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2013高考英语考前30天语法精讲精练:名词、数词、冠词


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2013 高考英语语法最后 30 天精讲精练 名词、数词、冠词 一、名词 1、在句子里使用名词应注意的问题: 名词的数:单数、复数和不可数; 名词的格:通格和属格 (?s ) 名词的限定:特指、泛指、数量和习惯用法,即名词前加冠词或 其它限定词, 例如: some,

many , this, my 等 2、名词的数和单位词: 1)复型名词 + 复数动词 The trousers are too big for me. Please show me the smaller pair. 备用词: shoes, stockings, glasses, socks NOTICE: 2)复型名词 + 单数动词 A. The news on TV is seldom satisfying. A pair of glasses costs quite a lot.

备用词:mathematics, physics, politics, means, works, the United States B. Twenty miles is a long way to walk. 备用词: five pounds, two feet, six weeks 3) 集合名词 + 复数名词 The police have surrounded the building.

Cattle are selling for record price (创记录). 备用词: the enemy, (the) people NOTICE: 表示由若干人组成的集合体的单数词常可作复数用, 但若把这个集合体看作整体就用作单数: My family are wonderful. They do all they can for me. The family which now consists of four members at most is

smaller than it used to be. 4)不可数名词作可数的情况 A. 部分不可数名词可以有下列情况 a (an) +
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adj. + n.
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It looks like rain. a heavy rain

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a thirsty for knowledge(求知欲) He has a good knowledge of politics.

备用词: snow, breakfast, wine, oil, education B.口语特例(特定场合) A (One) beer, please. Two teas and four coffees, please. 5)既是可数又是不可数的名词 I broke a glass this morning. (杯子) Glass is made from sand. (玻璃)

备用词: paper / a paper, light(光) / a light(灯); ice(冰) / an ice (冰激凌), chicken(鸡肉) / a chicken (雏鸡) 6) 单位词 A.个数 a piece of information (furniture, advice…) B. 以形状表示个数 a grain of rice, a flight of stairs C. 容量 a box of matches, a cup of tea D. 计量 a metre of cloth, a ton of coal E.其它 a (new) set of tools (wires, teeth, rules)

3、名词的格: 1)’ s 的用法 A . 与时间有关的名词 a night’s sleep NOTICE: B. 和 else 连用 book can this be?
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ten minutes’ walk two hours?walk

a two-hour walk =

A. Who else?s

B. Whose else
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C. Who?s else D. Whose else?s

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(A)

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C. ‘s 修饰的词,如果前面提到,可省略 This is Jack?s book, not Tom?s. This book is Jack?s not Tom?s. D. 表示店、铺、家、诊所等, ‘s 后面的名词省略 at the Green?s (house), at the doctor?s (office)

2) OF 结构表示所有关系 A. 无生命的名词用 of the price of the success B. 有生命的名词被一个短语或从句修饰而表示所有关系时用 of Can?t you look at the book of the boy behind you?

3)双重所有格 ?s 与 of 结构并用,此时 of 结构所修饰的名词前通常有 a, an, two, some, that 等 Miss Smith is a friend of Mary?s mother?s. that brother of the girl

4)名词 + 名词 (名词用作形容词) A. 单数名词+名词 a shoe (flower) shop ticket office

NOTICE: the tailor?s (shop) B. 复数名词 + 名词 sports meet clothes shop women pilots

二、数词

1、数词在使用时应注意的问题: ? ? ? 易错数词: 年月日及介词 计算用词
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? 和数字相关的词

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2、综合 1) 数字表达: 123,856,709

one hundred and twenty-three million, eight hundred and fifty-six thousand, seven hundred and nine 2) 年月日 in the morning; on the morning of September 1;

in September; in 1988; on September 1 (on the first of September)

3、计算 + Six and five is (are) eleven.

Six hundred plus forty is (equals) six hundred and forty. - Four from seven is (leaves) three. Six hundred minus one hundred equals five hundred. X 16 x 11 = 176 Sixteen times eleven is (makes) one hundred and seventy-six. ÷ 9 ÷3 = 3 Nine divided by three equals three.

4、dozen, score A. three dozen eggs; three dozen of these eggs; dozens of eggs B. three score years; a (three) score of people; scores of times

5、小数,分数,百分比引导的短语作主语时的主谓一致问题. 分数和百分数引导的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数应根据分数和百分数后面的名词来确定.如果 是可数名词的复数,其谓语动词用复数形式;如果是不可数名词或单数可数名词其谓语动词用单数形 式. More than 40 percent of the students wear glasses. 70 percent od the fund(资金) was supplied by the Government.

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6、“一个半...”的表达法. one pound and a half ,one and a half years

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三、冠词

1、冠词应注意的问题 ? ? 习惯用法 同一名词前不同名词的比较

2、不定冠词 1) 成对的名词(此类名词间常有一种自然的联系) a knife and fork 2) a most + n. “非常“ 3) a (an) 与 one 之区别 A. B. 数字对比用 one 对比 A knife is no good. One knife is no good. C. 通用 a (one) million, It was one coffee we ordered, not two. (刀子不行) (一把刀子不行) This is a most beautiful country.

a (one) quarter twice every three years

4) a (an) 与 every 之比较: 5) 惯用法 A.

three times a year;

What a surprise ! quite a nice day

What a lovely dress ! rather a good idea

such a funny expression B. too cold a day so strange a person How lovely a dress! as good a map as

3、定冠词 1)普通名词组成的专有名词 the Great Wall the Summer Palace the Pacific (Ocean)

2)江河、海洋、山脉、群岛、海峡、海湾 3)the + adj. (-ing; -ed) A. 指一类人,谓语用复数
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The old are being taken good care of. B. 指一类事,谓语用单数

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The beautiful is not always the same as the good. 4)用在 radio, piano, telephone, 方位、次序、自然现象(rain)、身体 部位前 He hates the telephone.

5)被定语从句、介词短语、副词短语、不定式短语等修饰的名词前 The boy who you are looking for (in blue, there, standing there, dressed in blue ) is a student.

4、零冠词 1)街道、广场、节假日、季节、月份、星期、棋类、球类等 National Day 2)职位充当补语、同位语时 He was elected headmaster of the school. 3)成对出现的成语 arm in arm (手挽手), side by side(肩并肩), from door to door, hand in hand (手牵手), day and night, from morning till night, face to face, young and old, from beginning to end Nanjing Road

5、冠词比较 1) go to school (hospital, church); in prison (强调用途) go to the school, visit the prison (强调建筑物本身) (以说话时间为准)

2) I?ll go there next Friday.

In 1989, he was 28, and the next year, he was 29. (以所给时间为准) 3) by air (plane, boat…) in a spaceship ( on the bike, on the bus) (泛指) (特指)

4) Open the window to let in fresh air. The air in the room is not fresh. 5) be at table 6) a cup of coffee This is a very good coffee.
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be at the table Two coffees, please. I like white coffee.

The coffee on the table is Tom?s.
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7) Mr. White is waiting to see you.

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A Mr. White is waiting to see you.

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The Mr. White you are looking for is waiting to see you. 8) A horse is a useful animal. Horses are useful animals. 9) the best season of the year the best time of year The horse is a useful animal.

EXERCISES 1 (单选)

1. ---I?d like

information about the management of your hotel, please. word with the manager. He might be helpful. C. some, some D. an, a .

---Well, you could have A. some, a

B. an, some

2. If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask them to have a A. message 3. He dropped the B. coffee?s cup 4. There are only twelve B. women doctors 5. ---How many A. stomaches 6. The B. letter and broke it. C. cup for coffee in the hospital. C. women doctor does a cow have? B. stomach C. stomachs C. sentence D. notice

A. cup of coffee D. coffee cup A. woman doctors D. woman doctor ---Four. D.stomachines . (AADBCA) D.roofs, leafs

of the building are covered with lots of B.rooves, leafs engine. C. horse powers

A. roofs, leaves 7.That was a fifty B. horses power

C. roof, leaf A. horse power

D. horses powers ---It?s about B. half hours drives D. half an hour drive .

8. ---How far away is it from here to your school? A. half an hour?s drive C. half an hour drives 9. Last week I called at my A. aunt B. aunts . C. aunt?s D. aunts?s

10. You?ll find this map of great A. price
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in helping you to get round London. C. usefulness D. value
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B. cost

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11. Alexander Graham Bell invented A.不填 12. ---Where?s Jack ? A.不填, 不填 C. the, 不填 13. Many people are still in the B. 不填,不填 C. the, 不填 14.She is newcomer to B. a C. the

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telephone in 1876. D.one bed but he might just be in

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---I think he?s still in B. the, the D. 不填, the

bathroom.

(AACDCD) public places. A. the,

habit of writing silly things in

D.不填, the chemistry bust she has already made some

important discoveries. A. the, the 15. ---Have you seen ---Is it A. a, the 16. Paper money was in country in A. the, 不填 17.The warmth of wool used. A. the, the 18.Summers in A. 不填, a B. the, 不填 C. 不填, the D.不填, 不填 most part dry and sunny. D. the, the (CCCBBD) B. the, 不填 C. a, 不填 D. a, the

pen? I left it here this morning. black one? I think I saw it somewhere. B. the, the C. a, a D. the, a

use in China when Marco Polo visited the thirteenth centry. B. 不填, the C. the, the D. 不填, 不填

sweater will of course be determined by the sort of

south of France are for B. the, 不填

C. 不填, 不填

19. A rough estimate, Nigeria is__________ Great Britain. (05 上海卷) ( D) A. three times the size as C. three times as the size of B. the size three times of D. three times the size of

20. He proved himself a true gentleman and the beauty of his _______ was seen at its best when he worked with others. (05 上海卷) (D) A. temper B. appearance C. talent D. character

21. I am sure David will be able to find the library — he has a pretty good _______ of direction. (05 浙 江卷)(D)
第 8 页(共 10 页) 山东世纪金榜科教文化股份有限公司

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A.idea B.feeling C.experience

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D.sense

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22. Bill was doing a lot of physical exercise to build up his_______. (05 天津卷) (C) A. ability B. force C. strength D. mind

23.My ______ of this weekend?s activity is going out with some good friends. (05 安徽卷) (A) A. idea B. opinion C. mind D. thought

24.The head office of the bank is in Beijing, but it has ____ all over the country. (05 辽宁卷) (B) A.companies B.branches C.organizations D.businesses

25. It took us quite a long time to get here. It was ______ journey.(05 北京春)(C) A. three-hour B. a three hour C. a three-hour D. three hours

26.Students should be encouraged to use ___ Internet as ____ resource. (08 山东) A. 不填;a B. 不填;the C. the; the D. the; a

D the internet 表示一类事物,a resource 表示是资源的一种。

EXERCISES 2

(改错,每句一个错)

1. After one year hard work, the Senior Three students have already prepared themselves for the entrance exam. ( year?s)

2. More and more middle-aged people in the West have heart?s trouble, which results from high-fat food they like to eat. (heart)

3. You can get your library card in the teacher reading-room, which is on the second floor. (teachers?)

4. His hairs looked disordered, with some gray hair on his forehead. (hairs---------第二个) 5.Now I eat more fruits and vegetables than I used to. My favorite fruits are apples, bananas and grapes. (fruit------第一个)

6. The lady entered a room, opened windows to let the fresh air in, and sat down in an armchair to have a rest. ( the windows)

7.Miss Nora is young, nice, kind and active. She is the teacher young students like.
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( a teacher)
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8.They elected him the captain of the school football team for a second time. (captain , 去掉 the )

9.He is fond of playing chess while his sister is fond of playing piano. ( the piano) 10. No human being can change the law of the nature, though they can change their own lives. (nature, 去掉 the)

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