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Unit1 A land of diversity基础知识 新人教版选修8


Unit 1

A land of diversity——多元化的社会

重点单词 1.means n. [C]方法;手段(单复数同形) (1)means 作为一个单复数同形的名词,常与主谓一致结合起来进行考查。要注意,means 作主语时,前有 every, each, one 等修饰语时,谓语动词用单数;前有 several, some

, many, few, all 等修饰语时,谓语动词用复数。 means n.手段;方法; mean v.意思是;打算 by all means 当然可以,一定,务必 by means of 依靠 by no means 绝不,一点也不 by this means =in this way 用这种方法 means of travel /transportation 交通方式
【易错提示】 (1)当 means 作主语且有 every, each, one 等词修饰时, 谓语动 词用单数;有 some, several, many, few 等词修饰时,谓语动词用 复数。 (2)by no means 放到句首时,句子用部分倒装语序。 By no means shall I do it.我绝不会干那事。 Every possible means has been tried, but none worked. =All means have been tried, but none worked. 各种办法都尝试了,但没有一种奏效。

way method means approach

多与 in 连用,构成 in...way 多与 with 连用,构成 with...method 多与 by 连用,构成 by...means 多与 to 连用,构成 approach to...

用 means, method, way 和 approach 的适当形式填空。 (1)He thought of an efficient________to the study of English idioms. (2)He solved the problem by this________. (3)She tried to find a________to solve the puzzle. (4)We have no better ideas, so let's try your________. (5) By no means________such a good opportunity! A.shall I miss B.I shall miss C.miss I 2.majority n. 大多数;大半

D.I miss

点拨:(1)单独用作主语,谓语动词用单数、复数均可。 The majority was/were against the plan. 大多数人反对这个计划。 (2)单独用作主语,如果后面的表语是复数,那么谓语动词也用复数。 The majority who attended the meeting yesterday are students. 昨天参加会议的大多数是学生。
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?复数名词+复数谓语动词 ? (3)The majority of? ? ?不可数名词+单数谓语动词 The majority of the damage is easy to repair. 这次的损失大部分容易补救。 完成句子 (1).__________________(大多数学生觉得) quite hard to live on the amount of money they get. (2). Eventually he gave in to the wish of the________. A.most B.majority C.average D.common (3). Less than twenty percent of the employees in their company are women. That is to say, women are in the________. A.majority B.activity C.probability D.minority 3.occur vi. 发现;出现(occurred, occurred)

? ? sth. comes to sb. 某人突然想起…… It occurs to sb. thatclause? It strikes sb. thatclause ? ? It hits sb. thatclause
sth. occurs to sb. sth. strikes sb. 以上结构中主语不能是人,而是想到什么事情或 it 作形式主语。 ①The idea occurred to him in a dream. 这个主意是他在梦中想到的。 ②It didn't occur to her to ask for help. 她没想到请别人帮忙。 ③It occurred to her that she might adopt a homeless child. 她突然想她可能会收养一个无家可归的孩子。 ④Her name just did not occur to my memory. 我就是想不起她的名字。 [运用提升] (1). It suddenly________to me that we could use the computer to do the job. A.struck B.occurred C.happened D.saw (2). —Why are you so late? —I was in half the way when it________to me that I had left my notebook home,so I had to fetch it. A.occurred B.hit C.happened D.reminded (3). It had never________to him that he might be falling in love with her. A.taken place B.occurred C.come about D.broken out 重点短语: 1.take in 包括;吸收;理解;欺骗 take in 包括;吸收 take after 长相或举止像(某个长辈) take apart 拆开;拆散 take as 看作,认为 take away 拿走;使停止,使离开;使消失;减去 take back 承认说错了(话),收回(诺言,话语) take down 拿下,取下;记下来 take in 接待(某人)留宿;欺瞒,欺骗;充分理解,掌握 take to 喜欢上 take off 起飞;请假;开始有成就;开始受欢迎;开始成名 take over 接管 take on 开始雇用;开始具有或呈现??面貌;承担(责任等) take up 开始花时间从事(某项活动);对??产生兴趣;开始学习(某课程),选修;占用了(时间或空间) take a chance 碰碰运气,冒??风险 take...by surprise 奇袭;出其不意做某事,使惊奇 (1)These teenagers don't know much of the world yet; that's why they were so easily________. A.taken in B.taken up C.taken on D.taken off (2)These teenagers don't know much of the world yet; that's why they were so easily________. A.taken in B.taken up C.taken on D.taken off 2.keep up 坚持;维持;沿袭(风俗、传统等) keep up with 不落后;跟得上 keep away (使)远离 keep back 隐瞒(某事);扣,留下 keep down 控制,抑制(某事物) keep on(doing) 继续(干) keep out(of) 阻止进入;不卷入,避开
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(1)—How long do you think the terrible snow will________? —Sorry, I didn't listen to the weather forecast. A.keep out B.keep on C.keep up D.keep away (2)You must________a good state of mind. A.keep up B.take up C.make up D.set up 3.apply for 申请;请示得到
? ?apply to 适用于 ?1? ? ?apply...to...把……应用到…… ?

(2)apply oneself to(doing)sth.专注于;专心做某事 ①You can’t apply for the job until you have satisfied certain conditions. 在符合一定的条件之后你才能申请这一份工作。 ②We had to apply to the government for financial help. 我们只好向政府申请财务援助。 ③What you said doesn’t apply to me. 你所说的并不适合我。 ④He applied himself to learning English. 他专心学英语。 (1)To travel to the United States,you must first apply________the American Embassy ________ your visa. A.for;to B.to;for C.for;for D.to;to (2) .He would like to________the position as a salesman advertised in the newspaper yesterday. A.wait for B.stand for C.search for D.apply for 4. a great many 很多,许多(修饰可数名词) ①t seems that a great /good many of them are out of work now. 似乎他们中的许多人现在失业了。 ②A great many of us don’t like speaking English in class. 我们当中许多人不喜欢在课堂上讲英语。 a good/great many 后接复数名词,但 a good/great many 后接 of 时,必须加限定词,如 these/those/the/one’s 等, 然后再加名词复数。 (1).________the houses were knocked down in the earthquake. A.A great many B.The number of C.A great many of D.A great deal of 5. make a life 习惯于新的生活方式、工作等 归纳拓展 come to life 变得更有趣;变得活跃 live/lead a...life 过着??生活 come back to life 苏醒过来,恢复生机 bring...back to life 使??苏醒过来 make/start a new life 开始新生活 The match finally came_to_life in the second half.比赛在下半场终于精彩起来。 完成句子 The young men in the rural areas have to leave for big cities to________________(谋生). 6.mark out 划线标出??的界限 There's a fascinating drive marked out for tourists. 有一种专为旅游者选定的迷人的驾车旅游活动。 A volleyball court had been marked out on the grass. 排球场已经在草坪上画出来了。 mark down 记下;减价;给低分 mark up 涨价;提高分数 mark off 用界限隔开 mark...with 用……在某物上做标记 be marked with 标有……的标志 练习: (1)We must________the tennis court ready for the match these days. A.flow out B.come out C.mark out D.point out (2)A volleyball court had been________________(标出??界线)on the grass. 重点句型: 1.That is why today over 40% of Californians speak Spanish as a first or second language. 这就是今天有超过 40%的加利福尼亚人把西班牙语作为第一或第二语言的原因。 句中的 why 引导的为表语从句,注意以下句式区别:
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(1)That's why... 那就是为什么??(why 从句表示结果) (2)That's because... 那是因为??(because 从句表示原因) (3)The reason why...is/was that...??的原因是??(表语从句常用 that 引导,而不用 because) ①Tom came late for the meeting.That was because he was ill. 汤姆开会迟到了,那是他病了。 ②Tom was ill.That was why he came late for the meeting. 汤姆病了,那就是他开会迟到的原因。 ③The reason why Tom came late for the meeting was that he was ill. 汤姆开会迟到的原因是他病了。 [运用提升] (1)The reason why I didn't go to France was________a new job. A.because I got B.because of getting C.I got D.that I got (2)—Have you heard the news that he was admitted into Beijing University? —Yes,that’s________he worked so hard all the time,so his efforts paid off. A.why B.because C.how D.what (3)Is this the reason________she explained in the report for her success in the job? A.what B.that C.how D.why 2.However,it_is_likely_that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago. 然而,土著美国人有可能在一万五千年前就在加州生活着。 【点津】 本句中 it 为形式主语,真正的主语为 that 从句。 It is likely that...??是可能的,此句型可转化为:sb./sth.be likely to do sth.某人/物可能做某事。 ①She’s very likely to ring me tonight. =It’s very likely that she will ring me tonight. 她今晚很可能给我打电话。 ②It is likely that the weather will be fine. =The weather is_likely_to_be_fine. 天气可能会很晴朗。 possible,probable,likely 在搭配上的区别: ①It is possible/probable/likely that 从句 ②It is possible for sb.to do sth. ③Sb./Sth.is likely to do sth. 练习: (1)Look, dark clouds are gathering. It's ________to rain soon. A.probable B.possible C.likely D.perhaps (2)Studies show that people are more________to suffer from back problems if they always sit before computer screens for long hours. A.likely B.possible C.probable D.sure I.单词拼写 1.It was________(显然的)that the successful launch of ShenzhouⅧ drew the world's attention. 2.The________(大多数)of people interviewed preferred TV to radio. 3.The________(改革) of teaching methods helps to the improvement of teaching quality. 4.As many as 200,000 head of________(牛)are raised in this area, which are likely to lead to the damage of the environment. 5.Many________(申请人)applied for the wellpaid job, but none of them were accepted by the company. 6.A high fever________(表明)that a person's body is fighting disease. 7.The old man________(滑倒) on the icy road and broke his leg. 8.He is happy that he was________(选举) monitor at the class meeting yesterday. 9.She had looked everywhere for her children but they were________(到处都无) to be found, which made her very worried. 10.What does it cost to________(租) a car for a week? II.词义辨析 1.Testing is still the usual________by which students' progress is measured. A.way B.method C.manner D.means 2.As we can see, in the nursing profession, women are in the ________.
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A.majority B.nationality C.identity D.possession 3.What________of babies die of this disease in African countries every year? A.percentage B.amount C.number D.quantity 4.As the wages were low, there were few________for the job. A.enterprises B.applicants C.purchases D.profits 5.I saw in the paper that another earthquake had________in Sichuan, causing many deaths. A.slipped B.reacted C.occurred D.occupied 6.The bell________the end of the class rang, interrupting our heated discussion. A.inserting B.indicating C.governing D.reflecting 7.It was________from her face that she was really upset.Better leave her alone. A.racial B.abundant C.flexible D.apparent 8.Having been given such a good chance, how could she let it________away? A.drill B.click C.scan D.slip 9.He earned his living by________himself out to whoever needed his services. A.dragging B.adapting C.hiring D.banning 10.She________her key into the lock, turned it but the lock wouldn't open. A.inserted B.adopting C.stressing D.abusing

1.:(1)approach (2)means (3)way (4)method A [解析]by no means 置于句首,句子采用部分倒装。 2. 答案:(1). The majority of students find it (2).[答案]B (3). 答案:D in the minority “占少数” 。 3. (1)答案:B (2) 答案:A (3) [答案]B [解析]It occurred to sb. that 某人突然想起。 重点短语 1. (1)[答案]A (2)答案:A 2.(1)答案:C (2) [答案]A 3. (1)答案:B 解析: (2)解析:选 D。 4. 解析: 名词前有 the,these,those 及 my,your 等物主代词时,a great many 后要加 of。答案: C 5. make a life 6.(1)[答案]C [解析]mark out 标出……的界限。 (2)marked out 重点句型 1.(1)答案:D 2)答案:B 解析: (3)答案:B 解析: 2. (1)[答案]C [解析]It's likely to rain 很可能要下雨。 (2)答案: A I.单词拼写 1.apparent 2.majority 3.reform 4.cattle 5.applicants 6.indicates 7.slipped 8.elected 9.nowhere 10.hire II.词义辨析 1.[答案]D [解析]means 办法。way 方法;method 方法;manner 行为,礼貌。by the means 用……办法。 2.[答案]A [解析]in the majority 占大多数。 3.[答案]A [解析]percentage 比例,比率。amount 量;number 数字;quantity 数量。 4.[答案]B [解析]applicant 申请人。enterprise 事业;purchase 购买;profit 利润。 5.[答案]C [解析]occur 发生。slip 滑动;react 反应;occupy 占用。 6.[答案]B [解析]indicate 预示着。insert 插入;govern 统治;reflect 反映。 7.[答案]D [解析]apparent 明显的。racial 种族的;abundant 丰富的;flexible 灵活的。 8.[答案]D [解析]slip 滑动。drill 操练;click 敲击;scan 扫描。 9.[答案]C [解析]hire 雇用。drag 拖;adapt 使适应;ban 禁止。 10.[答案]A [解析]insert 插入。adopt 采纳,收养;stress 强调;abuse 滥用。
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