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语法填空专项指导 2


语篇填空题专项指导
一. 题型特点 Ⅰ考点分析 1. 根据句子结构确定词性
词类 虚词 实词 动词 名词 介词 形容词 说明 冠词 副词 连词 代词 关系代词 关系副词

语法填空题主要考察词类: 句子基本结构

Adv, 主 n/prop

谓 v

adv (prep) art adj

宾 n/prop

, conj 句子 (,)引导词+句子 ,非谓语动词

2. 根据语法知识,确定词性和词形 Ⅱ语法填空题型分为两类
词性 动词 名词 形容词/副词 介词 冠词 连词 代词 引导词 单复数 比较级 最高级 各个介词与动词或名词的搭配 不定冠词 a/an 与定冠词 the 的区别 状语从句间的逻辑关系 充当不同句子成分的不同代词 定语从句 名词性从句的用法 考查重点 谓语的时态、语态、单复数; 非谓语的三种形式

一类是给出提示词的; 一类是纯空格的题。

1.提示词:
结合语法填空题的特点,给出提示词的题目一般要考查的考点为:动词时态、语态、 动词的单复数、非谓语动词、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级、及同源词转化等。 答案可能是一个单词、两个单词或两个以上单词。

2. 纯空格题: 答案只有一个词
1) 语法词 所谓的语法词和语境之间关系不是很大, 一般通过语法结构就可以答题。 语法词包括以下几类: 第 1 类:介词 ; 第 2 类: 并列连词(and, so , but , or); 定语从句的关系词; 名词性从句的连接词; 状语从句的从属连词 (although /though , till/until 出错较多) ; 疑问代词疑

问副词等 第 3 类:先行 it (形式主语、形式宾语)、虚义 it 及存在句中的引词 there; 第 4 类:强调结构中的 that, who; 一些固定结构;倒装结构的功能词 2)语境词 主要是通过上下文才能填出来的词,主要包括: 第 1 类:冠词 a(an) the 第 2 类:代词 1) 不定代词:some, any , no 以及它们的合成词,one ,none ,all ,every ,each, other , another , either , neither , both , half ,many , much , little , few 等 2) 人称代词 3) 形容词性物主代词 4) 反身代词 5) 指代词

二、解题思路
做语法填空题时, 可以用一种由大及小的思路去 (其根据是此题的特点---语境与语法 相结合)思考答案。也就是说,可以从“篇章,句子,词汇”三个层面去思考。 1.通读全文,把握语篇 通读全文的目的是把握好文章的大意,为下一步“填空”做好“语义”上的准备,因 为“语义”决定了空白处应填一个什么意思的词语并采用什么样的语法形式。 大忌:不要读一句就填一个答案,仅仅看空格前后局部的结构,迅速作答。这似乎加 快了答题的速度,但事实上会使你欲速则不达。 2. 结合语境,依据句法、词法知识填空。 基本了解文章大意后,就可以动手填空了。分析句子结构与空格、边读边填,遇到一 时想出来的答案,不要用太多时间停留在此题上,先跳过去,做后面的题,待填完其他空 格后,再回过头来细细推敲此空的语义,填入最佳单词。 3.验证复查。 将所有答案填入空格,并把整篇文章从头至尾读一遍,看其在逻辑、语法结构、搭 配方面是否无误。

三、解题技巧 Ⅰ.提示词 (1) 给出动词填空的解题技巧。
首先,判断要填的动词是谓语动词还是非谓语动词。然后按照以下两点进行思考:

技巧一:若句中没有别的谓语动词,或者虽然已有谓语动词,但需填的动词 与之是并列关系时,所给动词就是谓语动词;若是谓语动词,就要 考虑时态和语态。
1. If I _________ (elect) as vice president of our English club, I __________ (organize) all kinds of activities to enrich our school life. 2. That was definitely not an attractive idea so I politely declined her invitation, ______ (close) my book and walked away. 3. In Logan, three people ______ (take)to a hospital, while others were treated at a local

clinic. 4. Their personal safety could not ______ (guarantee) 5. Up to now, the smog has occurred many times, which ________(do) great harm to our daily life. 6. Every now and then, a lot of flights __________(delay) because of low visibility . 7. They suggested that we _________(take) some warm clothes.

技巧二:若句中已有谓语动词,又不是并列谓语时,所给动词就是非谓语动 词。若是非谓语动词就要确定用-ing 形式、-ed 形式,还是用不定 式形式。确定的方法主要有:
1) 作主语或宾语,通常用—ing 形式表示习惯或一般情况,用不定式表示具体的情况。 如: 1. ?but it is not enough only ____________(memorize) rules from a grammar book. 2. ______ (speak) out your inner feeling won’t make you feel ashamed, on the contrary? 2 )作目的状语或者在形容词后的作状语,一般用不定式。如: 1. ______________ (complete) the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. 2. Some people say that oldest children, who are smart and strong-willed, are very likely ____________ (succeed). 3 )作伴随状语,常用分词,与逻辑主语是主动关系,用现在分词,是被动关系,用过 去分词。如: 1. He saw the stone, ___________ (say) to himself: “The night will be very dark.” 2. The headmaster went into the lab, ________(follow) by the foreign guests. 4) 不论非谓语动词在句中作何种成分,若判断需要用分词,与逻辑主语是主动关系用 —ing 形式,是被动关系用—ed 形式。 巩固练习: 1. ____________ (avoid) such troubles, it is your responsibility to know the rules before your flight takes off for / towards your destination. 2 . I got on the bus and found a seat near the back, and then I noticed a man ________ (sit) at the front. 3. A free hotline __________ (offer) help to teenagers was opened in Guangzhou Province recently. 4. ________ (give) another chance to attend the college entrance examination,I will spare no efforts to study all the subjects well. 5. __________ ( live) a better life, we should take a series of measures. 6. He went out, ________(wear) a mask in hazy weather. 7. ____________ (realize) the great harm _____(cause) by the smog, I went to work with the public transportation . 8. We should plant more trees ________( absorb) and clean the ________(pollute) air. 9. Only in this way can we save ourselves from ______________ (harm) by smog.

(2)词类转换题的解题技巧
根据该词在句子所作句子成分确定用哪种形式。具体方法有:

技巧一:作主语、在及物动词或介词后作宾语,用名词形式。如:
1. When China’s ancient scientific and technological ____________ (achieve) are mentioned, the nation will generally refer to the Four Great Inventions. 2. These people have made great ____________ (contribute) to China with their work. 3. If everyone is aware of the importance of environmental ____________(protect), we will regain a fresh, clean and bright world soon. 4. We can make a great ________(contribute) to our earth by making a few small changes. 5. ?instructors expect students to be familiar with ___________ (inform) in the reading? 6. She stood and looked at me with great ____________(astonish ) 7.The mother is worried that the kid is too young to handle two kinds of different ______________.(pronounce)

技巧二:在形容词性物主代词后,或者在“冠词(+形容词)”后,用名词形式。 如:
1. ?the remains date from this period because of their ___________ (similar) to those found elsewhere. 2. With the large numbers of students, the ____________ (operate) of the system does involve a certain amount of activity. 3. ?there was a lot of information about the city’s well-known tourist ___________ (attract)?

技巧三:作表语、定语或补语,通常用形容词形式。如:
1. When the entire society starts making these changes, we will create a ___________ (beautify) world. 2. We should play an _________(act) part in dealing with the hazy weather. 3. The youngster immediately felt ________ (silence) as tears flew down from his big blue eyes. 4. In a ________ (danger) part of the sea off the coast of New Zealand, they learnt to? 5. Teachers must try their best to make most of their students ________ (interest) in the subject 6. My grandfather is so ____________(forget) that you’ll have to remind him of his medicine every time.

技巧四:修饰动词、形容词、副词,或整个句子,作状语,用副词形式。如:
1. He must be _________(mental) disabled. 2. There must be something _________ (serious) wrong with our society. 3.Singles are flocking(涌向) to the Internet __________ (main) because their busy lifestyles leave them little time? 4. ___________(similar) , God wants to test the evolution of two men’s intelligence . 5. But such a small thing couldn’t ___________(possible) destroy a village.

6. As the communication between China and Britain is becoming 61 (increasing) frequent, the differences between them have caused a heated discussion in the past few years.

技巧五:括号中所给词有可能是要求词义转换,词类不一定要变,主要是考查 具有与词根意义相反的派生词,需根据句子意思及前后逻辑关系,在 词根前加 un—, im—等,在词根后加—less 等。如:
1. People certainly have a variety of reasons for going back to school but one important thing to know is, no knowledge is ________ (use). 2. Your mistake caused a lot of ________ (necessary) work in the office. 3. _____________ (fortunate) , not having celebrate his 80th birthday, the old man passed away. 4. You’re not good at some school subjects or it is ___________ (possible ) for you to become a writer.

技巧六:若是形容词或副词,有可能是考查其比较等级。如:
1. The other frog went on jumping as hard as he could?He jumped even __________ (hard) and finally made himself out. 2. And I’m sure it would be _______(close) to your work than your present apartment . 3. We’ve got some beautiful fresh fish—straight off the boat this morning ! Have a look at this salmon. You won’t find a _________(fresh) piece of fish in town ! 4. The more practice you do , the __________(good ) your English will become. 5. I think English is one of ________________ (important ) subjects in middle school. 6. This kind of food must be ____ __________ ( delicious )than that one. 7. Beihai park is one of ________ ____ (beautiful ) parks in Beijing. 8. Who’s _______ _(careful), Tom, Jim or Kate? 9. That is _______ _(easy) of all.

Ⅱ.纯空格题的解题技巧。
首先,分析句子结构,确定填哪类词;根据句子意思确定填什么词或根据两句间的 逻辑关系,确定用什么样的关联词。具体有以下六种技巧:

技巧一:缺主语或宾语,一定是填代词或名词(代词考的更多 ,名词侧重固定 搭配) 。
1. Well, I am going to the Museum of Natural History next weekend. Will you join ____? 2. Recently the government is really paying _______to environmental issues. 3. —Would you like tea or coffee? —______, thank you. I've just had some water. 4.Tom told me that he needed a chair and that soon he found ________. 5. They adapted __________to the new environment quickly. 6. to tell the ______(true), I’m not really interested in going there. 7. You know I love being a doctor, and I wouldn’t give 65 up! 8. The couple looked really like the thieves. Maybe I should call the police. Just then, I saw ______ say goodbye to each other.

9. In a word, they quite enjoyed __________there.

技巧 2:名词前若没有限定词(冠词,形容词性物主代词,不定代词等) ,很 可能要填限定词。
1. We are glad to have Mr Henry Stone with us, _________ famous writer in this country. 2. I still work for same hospital. 3. It is said that a short-tempered man in the Song Dynasty (960—1279) was very anxious to help ______rice crop grow up quickly. 4. If it is your birthday, you don’t need to pay a cent. Just blow out the candles and open the gifts. That makes the birthday special day.

技巧 3:根据固定搭配填介词
1. who should have the honor of receiving me _____ a guest in their house. 2. They are angry________ changes. 3. My fish is ________ the best quality. 4. You never got ________trouble. 5. But it all worked out _______ the end. 6. God is well pleased _______ him and rewards him a lot. 7. It sounds _______ a good idea. 8. The only reason a man would sell______ a lower price would be because that he was desperate for money. 9. He is ______charge of the company. 10. ______ addition, the staff of the hotels were _________ (help) and friendly.

技巧 4:若两句之间没有连词,也没有分号或句号,一定是填并列连词,连接 词,引导词, 关系词 ,从属连词等
1. When I was old enough, I asked ________ I could go diving, so I could take a ________ (close) look at all the amazing things ______ (live) underwater. 2. It was the best time of my life. It was also tough, _______ I made it and became a college graduate. 3. I joined a group of teenagers _________help scientists with their research. 4. It has been almost ten years _______ we graduated. 5. A man who really knows how to learn will always be successful, _________ when he has to do something new, he will not only be able to do it well himself, he will also be able to teach others ______ to do it in the best way. 6. ?all I saw was this beautiful girl, whose smile just melted me ______almost instantly gave me a completely new sense of what life is all about. 7. I wanted to see as much of the city as possible in the two days ______I was to return to Guangzhou. 8. He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, ______he felt very happy? 9. My sister worked there last summer ___ (make) beds and cleaning bath rooms. She didn’t like it, but she insisted as ___ as she could earn quite a lot of money.

10. As ________ as he graduated, he went to America for a job.

技巧 5:若结构较完整, 空格后的谓语动词是原形, 特别是与上下文的时态不一 致时, 很可能是填情态动词或表示强调或倒装的助动词(do, does, did 等)。
1. What is acceptable in one country __________ be considered extremely rude in another. 2. Mankind __________be responsible for changing the environment in terrible ways. 3. He had no time or energy to play with his children or talk with his wife, but he ______ bring home a regular salary. 4. The couple looked really like the thieves. Maybe I ________ call the police.

技巧 6: 由特殊的句式结构来判断空格应填的词。 这些特殊句式有: 强调句式、 倒 装 句 、 it 用 作 形 式 主 语 或 形 式 宾 语 、 so/such…that… 句 型 和 more…than…等。
1)由 it is?that?强调结构形式,判断填 it 还是 that。如: 1. ?and ___40___was only after I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn’t eat MSG (味精)! 2. It was last year_______ you taught me how to drive. 3. It is when people work together ________success is achieved. 2)由倒装句式判断,是填构成倒装的条件的 only, so, neither, nor, never, hardly, seldom, not, until, had 等,还是填 do, does, did 等。如: ______ with hard work can you expect to get pay rise. 3)由 it 作形式主语或形式宾语的句式判断,空格处是否填 it。如: 1. ?as _____took them just three minutes to steal paintings by two world-famous artists? 2. Dating sites also make ______easy to avoid someone whom you are not interested in. 3. This made _________difficult for me to get enough exercise. 4)so /such?that?句型。如: 1. This made the goat so jealous ______it began plotting against (谋划对付) the donkey. 2. I arranged everything so well_________ it was like opening a mini birthday party. 5)more?than? (与其说??不如说??,比??更??)句型。如: Cynthia’s story shows vividly that people remember more how much a manager cares ______ how much he pays. The man is more brave _______ clever.

技巧 7:注意否定意义
1. Nothing,_____a car,no suggestion of headlights, but there I sat,________(wait) the light to change,the only human being for at least a mile in any direction. 2. When she died, the mayor of New York said the city would not be what it is today _______ her support. 3. There just_ _____ (be) any computers when I was young,

实战演练

(一)
W: Hello, Mr.Allen. I’m Anna Green from the Sports Weekly. May I ask you a few questions? M: Yes, Miss Green. Go ahead. W: Mr. Allen, How long have you been into fitness? Not just as a competitor as a whole? M: I① ________(begin)competing in June 2007. But I have been into fitness my whole life since my father is a bodybuilder and my mother has her own② ________(health)food store. W: OK. What do you think is the most important quality in a person? M: The way they treat their family. You can always tell about a person by③ ________they treat their own blood. W: And what do you consider is your ④ ________(good)feature? M: I would have to say ....my hair. W: Next question. What are your thoughts on the current⑤ ________(judge)standards in bodybuilding? M: It is hard being a competitor because the judges’ standards vary ⑥ ________show to show and judge to judge. At times you don’t know ⑦ ________the judges will be looking for. W: And what are your thoughts on⑧ ________state of women’s bodybuilding today? M: I think it’s too bad that women’s bodybuilding is looked ⑨ ________upon. People do not realize the pain and hard work ⑩ ________takes to do what they do. (二) In the past, when a person started working, ① ________work would usually be his lifetime pursuit. But now, ② ________people stay at a same working unit for a whole life. Nowadays, people don’t hesitate ③ ________(change)their jobs if they are not satisfied ④ ________the present one. Reasons are various. Some people jump from a national company to a multinational company for the high salary and opportunities of international travel. Some want to jump from a local company into a state-owned enterprise for free⑤ ________ (medicine) insurance and better childcare facilities.⑥________may want to work in a private company for the chance of quick promotion and bigger responsibilities. ⑦ ________the reasons are, new opportunities, new experiences and new friend circles are all⑧ ________(benefit)to the person who changes jobs. As for the ⑨ ________(employ), a new person may bring new ideas and skills to the company. Even though he former employer seems ⑩ ________(lose)a talent, he will be benefited in he same way by a newcomer. So on the whole, changing jobs is a win-win pattern.

(三)

W:Excuse me, sir, 1.______ I'm 2.______(write) a report on what people prefer to do on holiday. Do you mind 3.______ I ask you a few questions? M:No,not at all. Please go ahead. W:How 4.______ do you go on holiday? M:I generally have two weeks' holiday a year. W:And what do you prefer to do when you are 5.______ holiday? M:Well, I don't usually visit my family. We live quite 6.______(close) and I can see them any time. 7.______ I do like to visit museums,especially if there's a special exhibition on. I don't like to stay at home, though my parents do. Instead, I prefer 8.______(get) away from the city and just enjoy the peace of the country. You know,just sit under a tree,listen to the birds in the morning,or maybe go walking over the hills. W:Have you ever travelled abroad? M: No, I haven't. It's 9.______ expensive for me. But my wife loves to visit the coast, so if the weather's good we often go swimming in the sea, or just lie on the beach and enjoy the sun. W:OK. Well,thank you very much 10.______ your time. M:You're welcome. (四) Hi. I’m Adam with the news’ headlines. It’s Thursday, 23rd of April. To start with, it’s the 1 (four) day of our inquiry. And today we’ll talk about 2 makes you most afraid. We spoke to a thousand students 3 across the UK. And school violence came up top. On the other hand, one in five of you feel 4 (safe) on the streets. 5 top stories. Parents of schools in Glasgow are re-acting against the plans to shut down 25 primary schools and nurseries. This afternoon, some parents moved into the schools. Others gather on the 6 (roof) of the buildings. The city government says _ 7 (close) the schools will save &300,000,000. A final 8 (decide) is expected later. Litter pickers in Manchester are taking the day off. It’s part of a plan to encourage people to clean up and not to drop rubbish. The city government will still be collecting litter that’s been put in public dustbins, though. In sport. Last night, Liverpool 9 (beat) Barcelona 3-1. It will play AC Milan in the European Cup final, 10 is to be held in Moscow on May 28th.

(五)

A. Do you have any plan for the coming holiday? B.I haven’t decided yet. Most probably I’ll travel ___1___ my family, if the weather is good. A. You can go to the travel agent to see what’s on offer. I hear that a five-day visit ___2___ Singapore only costs four thousand RMB. B. That’s a good idea. But when it comes to ___3___(decide) where to go, my husband and I always have ___4____ ideas. He prefers something more ____5_____(energy), like sightseeing. But I like a relaxed trip, such as lying on a beach and being lazy. A. Maybe you can make an agreement: split the holiday, and give half to him and half to you. B. Thank you ___6__ your advice. Are you going away over the holiday? A. No. I’d rather stay at home, watching TV ___7__ reading novels. My work is quite demanding and involves a lot of traveling.___8___during holidays, staying at home and doing nothing is the best relaxation for me. B. But don’t you think seven days at home is ___9__ boring? A. My friends ____10__ come, and we will do something interesting together. Besides, have to set aside two days to visit my grandmother. So I think I’ll have a good time during the holiday. (六) Dragon Boat Festival, often known as Tuen Ng Festival or Duan Wu Festival, is a traditional Chinese festival 1.______ (hold)on the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese calendar. It is also known 2.______ the Double Fifth. It has since been celebrated, in various ways, in other parts of East Asia, most notably Korea as well. The exact origins of Duan Wu are 3.______ (clear), but one traditional view holds that the festival memorializes the Chinese poet Qu Yuan of the Warring States Period. He committed suicide 4.______ drowning himself in a river because he was disgusted by the corruption of the Chu government. The local people, 5.______ (know) him to be a good man, decided to throw food into the river 6.______ (feed) the fishes to prevent them from eating Qu's body. 7.______ also sat on dragon boats, and tried to scare the fishes away by the thundering sound of drums aboard the boat and 8.______ fierce-looking dragon-head in the front of the boat. In the early years of the Chinese Republic, Duan Wu was also celebrated as "Poets' Day", due to Qu Yuan's status as China's first poet of 9.______ (person) renown. Today, people eat zongzi (the food originally intended to feed the fishes) and race dragon boats in memory of Qu's dramatic 10.______ (die).

1. Answers: ① began ② health ③ how④ best⑤ judging⑥ from⑦ what⑧ the⑨ down⑩ it

2. Answers: ① the ② few ③ to change ④ with ⑤ medical ⑥ Others ⑦ Whatever ⑧ beneficial ⑨ employers ⑩ to have lost 3. Answer: 1.but; 2.writing; 9.too; 10.for 5. Other 6. roofs 7. closing 8. decision 3.if; 4.often; 5.on; 6.close; 7.But; 8.to get;

4. 1. fourth 2. what 3. from 4. unsafe 9. beat 10. which

5. Answer: 1. with 2. to 3. deciding 4. different 5. energetic 6. for 7. or 8. So 9. too 10. will 6. Answers: 1. held 2. as 3. unclear 4. by 5. knowing 6. to feed 7. They 8. the 9. personal 10. death


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