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高中英语语法之倒装


高中英语语法之倒装
倒装是一种语法手段,用于表示一定的句子结构或强调某一句子成分。倒 装句有两种:完全倒装和部分倒装。

1. 完全倒装
1) 完全倒装即把整个谓语放到主语之前(是整个谓语动词,而非助动词) 。 例如:In came the teacher and the class began. (老师走了进来,然后开始上课。 ) 2)

there 引出的完全倒装句: 除了最常见的 there be 句型以外, there 还可以接 appear, exist, lie, remain, seem to be, stand 等,一般都译成"有"的含义,构成完全倒装句。 例如:There appeared to be a man in black in the distance.(远处有个穿黑色衣服的 人。 ) 3) 由地点和时间副词引出的完全倒装句: 以地点副词 here, there 和时间副词 now, then 开头,后面的动词是 be, come, exist, fall, follow, go, lie, remain, seem, stand 等,而主语又是名词时,构成完全倒装句。Up climbed the boy when his mother came. 4)表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词且主语是名 词时使用完全倒装 Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机肚底下窜出一枚导弹。 Out he rushed. 注意: 1) 在 here, there 引出的倒装句中, 当主语是普通名词时用完全倒装句, 但当主语 是代词时,就要用部分倒装句。 例:Here comes the postman!(邮递员终于来了!注意实意谓语动词位于主语之 前。 ) Here we are.(我们到了。注意系动词位于主语代词之后。 ) 2) 当主语是代词,谓语是系动词,表语是说明性的词、词组和定语从句时,可 以使用完全倒装句,起强调作用。 例:Lucky is he who has been enrolled into a famous university.(他真幸运,被一所 名牌大学录取了。 ) Typical for China is the crosstalk show where a pair of comedians entertains the audience with word play. 中国典型的是相声表演, ( 两个喜剧演员通过文字游戏逗 乐观众)

2. 部分倒装
1) 部分倒装即只把谓语的一部分(如助动词、情态动词等)放到主语前,或把 句子的强调成分提前。 Nor did he let the disease stop him from living the kind of life he has always dreamt about(疾病没有使他放弃过上梦想中的生活)

2) 以否定词开头的句子要求部分倒装。 注意下列句子中助动词或情态动词提前、 甚至补充助动词的用法: 例:Not until yesterday did little John change his mind.(小约翰直到昨 天才改变了 主意。 ) In no country other than Britain, it had been said, can one experience four seasons in the course of a single day.(据说除了英国世界上没有哪个国家能让人在一天中感 受到四季变化) 3) 以否定副词开头并加状语放在句首的句子要求部分倒装。这些否定副词有 barely, hardly, little, seldom, scarcely…… when, never, no sooner…… than, rarely, no more, not nearly, not only 等以及 only。 Only in the country can you learn the “true English”. 4) 一些如 scarcely……when, no sooner ……than, hardly……when 引导的主从复合 句主句要求使用过去完成式。 注意:在部分倒装句中,只有助动词、情态动词或连系动词 to be 可以置于主语 之前,其它部分都要置于主语之后。 5)此外,一些介词+no+名词的结构中需要用部分倒装,这些结构包括 at no time; by no means; by no manner of means; for no reason; in no case; in/under no circumstances; in no sense; in no way; on no account; on no consideration; at no point 例如 Under no circumstances should you lend Paul any money. 注意: a) 如果含有从句时,只要求主句倒装: 例:Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake. (只有当他已经说出那个字后才意识到自己犯了个大错误。 ) b) 如果上述否定副词出现在强调句型中的前半部分,不用倒装: 例: It was not until he went abroad that he know the truth of the fact.(直到他出国 以后才了解到事实真相。 ) c) 如果 hardly, scarcely 后面接的是 any, ever, at all 时,意义类似 almost no/ not/ ne ver(几乎不、从不) ,则无须倒装。 例:Hardly any people having been invited went there.(几乎没有什么受到邀请的 人去那里了。 ) 6) 由 no matter how, however 和 how 引导的状语从句要求部分倒装,因为形容词 或副词通常紧跟在这三个引导词后面,然后才是主语和谓语,形成形式上的部分 倒装句: 例:I know nothing about this river, neither how long, how wide nor how deep it is. (我一点也不了解这条河,不知道它有多长,多宽或多深。 ) 7) 由 as 引导的部分倒装句: a) 当 as 作为比较意义时,即用于 as + adj./ adv. + as 结构中时,如果把第一个 as 省略掉,就形成部分倒装句。

例:Cautious as the rest of her family (was) , she didn't seem willing to g ive an immediate reply to my question.(正如她家里人一样谨慎小心,她似乎不愿意立即 回答我的问题。 ) She charged the stairs, quick as a rabbit (ran).(她跑上楼去,跑得象兔子那么快! ) b) 当 as 引导让步状语时,和 although, though 一样,当用作“尽管”之义时,可以 用于部分倒装句。 Hard as he worked, he did not pass the exam.(虽然他很用功,但他还是没及格) c) 表示原因时,为了强调起见,也可以倒装。 例:Tired as he was, we decided not to disturb him.(因为他太累了,我们决定不打 扰他。 ) d) 等于 so 时,意义是“也,也是” 例:She worked hard, so/ as did her husband. (她工作很努力,她的丈夫工作也很 努力。 )

3. 其它情况的倒装句
1) so, neither, nor 除了构成上述倒装句以外,还可以取代上文出现的名词、形容 词甚至整句话,构成完全倒装句或部分倒装句。但这两种倒装的意义不同。 a) 当 so 表示“也,相同,那样”时,通常表示对前一句肯定句的赞同、一致内容, 要求使用完全倒装句: He promised to finish my homework, so did I. b) so /such ……that 句型可以构成部分倒装句, 表示强调 so /such 和 that 之间的部 分: 例:So selfish was she that everyone avoid talking with her. c)也存在 such+be+主语的情况用以强调, 例如 Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man of great achievements.(阿尔伯特?爱因 斯坦是一个有伟大成就的普通人) d) neither 和 nor 共有 4 种倒装形式,其含义分别为: 1) 完全倒装时:表示"也不",和上文 a)用法正好相反,表示对前一句否定句的 赞同或一致内容。 例:You don't know what to do now, neither/ nor do I .(你不知道现在该做什么, 我也不知道。 ) 2) 和其它否定副词连用,表示"也(不)",也要求用完全倒装句: 例:The besieged enemy could not advance, nor / neither retreat could they .(被包围 的敌人既不能进,也不能退。 ) 注意: 若把这句话改成: "The besieged enemy could neither advance nor retreat. 被 ( 包围的敌人既不能进,也不能退。 )"就不必倒装。 She never laughed, nor did she ever lose her temper. 3) 用在肯定句里,构成一般否定倒装: 例:All that is true, nor must we forget it.(那全都是真的,我们可不能忘记。 )

4) 部分倒装,有承上启下作用,表示同意和赞同: 例:A: I couldn't do anything for her.(我帮不了她。 ) B: Nor you could, but you might have got somebody to help her.(你是不能帮她,但 你本可以找人帮她的。 ) 2) 在进行比较的句子里,如果主语不是代词时,可以倒装: 例:America consumes more energy than did our country.(美国消耗的能源比我们 国家多。 ) 3)在某些表示祝愿的句型中要求倒装。如 May you happy. 4)在文学作品中常出现倒装,有些是由于语法习惯,有些是为了简单的修辞, 如 Not even one cloud will I bring away(不带走一片云彩). 注:如果 only 后面的词组不是状语,则不用倒装. Only Wang Ling knows this . 如果直接引语后注明引语是什么人说的,而且主语是名词时,用倒装结构;主语 是代词时,一般不用倒装。 " Let' go ," said the man .

练习 1. Not until I began to work _____ how much time I had wasted. A. didn’t I realize B. did I realize C. I didn’t realize D. I realize 2. —Where is Kate? —Look,_______, she is at the school gate. A. there she is B. there is she C. here you are D. here it is 3. Which of the following sentences is correct? A. In the teacher came B. In did come the teach er C. In did the teacher come D. In came the teacher 4. Out _____, with a stick in his hand. A. did he rush B. rushed he C. he rushed D. he did rush 5. _______, he is honest. . As he is poor B. Poor is he C. Poor as he is D. Poor as is he 6. ________, he knows a lot of things. A. A child as he is B. Child as he is C. A child as is he D. Child as is he 7. _____, you can’t lift yourself up. A. Even you’re strong B. Strong as you are

C. How strong you are D. In spite you’re strong 8. So carelessly ________that he almost killed himself. A. he drives B. he drove C. does he drive D. did he drive 9. Early in the day ____the news _____the enemy were gone. A. come; that B. came; that C. comes; that D. came; what 10. Only when you realize the importance of foreign languages_____ them well. A. you can learn B. can you learn C. you learned D. did you learn 11. Only after liberation _____ to be treated as human beings. A. did they begin B. they had begun C. they did begin D. had they begun 12. Not only ____ to stay at home, but he was also forbidden to see his friends. A. he was forcing B. he was forced C. was he forcing D. was he forc ed 13. Not until his father was out of prison____ to school. A. can John go B. John can go C. could John go D. John could go 14. Never before _____ seen such a stupid man. A. am I B. was I C. have I D. shall I 15. Rarely ____such a silly thing. A. have I heard of B. I have heard of C. am I heard of D. had I heard of 16. Little _____ about his own health though he was very ill. A. he cared B. did he care C. does he care D. he cares 17. Only when _____ in the afternoon _____ able to leave. A. the match was over; they were B. was the match over; were they C. was the match over; they were D. the match was over; were they 18. Hardly ____ down ____ he stepped in. A. had I sat; than B. I had sat; when C. had I sat; then D. had I sat; when 19. No sooner _____asleep than she heard a knock at the door. A. she had fallen B. had she fallen C. she had fell D. had she fell 20. She did not see Smith. ________. A. Neither did I B. Nor didn’t I C. Neither I did D. So didn’t I 21. In fr ont of the farmhouse ______. A. lay a peasant boy B. laid a peasant boy C. a peasant lay D. did a peasant boy lie

22. —You ought to have given them some advice. —_____, but who cared what I said ? A. So ought you B. So I ought C. So did you D. So I did 23. —It was hot yesterday. —_____. A. It was so. B. So was it. C. So it was. D. So it did 24. No longer _____ to be monitor of the class. A. is he fit B. he is fit C. he fit D. fit be 25. —You like football very much. —________. A. So do IB. So I do C. I do too D. It is the same with me 26. Only by practicing a few hours every day___ be able to master the language. A. you can B. can you C. you will D. will you 27. Hardly _____ the bus stop ___ the bus arrived. A. we had got to; when B. we had got to; then C. had we got to; than D. had we got to; when 28. —Where is your brother? —There ______. A. he is coming B. he comes C. comes he D. does he come 29. _____ earlier you would have met him. A. If you came B. If you did come C. Did you come D. Had you come 30. Not only ____ polluted but ____crowded. A. was the city; were the street B. the city was; were the street C. was the city; the streets were D. the city was; the streets were 31. She is a teacher and works at the college. _______. A. So is Li Ming B. So does Li Ming C. So is it with Li Ming D. So it is with Li Ming 32. Now ___ Tom’s turn to rec ite the text. A. there is B. is going C. has come D. comes 33. Hearing the cat coming, off_____. A. fled all the mice B. away fled the mice C. all the mice fled away D. fleeing all the mice 34. _______ reading and speaking English every day, he would speak it well enough

now. A. Had he practiced B. Did he practice C. Should he practice D. Were he to practice 35. Nearby _____ in which they had spent their summer vacation. A. was two houses B. two houses were C. were two houses D. are two houses 36. Not only a writer but also ______ here. A. an actor was wanted B. was an actor wanted C. an actor were wanted D. were an actor wanted 37. So tired ____ after a whole day’s heavy work that I ____ stand on my feet. A. was I; could hardly B. was I felt; could hardly C. was I; couldn’t hardly D. I was; hardly couldn’t 38. Only in this way_____expect to get over so many difficulties. A. we are sure to B. can we C. that we can D. that can we 39. After that we never saw her again, nor ________ from her. A. did we hear B. we heard C. has we heard D. we have heard 40. Look,________. A. here the bus comes B. here is the bus coning C. here comes the bus D. here the bus is coming 41. —Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother? —I don’t know, _____. A. nor don’t I care B. nor do I care C. I don’t care neither D. I don’t care also 42. You can’t imagine ______ when they received these nice Christmas presents. A. how they were excited B. how excited they were C. how excited were they D. they were how excited 43. Not until all the fish died in the river _____ how serious the pollution was. A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized C. the villagers did realized D. didn’t the villagers realize 44. Little _____ about his own safety, though he was in great danger himself. A. does he care B. did he care C. he cares D. he cared 45. —David has made great progress recently. —_______, and _______. A. So he has; so you have B. So he has; so have you C. So has he; so have D. So has he; so you have

46. —It was careless of you to have left your clothes outside all night. ______. A. So did I B. So I did C. So were you D. So did you 47. Not a single song ________ at yesterday’s party. A. she sang B. sang she C. did she sing D. she did sing

—My God!

48. _____ the people have become masters of their own country that science can really serve the people. A. Only the n B. It is only then

C. Only when D. It is only when 49. Not only _______ difficult to understand, but it was too long. A. it was B. it made C. did it make D. was it 50. Only when the rain stopped _____ again. A. the match started B. does the match start C. did the match start D. the match had started 51. ______ had I finished my translation when the class was over. A. Never B. No sooner C. Hardly D. How 52. In _______ and the lesson began. A. he came B. came he C. he comes D. comes he 53. On the wall ______ two large pictures. A. hangs B. hang C. hanged D. are hangi ng 54. Such ______ the results of the experiments. A. is B. was C. are D. as be 55. —They have done a good job. —________. A. So they have done B. So they have C. So have they D. So is it 56. ______ he realized it was too late to return home. A. No sooner it grew dark than B. Hardly did it grow dark when C. It was not until dark that D. It was until dark that 57. _____, Mother will wait for him to have dinner together. A. However late is he B. However he is late C. However is he late D. However late he is 58. _____ hot is the sun that we cannot go out at present.

A. Very B. Too C. So D. Such 答案: 1-10 CADCC BBDBB DDBDC 31-40 DDAAC AABAB 11-20 ADCCA BDDBA 21-30 ADCAB

41-50 BBABB BCDDC

51-58 CABCB CDC


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