such tremendous influence that they cannot only bring about major changes to the lives of ordinary people but can even overthrow a government. 在民主国家里,任何限制新闻自由的企图都理所当然地受到谴责。然而,这种自由很容易被 滥用。常人轶事往往比政治事件更能引起公众注意。我们都喜欢看关于别人生活的报道,但 是否同样喜欢看关于自己生活的报道,就很难说了。记者按事实至上的论点行事,发表有关 别人生活的细节,有时会给当事人造成极大的痛苦。新闻具有巨大的威力。它们不仅可以给 寻常人家的生活带来重大的变化,甚至还能推翻一个政府。

Lesson46 Do it yourself So great is our passion for doing things for ourselves, that we are becoming increasingly less dependent on specialized labor. No one can plead ignorance of a subject any longer, for there are countless do-it-yourself publications. Armed with the right tools and materials, newly-weds gaily embark on the task of decorating their own homes. Men of all ages spend hours of their leisure time installing their own fireplaces, laying-out their own gardens; building garages and making furniture. Some really keen enthusiasts go so far as to build their own record players and radio transmitters. Shops cater for the do-it-yourself craze not only by running special advisory services for novices, but by offering consumers bits and pieces which they can assemble at home. Such things provide an excellent outlet for pent-up creative energy, but unfortunately not all of us are born handymen. Wives tend to believe that their husbands are infinitely resourceful and versatile. Even husbands who can hardly drive a nail in straight are supposed to be born electricians, carpenters, plumbers and mechanics. When lights fuse, furniture gets rickety, pipes get clogged, or vacuum cleaners fail to operate, wives automatically assume that their husbands will somehow put things right. The worst thing about the do-it-yourself game is that sometimes husbands live under the delusion that they can do anything even when they have been repeatedly proved wrong. It is a question of pride as much as anything else.

现在我们自己动手做事的热情很高, 结果对于专业工人的依赖越来越少了。 由于出版了不计 其数的教人自己动手做事的书报杂志, 没有人再能说对某事一无所知。 新婚夫妇找来合适的 工具和材料, 喜气洋洋地开始布置新房。 特别是男人, 常利用空闲时间安装壁炉、 布置花园、 建造车库、制作家具。有些热衷于自己动手的人甚至自己组装电脑。为了满足自己动手热的 需要,商店不仅为初学者提供专门的咨询服务,而且为顾客准备了各种零件,供他们买回家 去安装。这些东西为人们潜在的创造力提供了一个绝妙的用武之地。但不幸的是,我们并非 人人都是能工巧匠。 妻子常常认为她们的丈夫无比聪明能干。 甚至那些连一枚钉子都钉不直的男人都被认为是天 生的电工、木匠、水管工和机械师。每当电灯保险丝烧断、家具榫头松动、管道堵塞、吸尘 器不动时,有些妻子认为丈夫总有办法。自己动手的例子中最糟糕的是,有时甚至是男人尽 管接连失败却还误以为自己什么都行,原因就是要面子。

Lesson47 Through the earth’s crust Satellites orbiting round the earth have provided scientists with a vast amount of information about conditions in outer space. By comparison, relatively little is known about the internal structure of the earth. It has proved easier to go up than to go down. The deepest hole ever to bebored on land went down 25,340 feet-- considerably less than the height of Mount Everest. Drilling a hole under the sea has proved to be even more difficult. The deepest hole bored under sea has been about 20,000 feet. Until recently, scientists have been unable to devise a drill which would be capable of cutting through hard rock at great depths. This problem has now been solved. Scientists have developed a method which sounds surprisingly simple. A new drill which is being tested at Leona Valley Ranch in Texas is driven by a turbine engine which is propelled by liquid mud pumped into it from the surface. As the diamond tip of the drill revolves, it is lubricated by mud. Scientists have been amazed to find that it can cut through the hardest rock with great ease. The drill has been designed to bore through the earth to a depth of 35,000 feet. It will enable scientists to obtain samples of the mysterious layer which lies immediately below the earth's crust. This layer is known as the MohorovicicDiscontinuity, but is commonly referred to as 'the Moho'. Before it is possible to drill this deep hole, scientists will have to overcome a number of problems. Geological tests will be carried out to find the point at which the earth's crust is thinnest. The three possible sites which are being considered are all at sea: two in the Atlantic Ocean and one in the Pacific. Once they have determined on a site, they will have to erect a drilling vessel which willnot be swept away by ocean currents. The vessel will consist of an immense platform which will rise to 70 feet above the water. It will be supported by six hollow columns which will descend to a depth of 60 feet below the ocean surface where they will be fixed to a huge float. A tall steel tower rising to a height of nearly 200 feet will rest on the platform. The drill will be stored in the towerand will have to be lowered through about 15,000 feet of water before operations can begin. Within the tower, there will be a laboratory, living accommodation and a helicopter landing station. Keeping the platform in position at sea will give rise to further problems. To do this, scientists will have to devise methods using radar and underwater television. If, during the

operations the drill has to be withdrawn, it must be possible to re-insert it. Great care will therefore have to be taken to keep the platform steady and make it strong enough to withstand hurricanes. If the project is successful, scientists will not only learn a great deal about the earth, but possibly about the nature of the universe itself. 污染就是我们为这个人口过密,过度工业化的星球所付出的代价。当我们开始考虑垃圾问 题时,我们只有 4 种对付垃圾的方法:倾倒、焚烧、把垃圾变成再生材料或试图少产生一些 垃圾。我们一直在试这 4 种方式,但是,我们在世界范围内仅产生的垃圾的量就有把我们覆 盖的危险。然而,垃圾只是我们这个星球的污染问题的一个方面。日益增长的对廉价食物的 需求导致了另一种形式的污染。工业化的农作方式生产出廉价的肉类制品—牛肉、猪肉和鸡 肉。使用杀虫剂和化肥生产出廉价的谷物和蔬菜。为了廉价食物我们付出代价已经太高了: 牛肉中的疯牛病,鸡肉和鸡蛋中的沙门氏菌,奶制品中的利斯特杆菌。如果你想放弃肉类而 变成一位素食者,那么你可以两者择一:或是选用价格昂贵、有机培植的蔬菜,或是当你认 为在享用新鲜色拉和新鲜蔬菜或饮用一杯无害的水的时候,实际上每次都不断吃进杀虫剂。 但是,还有一种更加隐蔽有害的污染,它专门影响城镇地区,侵袭我们的日常生活,那就是 噪音。防盗警报器在白天和黑夜的任何时候都会响起来,它的作用只是骚扰过路行人,而实 际上却帮助窃贼入室行窃。在街上,汽车的防盗警报不断对我们吼叫,这是人们极度烦燥的 一个原因,最近一个有关噪音的作用的调查(令人吃惊地)指出,夜间连续不断的狗叫声, 在一个从 1 级至 7 级刻度表上应列为最严重的噪间污染。 这个调查揭示了我们所不喜欢的大 量的噪间的来源:夏天呜呜作响的割草机,公寓楼里深夜聚会的喧哗声,大声吵闹的邻居, 各式各样的车辆,特别是穿越寂静的村庄的集装箱卡车,从头顶飞过的飞机和直升机,被带 到公共场所、音量开到最大的大功率收音机。新技术也为噪音作了它的贡献。许多人都反对 移动式电话,特别是在如饭店,公共交通车等公共场所使用移动电话。用移动电话大声交谈 干扰我们的思路, 破坏我们和朋友在一起轻声聊天所得到的乐趣。 这个有关噪音的污染调查 还揭示了一种出人意外而同时可能会引人意外而同时可能会引人发笑的老式噪音源。 它竟然 是鼾声。人类是这方面的罪魁祸首。调查指出,20%的 35 岁左右的男人打鼾;而到 60 岁这 个年龄段,这个数字上升到令人惊愕的 60%。与这些数字相比,只有 5% 的女性经常打鼾; 而其余则经常被与她们同睡、 像吹号似地打着呼噜的男人吵醒或弄得睡不着。 不管噪声来自 何方,有一点是肯定的:看来寂静已变成一种珍贵的回忆。 Lesson50 New Year Resolutions The New Year is a time for resolutions. Mentally, at least, most of us could compile formidable lists of ' do's' and' don'ts '. The same old favorites recur year in year out with monotonous regularity. We resolve to get up earlier each morning, eat less, find more time to play with the children, do a thousand and one jobs about the house, be nice to people we don't like, drive carefully, and take the dog for a walk every day. Past experience has taught us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment. If we remain inveterate smokers, it is only because we have so often experienced the frustration that results from failure. Most of us fail in our efforts at self-improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. We also make the fundamental error of announcing our resolutions to everybody so that we look even more foolish when we slip back into our bad old ways. Aware of these pitfalls, this year I attempted to keep my resolutions to myself. I limited myself to two modest ambitions:

to do physical exercises every morning and to read more of an evening. An all-night party on New Year's Eve, provided me with a good excuse for not carrying out either of these new resolutions on the first day of the year, but on the second, I applied myself assiduously to the task. 新年是下决心的时候, 至少在大多数人的心里会编排出一份“应做什么”和“不应做什么”的令 人生畏的单子。相同的决心以单调的规律年复一年地出现。我们决心每天早晨起得早些;吃 得少些;多花点时间与孩子们一起做游戏;做大量的家务;对不喜欢的人友善一些;小心驾 车; 每天都要带着狗散步; 等等。 以往的经验告诉我们有些事是办不到的。 如果我们烟瘾大, 戒不掉,那是因为屡戒屡败,失去信心。我们大多数人想自我完善却遭到失败,这是因为我 们的规划过于宏大,而又根本没有时间去实施。我们还犯有一个根本性的错误,即把我们的 决心向大家宣布。这样一旦滑回到那些老习惯上去,我们在别人的眼里会显得更加难堪。我 深知这些问题,于是,今年我对自己的计划要严加保密,只给自己定下两项适中的任务;每 天早上锻炼身体,每天晚上多看点书。新年除夕举办的一次通宵晚会,使我理直气壮地在新 年头一天免去了这两项任务。不过,新年第二天,我全力以赴地照着去做了。

Lesson54 Instinct or cleverness? We have been brought up to fear insects. We regard them as unnecessary creatures that do more harm than good. Man continually wages war on item, for they contaminate his food, carry diseases, or devour his crops. They sting or bite without provocation; they fly uninvited into our rooms on summer nights, or beat against our lighted windows. We live in dread not only of unpleasant insects like spiders or wasps, but of quite harmless ones like moths. Reading about them increases our understanding without dispelling our fears. Knowing that the industrious ant lives in a highly organized society does nothing to prevent us from being filled with revulsion when we find hordes of them crawling over a carefully prepared picnic lunch. No matter how much we like honey, or how much we have read about the uncanny sense of direction which bees possess, we have a horror of being stung. Most of our fears are unreasonable, but they are impossible to erase. At the same time, however, insects are strangely fascinating. We enjoy reading about them, especially when we find that, like the praying mantis, they lead perfectly horrible lives. We enjoy staring at them entranced as they go about their business, unaware (we hope) of our presence. Who has not stood in awe at the sight of a spider pouncing on a fly, or a column of ants triumphantly bearing home an enormous dead beetle? 我们自幼就在对昆虫的惧怕中长大。我们把昆虫当作害多益少的无用东西。人类不断同昆 虫斗争,因为昆虫弄脏我们的食物,传播疾病,吞噬庄稼。它们无缘无故地又叮又咬;夏天 的晚上,它们未经邀请便飞到我们房间里,或者对着露出亮光的窗户乱扑乱撞。我们在日常 生活中,不但憎恶如蜘蛛、黄蜂之类令人讨厌的昆虫,而且憎恶并无大害的飞蛾等。阅读有 关昆虫的书能增加我们对它们的了解, 却不能消除我们的恐惧的心理。 即使知道勤奋的蚂蚁 生活具有高度组织性的社会里, 当看到大群蚂蚁在我们精心准备的午间野餐上爬行时, 我们 也无法抑制对它们的反感。 不管我们多么爱吃蜂蜜, 或读过多少关于蜜蜂具有神秘的识别方 向的灵感的书, 我们仍然十分害怕被蜂蜇。 我们的恐惧大部分是没有道理的, 但去无法消除。 同时,不知为什么昆虫又是迷人的。我们喜欢看有关昆虫的书,尤其是当我们了解螳螂等过

着一种令人生畏的生活时,就更加爱读有关昆虫的书了。我们喜欢入迷地看它们做事,它们 不知道(但愿如此)我们就在它们身边。当看到蜘蛛扑向一只苍蝇时,一队蚂蚁抬着一只巨 大的死甲虫凯旋归时,谁能不感到敬畏呢?

Lesson59 Possession amassing and collecting People tend to amass possessions, some-times without being aware of doing so. Indeed they can have a delightful surprise when they find something useful which they did not know they owned. Those who never have to change house become indiscriminate collectors of what can only be described as clutter. They leave un- wanted objects in drawers, cupboards and attics for years, in the belief that they may one day need just those very things. As they grow old, people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons, lack of physical and mental energy, both of which are essential in turning out and throwing away, and sentiment. Things owned for a long time are full of associations with the past, perhaps with relatives who are dead, and so they gradually acquire a value beyond their true worth. Some things are collected deliberately in the home in an attempt to avoid waste. Among these I would list string and brown paper, kept by thrifty people when a parcel has been opened, to save buying these two requisites. Collecting small items can easily become a mania. I know someone who always cuts out from newspapers sketches of model clothes that she would like to buy, if she had the money. As she is not rich, the chances that she will ever be able to afford such purchases are remote; but she is never sufficiently strong-minded to be able to stop the practice. It is a harmless habit, but it litters up her desk to such an extent that every time she opens it, loose bits of paper fall out in every direction. Collecting as a serious hobby is quite different and has many advantages. It provides relaxation for leisure hours, as just looking at one's treasures is always a joy. One does not have to go outside for amusement, since the collection is housed at home. Whatever it consists of , stamps, records, first editions of books, china, glass, antique furniture, pictures, model cars, stuffed birds, toy animals, there is always something to do in connection with it, from finding the right place for the latest addition to verifying facts in reference books. This hobby educates one not only in the chosen subject, but also in general matters which have some bearing on it. There are also other benefits. One wants to meet like-minded collectors, to get advice, to compare notes, to exchange articles, to show off the latest find. So one's circle of friends grows. Soon the hobby leads to travel, perhaps to a meeting in another town, possibly a trip abroad in search of a rare specimen, for collectors are not confined to any one country. Over the years one may well become an authority on one's hobby and will very probably be asked to give informal talks to little gatherings and then, if successful, to larger audiences. In this way, self-confidence grows, first from mastering a subject, then from being able to talk about it. Collecting, by occupying spare time so constructively, makes a person contented, with no time for boredom. 人们喜欢收藏东西,有时并没有意识到自己在这样做。确实,一旦无意之中从自己的收藏品 中找到某件有用的东西时, 可以给人一种惊喜的感觉。 那些从来不必搬家的人们成了一种无

所无容的收藏家。他们专门收藏那些只能被称作杂货的东西。他们在抽屉里,碗柜中、阁楼 上堆放着一些不用的东西,一放就是好几年,相信总有一天需要的正好是那些东西。人们年 老之后也喜欢收藏东西,不过是出于两个不同的原因:一是体力,精力均告不佳,这二者是 清除无用的东西必不可少的因素;另一原因是感情因素。东西搁得时间久了,便会充满着与 过去岁月的联系, 比方说与死去的亲戚有关。 因此这些东西慢慢获得了一种超出它本身的价 值。 居家度日, 有目的地收藏某些东西是为了防止浪费。 这些东西中我想举出线绳和包装纸为例。 节俭的人们打开包裹后便把这两样必备的东西收藏起来。 省得日后去买。 收集小玩艺儿很容 易着迷。我认识一个人,她总喜欢从报纸上剪下流行服装的图样,等以后有钱时去买服装。 由于她并不富裕, 她买得起这些服装的可能性十分渺茫。 但她又缺乏足够坚强的意志把这一 收集活动停下来。这种习惯无害,只把写字台里堆得满满当当,以致每次打开抽屉总能带出 许多纸片四处飞扬。 作为一种严肃的业余爱好的收藏活动完全是另外一回事, 它具有许多益处。 它可以使人在闲 暇中得到休息,因为欣赏自己收藏的珍品总会充满了乐趣。人们不必走到户外去寻求娱乐, 因为收藏品都是存放在家中。不管收藏品是什么,邮票、唱片、头版书籍、瓷器、玻璃杯、 老式家具、绘画、模型汽车、鸟类标本,还是玩具动物,从为新增添的收藏品寻找摆放位置 到核对参考书中的事实,总归有事可做。这种爱好不仅能使人从选择的专题中受到教育,而 且也能从与之有关的一般事物中获得长进。除此之外,还有其他的益处。收藏者要会见情趣 相投的收藏者,以获取教益,交流经验、交换收藏品,炫耀自己的最新收藏。朋友的圈子就 这样不断扩大。用不了多久,有这种爱好的人便开始旅行,也许是去另一个城市参加会议, 也可能是出国寻找一件珍品, 因为收藏家是不分国籍的。 一人积了多年经验会成为自己这种 爱好的权威,很可能应邀在小型集会上作非正式的讲话。如果讲得好,可能向更多人发表演 说。这样,你自信心不断增强,先是因为掌握一门学问,接下来是因为能够就此发表见解。 收藏活动通过富有建设性地利用业余时间使人感到心满意足,不再有无聊之日。

Lesson60 The importance of Punctuality Punctuality is a necessary habit in all public affairs of a civilized society. Without it, nothing could ever be brought to a conclusion; everything would be in a state of chaos. Only in a sparselypopulated rural community is it possible to disregard it. In ordinary living, there can be some tolerance of unpunctuality. The intellectual, who is working on some abstruse problem, has everything coordinated and organized for the matter in hand. He is therefore forgiven, if late for a dinner party. But people are often reproached for unpunctuality when their only fault is cutting things fine. It is hard for energetic, quick-minded people to waste time, so they are often tempted to finish a job before setting out to keep an appointment. If no accidents occur on the way, like punctured tyres, diversions of traffic, sudden descent of fog, they will be on time. They are often more industrious, useful citizens than those who are never late. The over-punctual can be as much a trial to others as the unpunctual. The guest who arrives half an hour too soon is the greatest nuisance. Some friends of my family had this irritating habit. The only thing to do was ask them to come half an hour later than the other guests. Then they arrived just when we wanted them.

If you are catching a train, it is always better to be comfortably early than even a fraction of a minute too late. Although being early may mean wasting a little time, this will be less than if you miss the train and have to wait an hour or more for the next one; and you avoid the frustration of arriving at the very moment when the train is drawing out of the station and being unable to get on it. An even harder situation is to be on the platform in good time for a train and still to see it go off without you. Such an experience befell a certain young girl the first time she was travelling alone. 准时是文明社会中进行一切社交活动时必须养成的习惯。 不准时将一事无成, 事事都会陷入 混乱不堪的境地。只有在人口稀少的农村,才可以忽视准时的习惯。在日常生活中人们可以 容忍一定程度的不准时。一个专心钻研某个复杂问题的知识分子,为了搞好手头的研究,要 把一切都协调一致,组织周密。因此,他要是赴宴迟到了会得到谅解。但有些人不准时常常 因为掐钟点所致,他们常常受到责备,精力充沛、头脑敏捷的人极不愿意浪费时间,因此他 们常想做完一件事后再去赴约。要是路上没有发生如爆胎、改道、突然起雾等意外事故,他 们决不会迟到。他们与那些从不迟到的人相比,常常是更勤奋有用的公民。早到的人同迟到 的人一样令人讨厌。 客人提前半小时到达是令人讨厌的。 我家有几个朋友就有这有令人恼火 的习惯。唯一的办法就是请他们比别的客人晚来半小时。这样,他们可以恰好在我们要求的 时间到达。 如果赶火车,早到总比晚到好,哪怕早到一会儿也好。虽然早到可能意味着浪费一点时间, 但这比误了火车等上一个多小时坐下班车浪费的时间要少, 而且可以避免那种正好在火车驶 出站时赶到车站,因上不去车而感到的沮丧。更难堪的情况是虽然及时赶到站台上,却眼睁 睁地看着那趟火车启动,把你抛下。一个小姑娘第一次单独出门就碰到了这种情况。


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