当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> 高三英语二轮复习语法 15个教案

高三英语二轮复习语法 15个教案


高中英语语法专题复习教案大全(15 个教案)
语法复习专题一——名词
一、考点聚焦 1.可数名词单、复数变化形式 (1)规则变化。 ①单数名词词尾直接加-s。如:boy — boys, pen — pens。 ②以 s、x 、ch 、sh 结尾的单词一般加-es。如:glass — glasses,box— boxes, watch — watches, br

ush — brushes。 特例:stomach — stomachs。 ③以“辅音字母 + y”结尾的变“y”为“i”再加“-es” 。如: baby — babies, lady — ladies, fly — flies。 ④以 “o” 结尾的多数加-es。 tomato — tomatoes, potato — potatoes, hero — heroes。 如: 但以两个元音字母结尾的名词和部分外来词中以 o 结尾的词只加-s。如: radio — radios, zoo — zoos, photo — photos, piano — pianos, kilo — kilos, tobacco — tobaccos。 ⑤以“f”或“fe”结尾的名词复数形式变“f”或“fe”为“v” ,之后再加-es。如:wife — wives, life — lives, knife — knives, wolf— wolves, self — selves, leaf — leaves 等。特 例:handkerchief— handkerchiefs, roof — roofs, chief — chiefs, gulf — gulfs, belief — beliefs, cliff — cliffs。 ⑥改变元音字母的。如:man — men, mouse — mice, foot — feet, woman — women, tooth — teeth, goose — geese, ox — oxen 。 特 例 : child — children。 ⑦复合名词的复数形式。 (A)在复合词中最后名词尾加-s。如:armchair — armchairs, bookcase — bookcases, bookstore — bookstores。 (B)man 和 woman 作定语修饰另一个名 词时, 前后两个名词都要变成复数。 man doctor — men doctors, woman driver — women 如: drivers。 与介词或副词一起构成的复合名词应在主体名词部分加-s。 brother-in-law — (C) 如: brothers-in-law, passer-by — passers-by。 ⑧有的名词有两种复数形式。如:zero — zeros 、zeroes, deer — deers 、 deer。 penny 的两种复数形式含义有所不同。 pence 如: (便士的钱数) pennies(便 , 士的枚数)。 (2)不规则变化。 ①单、复数同形。如:means, aircraft, deer, fish, Chinese, Japanese, sheep, works(工厂),cattle。 ②合成名词的复数。如:boy-friend — boy-friends, go-between— go-betweens(中间人), grown-up — grown-ups。 ③有些名词通常只用作复数。如:glasses 眼镜,clothes 衣服,goods 货物, trousers 裤子, belongings 所有物,wages 工资, riches 财富, surroundings 环境, ashes 灰尘, compasses 圆规,cattle 家畜,congratulations 祝贺,have words with sb. 同某人吵架, in high spirits 以很高热情地, give one‘s regards to sb.向某人问侯, rags 衣衫破烂, is good in It manners to do sth.有礼貌做某事。

④集体名词的数。有些集体名词通常只用作复数,如:people, cattle, police; 有些名词只用作单数,如:machinery, furniture, mankind, jewellery;有些名 词既可用作单数又可用作复数,单数看做整体,复数看做集体的各个成员。如:The crew is large.船员人数很多(指整体) ;The crew are all tired.船员们都累坏了(个体) 。 2、不可数名词的数 (1)一般说来抽象名词为不可数名词,但当抽象名词表示具体的东西时,可用作可数 名词且词义发生变化,主要类型如下: ①抽象名词表示具有某种特性、状态、感情情绪的人或事。如: 抽象名词(不可数) 具体化(个体名词,可数名词) in surprise 惊讶地 a surprise 一件令人惊讶的事 win success 获得成功 a success 一个(件)成功的人(事) win honor 赢得荣誉 an honor 一个(件)引以为荣的(事) Failure(失败)is the mother of success a failure 失败者 失败是成功之母。 by experience 靠经验 an experience 一次经历 youth 青春 a youth 一个青年人 have pity on sb.怜悯某人 a pity 可惜的事情 with pleasure 乐意 a pleasure 乐事

②抽象名词与 a(an)连用,淡化了抽象概念,转化为似乎可以体验到的动作、行为或类 别。如: A knowledge of English is a must in international trade. Would you like to have a walk (swim, bath, talk) with me? It is waste of time reading such a novel. She made an apology to her mother for her wrong doings. (2)物质名词是不可数名词,但表示数量或种类之多时,可以用作可数名词。如: ①物质名词有形或数的相应物体,有单、复数。如:some coffee 一些咖啡,a coffee 一 杯咖啡,three coffees 三杯咖啡,some drink 一些饮料, a drink 一杯饮料,three drinks 三杯饮 料,his hair 他的头发,a few grey hairs 几根白发,glass 玻璃,a glass 一只玻璃杯。 ②物质名词有前置后置修饰时,前面要使用不定冠词。 have breakfast The road is covered with snow. have a wonderful breakfast They have a heavy snow every year. Time and tide wait for no man. We had a wonderful time last night. (3)有复数形式的不可数名词 ①有些抽象名词往往以复数形式出现, 起到一种丰富语言感情色彩或强调某种特殊状态 的作用。如: Use your brains, please. They have smoothed away the difficulties. Have you made preparations for tomorrow‘s meeting? Many thanks for your kindness. No pains, no gains. After many failures, they finally succeeded.

②有些物质名词以复数形式出现,表示数量之多,范围之广。如: The boy burst into tears at the bad news. The rising waters did a lot of harm to the crops. The stone bridge broke down in heavy rains. 3.名词所有格 (1) “‘s”所有格的特殊表示形式有: ① 用于表示时间、距离、价格、重量等的名词后,如:today‘s newspaper, five minutes‘ walk(drive),five pounds‘ weight, ten dollars‘ worth of coffee。 ②用于表示国家、 世界、 城市等地方的名词后。 the earth‘s planet, the word‘s population, 如: China‘s industry, New York‘s parks。 (2) “of”所有格的特殊表示方式有: ①表示 “部分” 一般在所修饰的名词前有一个表示数量的词 时, (a、 two、 several、 some、 no、many 等) ,如:Some students of Mister Zhang‘s have gone to college.张老师的一些学生已 经上大学了。 ②表示“其中之一,其中一部分”的意思时,用:a friend of Tom‘s 汤姆的一个朋友(许多朋友中的一位) 。 ③表示赞扬、批评或厌恶等感情色彩时,应该用:that/this/these/ those + 名词(单、复数)of Mary‘s/yours/his/hers。如: That invention of hers belongs to the world. 她的那项发明是属于全世界的(表赞赏) 。 4、名词作定语 英语中有些名词没有其对应的同根形容词, 这些名词可以直接用来作定语修饰另一个名 词。 (1)分类意义。 air pollution 空气污染 boy friend 男朋友 coffee cup 咖啡杯 income tax 所得税 tennis ball 网球 song writer 歌曲作家 body language 身体语言 road accident 交通事故 Nobel Prize 诺贝尔奖 (2)时间、地点、称呼等。 Doctor Jack 杰克医生 Professor Li 李教授 evening school 夜校 winter sleep 冬眠 street dance 街舞 country music 乡村音乐 village people 村民 school education 学校教育 China problem 中国问题 (3)表目的、手段、来源,所属意义。 reception desk 接待台 sports field 田径场 stone table 石桌 color TV 彩电 weather report 天气预报 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. It is generally believed that teaching is ___________it is a science. (NMET 2001) A. an art much as B. much an art as C. as an art much as D. as much an art as 解析:答案为 D。当名词前有 what、so、as、too、quite 等词修饰时,其形容词被这些

词修饰, 组成下列结构, 如: What a nice book! This is too heavy a box for me to carry. He is not as honest a boy as Mike.等,应采取 too/how + 形容词(副词)+ a(an) + 名词的形式。要记住 一些类似的特殊结构,并加以分析。 2. The police are offering a __________to anyone who can give information about the lost key.(NMET 1999) A. price B. prize C. reward D. money 解析:答案为 C。price 价格,价钱;prize 奖金。D项是钱,属不可数名词,题中所要 填的是“酬金,报酬” 。注意正确理解名词的含义及其搭配是活用语言的基础,在复习备考 中要熟练掌握考纲中一些名词的词义、搭配、习惯等,才能更好辨析名词,从而选择最符合 句意的选项。 3.You‘ll find this map of great _____________in helping you to get round London.(NMET 1998) A. price B. cost C. value D. usefulness 解析: 答案为 C。 本题考查特定语境中名词的词义及 “be of + 抽象名词” 结构。 Price (价 格),cost(价钱,费用,成本)不符合题意,value 作“quality of being useful or desirable” 解时,常与 of 搭配,在句中作表语或补语,意为“有用,有价值” 。故选择 value。注意名 词词义辨异及惯用法表达,题中“of + 抽象名词”相当于该名词的形容词形式。 4.If you buy more than ten, they knock 20 pence off . A. a price B. price C. the price D. price 解析:答案为 C。本题考冠词和名词。全句合理句意应是:如果你买超过 10 个,他们 从(现在标出的)价格上减价 20 便士。此处价格是特指的定价,所以 C 项最佳。 5.The journey around the world took the old sailor nine moths, the sailing time was 226 days. A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which 解析:答案为 B。辨析名词语义, a distance of +数字“??距离” 。 6. I keep medicines on the top shelf, out of the children‘s . A. reach B. hand C. hold D. place 解析:答案为 A。 “out of reach”是“超出某人够得着的范围” ,即“够不着”的意思, 药品应放到孩子够不到的地方。

语法复习专题二——冠词
一、考点聚焦 1.不用冠词的情况 (1)专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词、人名、地名等名词前,一般不加冠词。 China, America, Smith Air is matter. (2)可数名词前有物主代词、指示代词、名词所有格等限制时,不加冠词。 This dictionary is mine. (3)季节、月份、星期、节日、假日、一日三餐名称前一般不加冠词。 March, May Day, National Day, Children‘s Day, Women‘s Day Have you had supper? Spring is the best season of the year. (4)称呼语或指家用雇用的 nurse、cook 等名词前及表示头衔职务的名词作宾语、补

语及同位语时,一般不加冠词。 What‘s this, Father? We made him our chairman. Ask nurse to put the child to bed. Professor Li. (5)学科名称、球类、棋类名称前不加冠词。 Do you study physics? He likes playing football/chess. (6)复数名词表示泛指一类人或事物时前不用冠词。 They are peasants/ workers. (7)在与 by 连用的交通工具名称前不加冠词。 by car, by bus,by bike, by train, by air/ water/ land 但:take a bus, come in a boat, on the train/ bus 需注意。 (8)某些固定词组中不用冠词。 ①名词词组中: husband and wife, brother and sister, body and soul, day and night, knife and fork ②介词词组中: to(at, from) school, in (to)class, in (to,at, from)university (college) (in, into, from) ,to church, to(in,into, out of)prison(hospital, bed), to(at, from, out of)work, to(in, from) town,at (from)home, to(at)sea, at night(noon, midnight), by car (bus, bicycle, plane), on foot 注意:在有些词组中,有无冠词含义不同。 in hospital 住院(因病) in the hospital 在医院(工作、参观等) in front of 在前面,指某物体之外 in the front of 在前部,指某物之内 in charge 负责,主管 out of question 没问题 in the charge 由??负责 out of the question 不可能 (9)as 引导的让步状语从句中,作表语的名词不带冠词。 Child as she is, she knows a lot of French. (10)系动词 turn(作“变成”解)后作表语的单数可数名词前习惯不用冠词。 The young girl has turned writer. = The young girl has become a writer. (11)在单数名词 + after + 同一单数名词(表示“一个接一个” )结构中,单数可数名 词前不加冠词。 She did experiment after experiment. 类似的还有:shop after shop, mistake after mistake (12)形容词的最高级前、序数词前也有不用定冠词的情况。 ①“most + 形容词原级”作“十分、非常、极”解时,前面不用定冠词。 Oh, it‘s most beautiful. ②当两个形容词最高级并列修饰同一个名词时,第二个形容词前通常不用定冠词。 She is the tallest and fattest girl in our school. ③当形容词最高级作表语,不表示与其他人或物相比时,其前不用定冠词。 The market in the country is busiest in winter. ④形容词最高级前有名词所有格或物主代词时,不能用定冠词。 A wolf in a sheep‘s skin is our most dangerous enemy.

⑤序数词前面一般加定冠词表示“第??”之意,但在 second、third 等词前加不定冠 词表示“又一,再一”之意。 ?why you took a second arrow 注意:下句中“a first”表示“第一名、冠军” 。 He is a top student in our class; he often gets a first in maths. (13)no 与 such 连用时应放在 such 之前,such 后面的名词不用冠词。 No such thing has ever happened in this village. (14)never、ever 置于作主语的名词前,这些名词前不用冠词。 Never did student study so hard.这个学生从未学得这么认真。 (15)有时为了节省空间、时间、金钱和精力,或为了引起注意力,省去 a(n)或 the,这 主要用于新闻标题、工商业文件、广告、电报、公告、提纲、书名等。 Conference opens.会议召开了。 2.定冠词的使用情况 (1)使用定冠词的一般情况。 ①特指或第二次提到。 ②序数词前、最高级前、独一无二的东西前。 ③用于表示发明物的单数名词前或某些专有名词前。 (2)定冠词使用特殊的场合。 ① He hit him in the face. beat sb. on the nose, take sb. by the arm, pat sb. on the head② the rich, the poor, the wounded 富人,穷人,伤员 ③ the elder of the two, he more beautiful of the two 两者中较年长的一位,较漂亮的一个 ④ The sooner, the better.越快越好。 ⑤ He got paid by the hour.他是按小时付工钱的。 by the yard/the dozen/the month/the year… 但:by weight 按重量 ⑥ in the 50s /in the 1870s(表示年代) ⑦ the Smiths/the Whites(表示一家人或夫妇俩) ⑧ in the water/field/light/shade/distance/middle/country/rain ⑨ tell the truth/on the other hand/on the way home ⑩ 当抽象名词表示某一特定内容,特别是当它有一限定性修饰语时, 它与定冠词连用: She is fond of music. He is playing the music written by Beethoven. Good advice is beyond price. I‘m sorry not to have taken the advice he gave. 3.不定冠词常用的几种情况 (1)表示“一”相当于“one” 。I‘ll return in a day or two. (2)表示“每”相当于“per” 。We have three meals a day. (3)表示“同一性”相当于“the same” 。The children are of an age. (4)表示类指,表示“某类” 。He wants to he a doctor. (5)表示泛指,相当于“any” horse is a useful animal. 。A (6)表示某一个,相当于“a certain” Mr. Smith is asking to see you. 。A (7) 与抽象名词连用, 可以表示 “一场、 一次、 一件” 如: pleasure 一件乐事, surprise , a a

一件令人惊讶的事,a joy 一件高兴的事,a pity 一件遗憾的事,an honour 一个(件)经以为 荣的人(事)。 (8)与物质名词连用,表示“一种,一阵、一份” 。 What a heavy rain! What a good supper! Please give me a black coffee! 4.冠词表类别的常见方式 (1)定冠词 + 单数可数名词,表示一个,代表一类。 The computer was invented in 1945. The TV set was invented by Joan Baird. The horse is a useful animal. (2)不定冠词 + 单数可数名词(表示任意一个,某一个) 。 A pen is a tool for writing. A square has four sides. A horse is a useful animal. 注意:man, woman 表示泛指时,不用冠词,且常用单数。如: Man is fighting a battle against pollution. Man tries to be the protector of woman. (3)可数名词或不可数名词,指类别(考虑到同类中的各个情况) 。 Horses are useful animals. Rice is a kind of food. 5.冠词位置问题 (1)不定冠词 + 副词 + 形容词 + 名词。 This is a very interesting story. (2)such、what、both、all、quite、rather +不定冠词+形容词+名词。 I‘ve never seen such a film! Half a pound of pork,please! What a good idea it is! (3)as、so、too、how、however、enough+形容词+不定冠词+名词。 It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent. I can‘t finish the task in so short a time. This seems not too long a distance. We wonder how difficult a problem he worked out. However low te price you paid,you waste your money. He is brave enough a hunter to kill the bear. (4)定冠词位置。 ①half、twice、three times + the + 名词 He paid twice the price for it. Their house is three times the size of yours. ②all、both、double + the + 名词 Both the blind men were mistaken. All the students in our class are eager to know the secret. I offered him double the amount, but he still refused. 二、精典名题导解

选择填空 1. The warmth of ______sweater will of course be determined by the sort of ____wool used.(NMET 2001) A.The ; the B.the ; / C./; the D./; / 解析:答案为 B。第一空格为特指,交待 the warmth 的内容,第二空格为泛指,the sort of wool used 所用羊毛的种类。此题有三点需注意:①正确理解 sweater 这一句词在句中的 类别。②掌握 determine 在句中作“决定”“取决于”这个意思。③掌握定冠词表特指的基 、 本用法。 2. Most animals have little connection with_________animals of___________different kind unless they kill them for food.(NMET 2000) A.the … a B./ … a C.the … the D./ … the 解析:答案为 B。名词复数表类别,其前不用冠词,故第一个空格不填冠词,表不定概 念的“一种”“某种”要用不定冠词 a。要准确掌握冠词表类别的三种表达方式和不定冠词 , 常用的几种情况,见前面要点考点聚焦内容。 3. Paper money was in___________use in China when Marco Polo visited the country in __________thirteenth century.(NMET1999) A.the … / B.the … the C./ … the D./ … / 解析:答案为 C。题中 in use 是固定搭配,意为“在使用” ,use 为抽象名词,其前不用 冠词。后者是序数词前用定冠词 the。要牢记一些固定搭配如 in use、under construction(在 建设中) in debt 欠债) come to power 、 ( 、 (执政) on fire 、 (着火) at table 、 (用餐) out of work 、 (失业)等。 4. When you come here for your holiday next time don‘t go to hotel; I can find you bed in my flat. A. the; a B. the; 不填 C. a; the D. a; 不填 解析: 答案为 C。 考定语从句。 主句部分应是 The English play at the New Year‘s party was a great success. 从句补全为独立句子就是 my students acted in the play.所以应选 in which,其 余介词不妥。 5.—John, there is Mr. Wilson on the phone for you. —I‘m in bath. A. a; the B. the; a C. a; 不填 D. the; 不填 解析:答案为 A。本题考查冠词用法。a+姓名,表示“一个叫??的人” ;in the bath 在浴室。 6. Tom owns larger collection of books than any other student in our class. A. the; 不填 B. a; 不填 C. a; the D. 不填; the 解析:答案为 B。考冠词,collection 是可数名词,须填冠词,被比较级修饰,但是大 范围的比较,故填不定冠词,后一空是泛指的表类别的书,且已用了复数,不填冠词。故选 B。

语法复习专题三——代词
一、考点聚焦 代词分为九类:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词、指示代词\疑问代词、连 接代词、不定代词、关系代词。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的作用。

1、人称代词 (1)人称代词作主语用主格,作宾语、表语用宾格,但应注意以下 4 中情况: ①作主语的人称代词如果孤立地使用于无谓语动词的句子中, 或在这种句子中与动词不 定式连用,常用宾格。 —Does any of you know where Tom lives? —Me. What! Me (to) play him at chess? No! ②句子中代词作宾语或宾语补足语时,与所替代的名词在人称、数、格在意义上一般要 保持前后一致。 The thief was thought to be he.(the thief 是主格,故用 he 代替) They took me to be her.他们误以为我是她。 (me 是宾格,故用 her 替代) ③作表语人称代词一般用宾格,但在强调句型中,被强调部分代词的格不变。 I met her in the hospital.→It was her who I met in the hospital. ④在比较级的句子中 than、as 后用主格、宾格都可以。如:He is taller than me(I).但在 下列句中有区别。 I like Jack as much as her.=I like both Jack and her. I like Jack as much as she.=I like Jack and she likes him, too. (2)两个以上的人称代词并列,其次序排列原则: ①在并列主语中, “I”总是放在最后,排列顺序为:二 三 一(人称) 。宾格 me 也一 样。 You ,she and I will be in charge of the case. Mr.Zhang asked Li Hua and me to help him. ②第三人称,男女两性并用,男先女后。 He and she still don‘t agree to the plan. (3)几个人称代词的特殊用法。 ①we/you(口语)常用来泛指一般人。 ②she 可以代表国家、船只、大地、月亮等。 The ―Titanic‖was the largest, wasn‘t she? 2.物主代词 (1)名词和形容词性物主代词各自的语法功能。 (2)one‘s own…=...of one‘s own 句式的转换。 (3)某些固定结构中常用定冠词代替物主代词。 如: take sb. by the arm, be wounded in the leg. 3.反身代词 (1)反身代词的语法功能:宾语、表语、主语或宾语的同位语。 (2)反身代词和某些动词连有,构成固定短语。 enjoy oneself, feel oneself, make oneself at home, make oneself understood (3)反身代词还可用于某些成语中。 for oneself 为自己或独立地,of oneself 自然地,自动地 by oneself 独自地,in oneself 本身性质,beside oneself 喜怒哀愁至极 This problem gets a chapter to itself.这个问题占了一章(独有) 。 Just between ourselves, I don‘t think much of him.私下地说我并不怎么看重他。 They were discussing about it among themselves.(相互共同) Left to himself he began to write.别人走后只留下他,他写了起来。

I‘m very angry with myself.生自己的气。 4.相互代词(each other, one another) 相互代词无人称、数和格的区别,在句中作宾语。其所有格分别为 each other‘s 、one another‘s ,作定语。 一般来说,each other 指两者之间,one another 指三者或三者以上之间,但现在区分已 不明显。 5.指示代词(this, that , these, those, such, same) 指示代词具有形容词和代词两种词性,在句子中可以作定语、主语、宾语或表语等。 (1)指示代词 this 和 that 的区别。 ①this (these)一般指时间或空间上较近的人或物;that(those)常指时间或空间较远的人或 物。 This is my desk and that is yours. In those days they could not go to school. ②this 常指后面要讲到的事物,有启下的作用;that 则指前面讲到过的事物,有承上的 作用。 I want to tell you this:the English party will be held on Saturday afternoon. He hurt his leg yesterday. That‘s why he didn‘t come. ③为了避免重复,常用 that 或 those 代替前面已提过的名词。 The weather of Beijing is colder than that of Nanjing. The ears of a rabbit are longer than those of a fox. ④this 在电话用语中作自我介绍,that 询问对方;this 和 that 可以当副词用,意思相当 于副词 so。 (2)such 和 same 的用法。 ①such 指“这样的”人或事,在句中作主语和定语。 Such was the story. We have never seen such a tall building. ②same 指“同样的”人或事,在句中作主语、表语、宾语和定语,same 的前面要用定 冠词 the. The same can be said of the other article. 另一篇文章也是同样的情况。 (主语) Whether he can do it or not,it is all the same to me. 他是否能做这事,对我来说都一样。 (表语) 6、疑问代词(who,whom,which,what,whose) 疑问代词在句中作主语、宾语、定语和表语。 (1)who/what ①询问姓名或关系。——Who is he? ——He is my brother./He is Henry.询问职业或地位。——What is he? ——He is a lawyer/teacher. ②What/who 作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于说话人的视点,可单数也可复数。 What is /are on the table? Who is/are in the library? (2)which 与 who、what which 表示在一定范围内,而 who、what 则无此限制。 I found two books on the desk.Which is yours? 7.连接代词和关系代词

连接代词与疑问代词的形式相同,主要有 who、whom、whose、what、which 以及它们 与 ever 合成的代词 whoever、whomever、whatever、whichever 等。它们用来引导主语从句, 宾语从句和表语从句,即连接复合句中的主句和从句,并在从句中担任一定的句子成分,以 连接代词引起的名词性从句前不能再加 that. 关系代词是用来引导定语从句的代词,它们包括 who、whom、whose、which、that 等。 这两类代词的用法详见“名词性从句”和“定语从句”部分。 8、不定代词 不定代词主要有:all、each、every、both、either、neither、one、none、little、few、many、 much、other、another、some、any、no 等。还有由 some、any、no 和 every 构成合成代词, 不定代词具有名词和形容词的性质,并有可数和不可数之分,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾 语、同位语、定语、状语等(every、no 只能作定语) 。下面介绍几组主要不定代词的用法与 区别。 (1)some 与 any 一般用法:some、any 可与单、复数可数名词及不可数名词连有。some 一般用于肯定 句,any 多用于疑问、否定或条件句。 He has some Chinese paintings.(定语) Some like sports,others like music.(主语) Ask me if you have any questions.(定语) Do you have any questions to ask?(定语) I don‘t know any of the students.(宾语) 特殊用法: ①any 用于肯定句表示“任何”的意思。 Any child can do that.(定语) You may take any of them.(宾语) ②some 用于单数可数名词前表示“某一” 。 Smith went to some place in England.(定语) ③在期待对方回答 yes 时,some 用在表示请求或邀请的问句中。 Would you like some bananas?(邀请) Mum,could you give me some money?(请求) ④some 用于否定句表示部分否定。 I don‘t know some of the students.(宾语) some 和 any 在句中还可作状语,作副词。some 意为“大约”相当于“about”,而 any 则表示程度,意为“稍,丝毫” 。如: There are some 300 workers on strike. Do you feel any better today? (2) One, both, all ①one 作定语、 表语、 主语或宾语, 可以指人或物, 表示 “一个” 的意思, 其复数为 ones, 指人时,其所有格是 one‘s,反身代词是 oneself. One should try one‘s best to serve the people.(主语、定语) This is not the one I want.(表语) one、 ones 可以代替上文提到过的名词, 以免重复, one、 ones 前面分别可以用 this、 that、 these、those 或 the、which 等词修饰。如: These books are more interesting than those ones. Here are three pens.Which one is yours,this one or that one or the one in the pencil-box?

②both 用作定语、宾语、主语和同位语,可以指人或指物,表示“两者都”的意思。 This maths problem can be worked out in both ways.(定语) Both of the boys are here.(主语) We both are students.(同位语) 注意:both 用于否定句, 表示部分否定;表示完全否定时, neither。如: 用 Both of us are not teachers.我们俩并不都是教师。 Neither of us is a teacher. 我们俩都不是教师。 both 不能放在 the、 these、 those、 等之后, my 而应放在它们的前面。 如: Both my parents like this film. Both the /these boys are tall. ③all 用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、同位语,指“全部的”“整个的” 、 ,可与可数或不 可数名词连用,除少数情况外,一般不与单数可数名词连用,与复数名词连用时,表示“所 有的”“全部的” 、 ,指三个或三个以上的人或物。 He gave me all the money.他把全部的钱给了我。 All the schools are flooded.所有的学校都被淹了。 I told him all about it. 我把一切都告诉了他。 That‘s all for today.今天就在这儿。 They have all been to Xi‘an.他们都去过西安。 注意:all 用于否定句,表示部分否定,完全否定用 none。如: Not all the ants go out for food.(or:All the ants don‘t go out for food.)并不是所有的蚂蚁都 出去寻找食物。 None of the money is mine.这钱一分也不是我的。 (3)many 和 much many 和 much 都表示“许多” ,但 many 修饰或代替复数可数名词,much 修饰或代替不 可数名词。它们在句中可作主语、宾语、定语。much 有时用作状语。 (4)few, little; a few, a little few 和 little 表示没有多少,含否定意义;而 a few 和 a little 表示有一些,有几个,含肯 定意义。另外,few、a few 修饰可数名词;little、a little 修饰不可数名词。它们在句中常用 作定语、主语和宾语。 (5)no 和 none no=not any,表示“没有” ,用来修饰可数名词或不可数名词,通常作定语,none 代替不 可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词作主语时,谓语动词可用单数也可 用复数形式。none 还可以在句中作宾语。 注意:none 既可以指人又可以指物,no one 只能指人。 (6)each 和 every each(各个) ,指两个或两个以上的人或物,侧重个体,在句中作主语、宾语、定语和 同位语。every(每个) ,指三个或三个以上的人或物,侧重整体,在句中只能作定语。 Every student it our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调班上“所有的人”) Each student in our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调各个个体) Each of them has been there.(主语) The teacher gave each of the students a new textbook.(宾语) We each got a ticket.(同位语) (7)either 和 neither either 是“两者中任何一个”的意思,可修饰或代替单数可数名词,neither 是“两者中

没有一个” 的意思,可以修饰或代替单数可数名词, 它们可在句在作主语、宾语或定语。 如: Here are two pens. You may take either of them.(宾语) Neither boy knows French.(定语) 注意: ①either 也作副词, 其意为 “也” 用于否定句的句末。 doesn‘like tea, and I don‘t , He either.(状语)②either 与 or 构成连词,意为“不是……就是??‖或―要么??要么??” 。 He is either Japanese or Chinese. ③neither 用作副词, 意为 “也不” 即 , “not…either” He can‘t 。 do it, neither can I. ④neither 可与 nor 构成连词, “既不??也不” Neither he nor you are 意为 。 a student. (8)other 和 another, the others 和 others the other 表示“两者中的另一个”“the other + 复数可数名词” ; 表示“其余(他)的??” ;the others 表示“其他的人或物”“others 及 other + 复数名 。 词”泛指“其他的(别的)人或物” 。这些词语在句中可作主语、宾语和定语。如: He got two books; one is textbook, the other is a novel. Five of the pencils are red, the others(the other pens)are yellow. Some are singing, others are dancing. another 修饰或代替单数可数名词,意为“ (三个或三个以上的)另一个” ,不能指两者 中的另一个,在句中可作宾语和定语。 This coat is too dark. Please show me another.(宾语) Please give me another book.(定语) 注意:another 修饰复数名词时,意为“再,又” 。如:Please give me another ten minutes. one … another(a second)… a third…the other…意为“一个??一个??一个??一个”用于 三者或三者以上的排列。some…others…others…,意为“一些??一些??一些” 。 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. The Parkers bought a new house but__________will need a lot of work before they can move in.(NMET 2001) A. they B. it C. one D. which 解析:答案为 B。分析题意可知,they 显然不合,which 多引导从句,从此为并列句式, one 表示泛指, 而此处空格内容指代前面提到的 the new house。 要仔细区别代词的所指范围, 是人还是物,单数还是复数,另应注意句式。 2. you want to change for a double room you‘ll have to pay_________$ 15. NMET 2000) If ( A. another B. other C. more D. each 解析:答案为 A。本题考查不定代词用于表示数量附加的用法。 “another + 数字 + 复 数名词”结构通常用来表示在原有数量上的附加。若选 C,正确结构是“数词 + more + 复 数名词” 。掌握 another 和 more 与数字搭配的位置是此题关键。another 放在数字前,more 放在数字后。NMET 1995 中第 25 小题命题思路与此题一致。 3. Few pleasures can equal ___________of a cool drink on a hot day.(NMET 1999) A. some B. any C. that D. those 解析:答案为 C。本题考查替代词 that 的用法。that 通常在句中替代同类的、特定的但 不是同一的事物。本句中 that 替代 the pleasure。句意为“在炎热的夏天几乎没有任何乐趣 能与饮一杯冷饮的乐趣相比” 。that 指代单数或不可数名词,复数用 those,表示特指,以避 免重复,在比较句型中较为常用,代替可数名词时可换用 the one。 4. I like in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. A. this B. that C. it D. one

解析:答案为 C。本句考惯用法及代词。Like 是及物动词,需要宾语。此处“it”指模 糊的情形或环境,无具体指代,其余项均不可。又如:I like it here(我喜欢这儿) 。 5.That‘s an unpleasant thing to say about your father after he‘s done for you. A. something B. anything C. all D. that 解析:答案为 C。本题考代词及定语从句。整句意思;在你父亲为你做了所有一切之后 再说你父亲(的坏话)是件令人不愉快的事。 6.We needed a new cupboard for the kitchen. So Peter made from some wood we had. A. it B. one C. himself D. another 解析:答案为 B。考代词。全句意为:我们需要为厨房填个橱柜,所以 Peter 用我们所 拥有的木头做了一个。代词 one 替代上文的名词 a cupboard,非特指的指代,正合题意。it 应 指代上文提到的同一事物,为特指,故不可。C 项离题意太远,D 项指“又”“再”的意思, , 亦不可。

语法复习专题四——形容词和副词
一、考点聚焦 1、形容词、副词的作用与位置 形容词是用来修饰名词的,常被放在名词前作定语,或放在系动词后面作表语。而副词 则用来修饰形容词、 动词, 其他副词或者句子, 一般位于形容词之前, 动词之后或句子之首。 以下属几种特殊情况,须牢记; (1)形容词短语作定语,定语后置。 a language difficult to master, a leaning tower about 180 feet high (2)表语形容词(afraid、alike、alone、asleep、awake、alive 等)作定语,定语后置。 如 a man alive。有些表身体健康状况的形容词如 well、faint、ill 只作表语。sick 既可作表语 又可作定语,ill 如作定语意为“bad” 。 (3) 用作定语, 修饰由不定代词 one、 any、 no、 some 和 every 构成的复合词如 anything、 something 等时,通常后置。如: I have something important to tell you. (4)else 常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语。 (5) enough、 nearby 修饰名词前置或后置, 程度副词一般位于形容词、 副词前面, enough 修饰形容词、副词时,必须后置。 (6)几个副词并列作状语时,其顺序较灵活,但一般是:方式→地点→时间。如: We had a good time together outdoors last Sunday. (7)频度副词如 often、always、usually 等在 be 动词后,行为动词前。 (8)副词作定语,定语后置。如: The person there is waiting for you. (9)几个并列的形容词作定语,其语序通常为:限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词 + size (大小) shape + (形状) age + (年龄、 时间) color 颜色) origin + ( + (国籍、 来源) material + (材料)+ purpose(目的)+ 名词。如: a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella, the man‘s first tow interesting little red French oil paitings (10)以-ly 结尾的词性辨析。 ①下列单词以-ly 结尾, 但却是形容词而非副词: lively、 lonely、 lovely、 deadly、 friendly、

ugly、silly、likely、brotherly、timely 等。 ②表愿意(无-ly)和引申意(有-ly)的副词: deep 深 wide 宽广 high 高 deeply 深入地 widely 广泛地 highly 高度地 ③有无-ly 意义大不相同的副词: dead 完全,绝对 be dead asleep deadly 非常 be deadly tired pretty 相当 be pretty certain that… prettily 漂亮地 be prettily dressed close 近 Don‘t sit close. closely 密切地 Watch closely!

low 位置低 lowly 地位卑微

late 晚、迟 arrive late, come late lately 最近 I haven‘t seen him lately(recently). 2、复合形容词的构成 (1)形容词 + 名词 + ed kind-hearted 好心的,white-haired 白发的 (2)形容词 + 形容词 red-hot 炽热的,dark-blue 深蓝的 (3)形容词 + 现在分词 good-looking 好看的,easy-going 随和的 (4)副词 + 现在分词 hard-working 勤劳的,fast-moving 快速转动的 (5)副词 + 过去分词 hard-won 得来不易的,newly-made 新建的 (6)名词 + 形容词 life-long 终生的,world-famous 世界闻名的 (7)名词 + 现在分词 peace-loving 爱好和平的,fun-loving 爱开玩笑的 (8)名词 + 过去分词 snow-covered 白雪覆盖的,hand-made 手工的 (9)数词 + 名词 + ed four-storeyed 4 层楼的,three-legged 3 条腿的 (10)数词 + 名词(名词用单数) ten-year 10 年的,two-man 两人的 3、形容词和副词的比较等级 (1)原级的构成和用法。 构成:形容词、副词的原级即本身。 用法:表示双方在程度、性质、特征等某方面相等时,用“as + 原级形容词/副词 + as” 的结构;表示双方不相等时,用“not so(as) + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构;表示一方是 另一方的若干倍时,用“倍数 + as + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构。如: Xiao Wang is as tall as Xiao Yu. This building looks not so (as)high as that one. Miss Xu speaks English as fluently as you .

This room is three times as large as that one. (2)比较级和最高级的构成。 掌握比较级和最高级的变化规则,熟记少数不符合规则的特殊形容词和副词。 (3)比较级的用法。 ①对方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较级 + than”的结构表示。如: This picture is more beautiful than that one. ②表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原级 + than”的结构表示。如: This room is less beautiful than that one. ③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时,可在比较级前加表示程度的状语,如 even、a lot、a bit、a little、still、much、far、yet、by fay 等修饰。如: He works even harder than before. 注意:英语的比较级前如无 even、still 或 yet 等时,译成汉语时可用“较”或“?一些” 或不译出,一般不可有“更” 。如: She is better than she was yesterday Please come earlier tomorrow. 另注意:by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面,如在前 面,应在二者中间加“the” 。如: He is taller by far than his brother. He is by far the taller of the two brothers. ④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the + 比较级(主语 + 谓语) ,the + 比较 级(主语 + 谓语) ”的结构(意为“越??越??”。如: ) The harder he works, the happier he feels. ⑤不与其他事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时,用“比较级 + and + 比较级”的结构。 如: The weather is getting colder and colder. The girl becomes more and more beautiful. ⑥某些以-ior 结尾的形容词进行比较时,用 to 代替 than。这些词有 inferior(劣等的, 次的) 、superior(较好的,优于??) 、junior(资历较浅的) 、senior(资格较老的) 、prior (在??之前)等。 He is superior to Mr.Zhang in chemistry. ⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复, 我们通常用 that(those)、 one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。 that 指物,one 既可指人又可指物。that 可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词,而 one 只能代替 可数名词。 The book on the table is more interesting than that(或 the one)on the desk. A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood. ⑧倍数表达法。 (A) is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B. 这座新楼是 A 那座旧楼的四倍大 (高) The new bui9lding is four times the size(the height)of the old one.这座 。 新楼比那座旧楼大三倍(高三倍)(B)A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. 。 Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 (C)A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校比我 们的学校大三倍。用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double. (4)最高级的用法。 ①三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the + 最高级”的结构表示。这种句式 一般常有表示比较范围的介词短语。如:

Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three. He works(the)hardest in his class. ②最高级可被序数词以及 much、 far、 by nearly、 almost 、 no means、 quite、 really、 by not not nothing like 等词语所修饰。如: This hat is by far / much / nearly / almost / not nearly / by no means / not quite / nothing like the biggest. How much did the secon most expensive hat cost? ③表示“最高程度”的形容词,如 excellent、extreme、perfect 等,没有最高级,也不 能用比较级。 ④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时,被修饰的词往往省略。如: He is the tallest (boy) in his class. ⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。如: Of all the boys he came (the) earliest. (5)形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况。 ①形容词最高级前一般要加定冠词,副词最高级前可不加冠词。 ②形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词,或不加冠词,不表比较,表示“非常” 。如: He is a most clever young policeman.(a most=very) The film is most interesting.(most=very) ③表示两者间“较??的一个”比较级前加 the。如: who is the older of the tow boys? ④在“the + 比较级?,the + 比较级?”结构中。 ⑤在 same 前一般要加 the。 ⑥有些形容词前加 the 成为名词。如 the poor、the rich 等。 (6)由 as / so 组成的形容词或副词短语。 ① as much as + 不可数名词数量。 Each stone weighs as much as fifteen tons. She could earn as much as ten dollars a week. ②as many as + 可数名词数量 多达 I have as a many as sixteen referrence books. ③as early as 早在 As early as the twelfth century the English began to invade the island. ④as far as 远到;就??而知(论) We might go as far as (走到)the church and back. As far as I know(就我所知) ,he has been there before. ⑤may (might, could)as well 不妨、不如 Then you might as well stay with us here. ⑥as … as can be 到了最??的程度,极其 They are as unreliable as they can be.他们极其不可信。 ⑦as … as one can He began to run, as fast as he could. ⑧as … as possible Just get them to finish up as quickly as possible. (7)几组重要的词语辨析。 ①very 和 much 的区别。 (A)可分等级的形容词和副词前使用 very 不用 much。(B)表

示状态的过去分词前用 very。a very frightened boy, a very tired child, a very complicated problem, 一般的情况下,以-ing、-ed 结尾的分词多用 much、very much / greatly 等修饰。如: We were greatly shocked by the news about Tom. I was much amused by Jack‘s attitude。(C)已转 化为形容词的现在分词前用 very。 very interesting / worrying / exicting。 如: (D) 前用 much too 或 far,不用 very。You are much / far / a lot too nice.另外,在 too many / much, too few / little 前 用 far。 There‘s far too little opportunity for adventue these days.We‘ve got far too many eggs and far too few egg cups.(E)关于原级形容词要记住下列固定的修饰结构: (a)修饰绝对意义的 形容词, 一般不用 very,而用 quite completely、 well、 entirely。 如: quite wrong(mistaken, sure)、 completely dead、quite impossible、quite perfect 等。 (b)修饰以 a-开头的形容词,多有特殊 的修饰词: quite alone, very much alone, wide awake, fast asleep, very much afraid。 (c)修饰一些 特殊形容词的修饰语有:be well worth, much the same, freezing cold, quite different, terribly cold / frightening。 ②so … that … 与 such … that … 的区别。 so + 形容词 / 副词 + that … so + 形容词 + a(n)+ 单数可数名词 + that … so + many / much / little / few + 名词 + that … such + a(n)+ 形容词+单数可数名词 + that … such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that … such + 形容词 + 复数名词 + that … 注意: 下列结构中只能用 so 不可用 such,当名词前有 many、 much、 little、 等表示 few “多、 少”的词修饰时,如 so much progress、so many people、so little food、so few apples 等。但 当 little 表示“小”时用 such。如:These are such little boys that they can‘t dress themselves. 下列 so 的用法是错误的:so a diffcult problem,so difficult problems, so hot weather。 ③其他几组词的辨析。 (A)ago、before:ago 表示以现在为起点的“以前” ;before 指以 过去或将来的某时刻为起点的“以前” 。泛指“以前”用 before 而不用 ago。 (B)already、 yet、still:already 表示某事已经发生;yet 表示期待某事发生;still 表示某事还在进行,主要 用于肯定句。 (C)too、also、either:too 和 also 用于肯定句,too 多用于口语,also 多用于书面语,either 用于否定句。(D)good、well:与 good 不同的是,well 作形容词,只能在系动词后作表语,表 示“身体状况好” ,也作副词修饰动词。(E)quick、fast:作形容词皆表“快” 。fast 多指运动的 物体, 含持续的意思。 quick 多指一次动作的敏捷、 突然, 而且持续的时间较短。 (F)real、 true: 形容词表“真的” 。real 强调真实存在的而不是幻想的,在句中常作定语;true 指与事实标 准和实际情况相符合,在句中作表语或定语。(G)hard、difficult:均表“困难” ,但 hard 通常 指体力上困难;difficult 则指智力或技能上的困难,困难程度大于 hard。它们都可作定语和 表语。 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. It is generally believed that teaching is ___________it is a science.(NMET 2001) A. an art much as B. much an art as C. as an art much as D. as much an art as 解析:答案为 D。本题可从考查形容词的同级比较点入手。在同级比较 as…as 句式中, 如果 as 后面的形容词作定语且其所修饰的名词前有不定冠词时, 该冠词须置于形容词之后, 即形成“as + 形容词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + as”结构。这道题在名词专题中也有解析, 不同的是观察视角不同,应注意培养发散思维。

2. It is always difficult being in a foreign country, __________if you don‘t speak the language.(NMET 2000) A. extremely B. naturally C. basically D. especially 解析:答案为 D。本题考查副词的词义辨析。注意掌握词语的准确含义,结合语境进行 分析。A 项意为“极端地” 项意为“自然地” 项“基本上” 项“尤其,特别地” ;B ;C ;D 。 根据句意“如果你不会讲(它的)语言,在国外你就总会困难重重”可知答案。 3. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is ______known for his plays.(NMET 1998) A. the best B. more C. better D. the most 解析:答案为 C。本题考查副词的比较级和最高级。要把握句式之间的联系,抓住句子 的隐藏信息,结合语境进行分析。根据句意,句中 but 后应有一词组 be well known for…。 同时,应注意到前后两个分句把 professor White 的短篇小说和戏剧进行了对比,故应用 well 的比较级。 4.I must be getting fat—I can do my trousers up. A. fairly B. hardly C. nearly D. seldom 解析:答案为 D。本题考副词, 且继续使用了破折号, 对前句解释说明。句中的 “do up” 指“系上、扣上、包扎上”等意,故全句合理的意思是:我几乎系不上裤子了, (因此)我 一定在发胖。B 项 hardly 是“几乎不”的意思,正合题意。 5. The house smells as if it hasn‘t been lived in for years. A. little white wooden B. little wooden white C. white wooden little D. wooden white little 解析:答案为 A。本题考名词前置定事的排序。多个词同时作前置定语时,排列规律一 般是:代词性定语+冠/指示/物主/所有格+数词(先序后基)+形容词+国籍/材料/用途形容词 或名词或动名词+被修饰的名词,其中数个形容词同时出现时,多用下列顺序:性质+大小+ 形状+新旧+颜色, 有时也要看与名词的密切关系, 越密切, 越靠近名词。 按上文所述, wooden 表材料,放在最后,white 表颜色,放在 little 之后,故选 A。 6. That doesn‘t sound very frightening, Paul. I‘ve seen . What did you like most about the film? A. better B. worse C. best D. worst 解析:答案为 B。考查比较级的用法,由句意可知,我还见过比 frightening 更糟的,故 选 B。

语法复习专题五——介词和连词
一、考点聚焦 1、介词的分类与语法功能 (1)介词是虚词,不能单独作句子成分,必须与名词、代词(或相当于名词的其他词 类、短语或从句等)构成介词短语,在句中充当一个成分。介词分为:简单介词,如 at、in、 for 等;合成介词,如 within、inside、onto、througout 等;短语介词,如 according to、out of、 because of、by means of、in spite of、instead of 等。双重介词,如 from behind / above / under、 until after 等。分词介词,如 considering、including、judging(from / by) 等。 常见的介词宾语:名词、代词、动名词、从句、不定式等。如: ①It is going to rain this afternoon according to the weather forecast. ②He quarrelled with her yesterday.

③He succeeded in passing the final exam. ④I‘m still thinking of how I can fulfil the task ahead of time. ⑤The professor will give us a talk on how to study English well. (2)介词短语在句中可作表语、定语、状语和宾补等。如: ①This machine is in good condition.(表语) ②Where is the key to my bike?(定语) ③Nothing in the world could live without air or water.(状语) ④She always thinks herself above others.(宾补) 2、介词搭配 (1) “动词+介词”搭配:注意特定搭配与同一介词与多个动词搭配意义不同的情况。 ①rob sb. of sth. / clear the road of snow(―夺去、除去‖意 义的动词与 of 连用) ②supply us with food / fill the glass with wine( “供给”意义的动词与 with 连用) ③make a desk of wood / make bread from flour / make the material into a coat( “制作、制 造”意义与 of、from、into 连用) ④介词 + the + 部位与动词的关系(=动词 + sb.‘s + 部位,可换用) strike him on the head(―击,拍,碰,摸‖意义与 on 连用) catch him by the arm(―抓,拉,拿,扯‖意义与 by 连用) hit the boy in the face( “肚,胸,眼,脸”等人体前部与 in 连用) ⑤prevent(stop, keep)sb. from doing sth.(―阻止,禁止‖意义与 from 连用) ⑥persuade(advise, warn)sb. into doing sth.( “说服,建议”意义与 into 连用) ⑦buy sb. for sth.(leave、get、win、gain、lose 等“得失”意义与 for 连用) ⑧tell sth.to sb.(show、teach、sing、write、read 等“告知”意义与 to 连用) ⑨give sth. to sb.(give、allow、promise、pass、hand 等“授予”意义与 to 连用) 注意:⑦⑧⑨可换成 buy sb.sth.双宾结构。 ⑩say to sb.(suggest、explain、apologize、murmur、whisper 与“对象”连用必须用 to) 不可说 suggest sb.sth.。 同一动词与不同介词搭配意义不同。 for(寻找) to sth. of(听说) on(拜访) look to (眺望) agree with sb. hear call for(需要) at(看) on sth. from(收到信) in(请) 同一介词与不同动词搭配,意义各异。 reply to the letter 回信,sing(dance)to the music 和??唱(跳) ,amount to 达到,加起来 有??,devote to 把??贡献给,drink to 为??干杯,object to 反对,look forward to 渴望, come to 苏醒,belong to 属于,search for 搜??,ask … for … 寻找,use … for 用作,leave for 前往,take … for 误以为,call of 倡导,wait for 等待,care for 喜欢,make up for 弥补损 失,turn to 求助(救)于,help oneself to 随意,agree to 同意,compare … to 把??比作, send for 派人去请(拿)??,sail for 驶向,航向,set out for 动身去,go in for 爱好??。 (2)常见“形容词 + 介词”搭配。 of 担心?? about / at sth. afraid angry for 替??而担心 with sb. for sth.渴望?? from 与??不同 amxious different

about sth. / sb 担心?? of 讨厌 tired strict

to … 不关心?? with sb.

from/ with 因??疲倦 in sth.要求严格 at 擅长 with sb.受??欢迎 good for 对??有益 popular in some place 流行在?? of sb. to do so 友好 for … 因??而流行 with + 名词或 what 从句 pleased helpful to 对??有帮助 at + 抽象名词(听 / 看到??而高兴) to sb.为人所知 be familiar with 熟悉 known for 因??而出名 as 作为??出名 be familiar to 为??熟知(悉) sorry for … 替??后悔 disappointed at sth.失望 from 缺席 rich in 富有?? absent in 离开此地去了?? worthy of 值得的,glad about sth. for sb.为某人某事高兴,far from 离??远,grateful for sth. to sb.为某事感激某人,free from 没有??(免除??) ,proud of(take pride in)自豪, satisfied with (by)满意,sure of / about 确信,fond of 喜欢,fit for 适合,busy with sth.(in doing sth.)忙着干某事,full of 充满,ready for 准备,similar to 相似,wrong with 不对;有毛病?? (3) “名词 + 介词”要注意习惯搭配和意义区分。 the absence of water 缺水 the hope of success 成功的希望 have a chance of (for) entering college 上大学的机会 take pride in them 为他们感到骄傲 the key to the question 问题的答案 a medicine for cough 治咳嗽的药 the ticket for tomorrow 明天的票 in Beijing 去了北京 his abesence from Beijing 不在北京 to study 学习方法 the way of studying maths 学习教学的方法 3、核心介词用法归纳与辨析 (1)表示时间的介词 in 的用法如下。 表示在某一较长时间内,如世纪、年、月、季、周等一般用介词 in, 如:in the 1990s, in the year, in January, in(the) winter / summer / fall / spring, in the first week of May。 还可以用时段名词组成固定短语或词组。如:in a while, in no time, in the daytime, in a short while, in time, in the morning (afternoon, evening)。但要注意: ①at night / at noon, in the day(在白天),in the night(大夜间) 。 ②in five days(weeks, months, years)中 in 意思是“在??以后” 。

③in 和 during 表一段时间内两词可互用。如:in the night, during the night, in the war, during the war。但略有区别:当接表示“活动”的抽象名词时多用 during,接“活动”的动 名词及短语时用 in。如: during the discussion in discussing the problem during her stay in Hubei in playing basketball during the course of in digging the tunnel (2)在具体的某一天或某天上午、晚上、前夕,常用 on。 on Sunday(s).on Tuesday morning on Christmas Day(但 at Chrismas),on Christmas Eve, on Children‘s Day on March 8, on the morning (afternoon, evening)of Oct.1 early on the morning of Oct.1(区别:in the late / early morning of Oct.1) on a rainy night, on warm winter days (3)表示某一时刻或某一点时间用 at,如小时、分钟等。 at breakfast(supper, lunch),at six at noon (sunrise, sunset, midday, night, midnight, dawn) at the age of 15, at the time of war,但 in time of danger/ trouble。 注意:有些时间名词前不接介词。如: next day、last Sunday、that morning、these years one、each、any、every、some、all 修饰时,一般不用介词,如 some day one day、yesterday / afternoon,the night before (4)till、until、to 的用法。 ①till(until)与持续动词连用一般用于肯定句中, 与短暂动词连用一般用在否定句中。 如: He waited for me till twelve o‘clock. He didn‘t get up till (until) 10 a.m. (不可用 to). 但注意:在句首出现或强调句型中一般不用 till 而用 until。如: Not until 9 a.m.did Mr.Smith come back to school. ②to 表“终结”时常用和 from 连用,但要注意不与 from 连用时的意义。如:from July to September, from six to(till)eight (从??到??为止) 但 from morning till night , (从早到晚) , 不能用 to。from … to 常构成习惯搭配,不可换用其他介词。 (A)表持久连续、传递、转移 的含义。 from time to time(不时, 有时), from day to day (天天),from hand to hand(不断传下去), from place to place (处处, 到处) from side to side(左右摇摆), , from door to door 家家户户) ( , from house to house(挨家挨户) ,from shop to shop(一个商店接一个商店) 。(B)表起始终止 的全过程或程度加深、状态变化。from beginning to end(从头到尾,自始至终)(from the beginning to the end of…);from hand to mouth(仅能糊口),from bad to worse(越来越糟),from head to foot(从头到脚),from top to bottom (整个地,彻底地) ,from top to toe(全身),from start to finish (自始至终, 从头到尾) 。 (C) from one + 名词 + to another 表示 “依次” 如 from one 。 car to another(顺着车厢依次地)(D)名词 + by + 同一单数名词,表示“一个一个地” 。 , 要与 from … to 短语区别开: by one 一个一个地; one little by little(bit)一点一点地; by step step 一步一步地,逐渐地(但 by and by 不久以后) ;sentence by sentence 逐句地;day by day 一 天一天地;side by side(with…)(和??)并肩,一起;shoulder to shoulder 肩并肩地,齐心协 力;hand in hand 手拉手,紧紧地;face to face 面对面。 (5)in、after、later ①in + 一段时间: 表示说话时为起点一段时间之后, 与一般将来时连用; 但表示 “在??

之内”时,用于各种时态。 ②一段时间 + later(later 是副词): 表示某一具体时间或某一方面具体时间算起的一段时 间后。 ③after + 一段时间表示: “在??之后” ,用于一般过去时;但时间为点时间时,只能 用 after,即 after + 点时间,用于各种时态。 The doctor will be with us in six minutes. She graduated in 1981, and eight years later she became the manager of the factory. He received her letter after four weeks. 另外,in + 一段时间 + ’s + time 与 within + 一段时间的用法如下: in a week‘s time = in a week They will arrive in three days‘ time.(与将来时连用) My brother‘s birthday is in two weeks‘ time.(作表语) I‘ll finish the book within two weeks.(within = in less than…用于各种时态, 不超出, 在?? 之内) (6)地点介词 at、on、in、to、across、through、over、under、below。 ①at 在较小的场所,in 在较大的场所,on 在??的平面上。如 at the door、 the airport、 the station、 55 Park Street、 China、 the north、 Asia、 the at at at in in in on desk、on the wall 等。 ②on、at、in 还可以表示两地相对位置。若 A 地属于 B 地,用 in;A 地位于 B 地的外面 且有边缘衔接用 on;无边缘的衔接有 to。如: Japan lies to the east of China.(范围之外) Taiwan lies in the southeast of China.(范围之外) Hunan province lies on the west of Hubei province.(毗邻) The island lies off the coast of China.(相隔一定距离) ③地点介词的引申、 比喻意义: the sun 在阳光下, the dark(ness)在黑暗中, the dark in in in 不知道, freezing weather 在严寒天气中, the mud 在泥中, the earth 在地下,in the desert in in in 在沙漠中,in a heavy rain 在大雨中, the snow / wind 在雪/风中,in public 当众, trouble 在 in in 困境中,get into trouble 陷入困境,out of trouble 摆脱困难,beyond hope 绝望。 ④across 在物体表面―穿过‖;through 则表示在三维空间内部“穿过‖。如: They walked across the playground. I walked through the forest. ⑤over / under / above / below。 over、 above 译作 “在??之上” under、 ; below 译作 “在??的下面” 其区别在于 over、 , under 表示一种直接的、 垂直的上下关系; above、 而 below 则表示一般的 “高于” “低于” 或 , 不一定是垂直“在上”或“在下” 。如: A little boat is now under the bridge. There is a bridge over the river. The sun sinks below the horizon(地平线) The window is well above the tree. ⑥表示地点介词的静态性和动态性 He walked to the station(静态,表示方向和目的地) He walked towards the station.(动态,只表示方向) He is kind to (towards)us.(两者通用) He is at the station.(静态,表示地点)

They arrived at the station.(动态,表示地点) He swam away from the ship.(动态“离开”) He stood away from the shop.(静态“远离”) He fell onto the floor.(动态“到地面”) The city is on the Changjiang River.(静态“平面”) Go off the road.偏离了道路(动态“离去” ) Come along the river.沿着河过来(线) across the fields 跨过田野??,over the desert 跨越沙漠 across the river 横跨这条河??,over the hill 翻过这座山 be in the house(静态,在这里??)stay out of the car(静态,在??外) go into the house(动态,进入)fly out of the country(动态,离开) (7)表示方式、手段、工具的介词 ①by the year/hour/day 按年/小时/天。如 He rent a house by the year(day,hour).(按 by+the+ 单位名称)但 to the pound 按磅算,to the ton 按吨计。 ②表泛指的方式、手段 by post/mail 邮寄,by telephone(radio),但 on the phone/on the radio/on TV(电讯器材),by electricity 用 电 , by machinery 用 电 器 , by hard work,learn sth.by heart,through the satellite,through practice,through his own efforts,through experience,through the telescop ② 交通工具类 by bus/train/car/taxi(road) by bike/bicycle,on horse back/on foot by plane/jet/spaceship,by air by ship/boat/lifeboat,by sea/by water 另外:by means of 用??方法,by way of 经由,取道于,用……方法,with the help (permission)of sb./with sb.‘s help (permission)。 ④表方式、手段的其他用法 He beat the dog with a whip.(with+工具机器) One smells with his nose.(with+人体器官,但 by hand“手工,用手‖) He stood up with pride.(with+情绪、情感、态度的名词) 注意:使用语言、材料、文字等用 in。如 in English(ink,pencil)。另外如:in high (good,low)spirits,in anger,in joy,in comfort,in sorrow,in safety,in danger,in need,in debt,in love,in fun,in pain,in tears,in surprise,in good(poor)health,in good order,in flower,in a way,in a low voice,in silence,in(with)satisfaction,in a hurry,in(with)words,live/feed on food,kneel on one‘s knee,take(catch)sb.by surprise(出其不意) (8)表示“除??之外”的几组常用介绍比较。 ①besides 除??以外, (还有) 。作副词时意思是“而且,更何况” 。 Well all went to the cinema besides Shaw.除了肖外,我们都去了电影院。 It was too late to see a film, and besides, I was tired. ②except 除去,除??之外(不再有) 。 We all went except John.我们都去了,约翰没有。 在否定句中,两词可以换用,如: He has no other hats except / besides this one.

③except for 除了??(对句子主题进行细节校正或附加说明)后接名词、代词或 what 从句,此时与 except that + 句子意思相同。 He was very clever except for carelessness. ④except that … 除了??一点以外。 He has not changed except that he is wearing dark glasses. ⑤but 与 except but 和 except 在表示“除了??以外”时可以通用,但应注意以下三点: ①前面有不定人词、疑问代词在意义上对称时,多用 but。 All but one are here. Nobody but I likes making model ships. ②后接不定式短语为排除对象时,多用 but。 He has nothing to do but wait.(前有 do,后省 to) ③but 与一些固定结构连用。 have no choice but to do sth.只得做某事,can not but do sth.不得不,can not help but do sth. 不得不??,but for … 如不是?? (9)between 与 among. between 通常指两者之间。也可以用于三者以上的两者之间。如: Ann is between Tom and Bill. Switzer land lies between France, Germany, Australia and Italy. They soon finished the work between themselves.(共同,合作) She was busy between cooking, washing, sewing and looking after the baby.(表示接连不断 地,一个接一个地忙这忙那) A horse can be seen between trees now. among 表示三者以上之间。如: The story is said to have happened in a village among the hills. He was happy to be among friends again. We must agree among ourselves.(一起,共同)我们必须达成共识。 London is among the largest cities.( = one of 与最高级连用) (10)表原因的介词 for、because of、due to。 He didn‘t come to the meeting because of his illness. The reason for his coming late is that he was ill. He was praised for his bravery and courage. The accident is due to your careless driving. (11)不定式复合结构中的 for、of。 这里所说的不定式复合结构形式指的是 for 或 of 加上人或事,作动词不定式逻辑主语 的结构。 ①It is clever of you to answer it like that. ②It is quite hard for me to explain why. 注意:两句中的 of 和 for 的使用,表语形容词能够说明不定式逻辑主语的性质、特征与 面貌时用 of,如果说明不定式行为本身的性质、状态等则用 for。 (12)兼作连词和副词的介词。 ①after、since、till / still、before 这些词既是介词,又是连词。 The children went home at once after school. They went to bed after they had finished the job.

②in、on、along、down、up、after、before、along、beyond 等介词可兼作副词。 He ran down the hill.(介词) Can you lift that box down from the shelf for me ?(副词) ③有的介词可以兼作连词和副词。 All the students got to school before me.(before 为介词) We do want to buy something now before prices go up.(连词) Haven‘t I seen you before?(before 为副词) (13)介词的省略。 ①表示时间的介词 on、at 、in 的省略。在 next、last、yesterday、tomorrow、each、one、 any、every、all 等词之前,可以省略,也可以不省略。如(at)last weekend、 (on)that day 等。 ②介词 for 表示时间的省略要求。 (A)以 all 开头的名词短语,for 要省略。如:I stayed with her all he morning.(B)表示一段时间的短语之前,for 可以省略,也可以不省略。如: I have been waiting hereI (for) more than three hours.(C)否定句中,表示时间的短语前的 for 不能省略。如:I haven‘t seen you for thirty years.(D)时间状语在主句之前,for 不能省略。如: For the whole morning,the old man kept reading. ③某些动词短语之后的介词可以省略。 Nothing can prevent me(from)doing the job. She spent nearly two hours(in)translating it. (14)某些名词与介词构成的固定搭配。 ①要求接 to 的名词有:key、answer、visit、entrance、apology、introduction、road 等。 ②要求接 in 的名词有:interest、satisfaction、expert 等。 He is expert in teaching small children. (15)几个常用的并列连词。 ①both … and, either … or, neither … nor both … and“双方都” ,连接句子的两个主语时,其后谓语动词通常用使用复数形式。 either … or 与 neither … nor 注意采取“就近原则” 。 ②not only … but also, as well as 注意:两者强调对象不同,not only … but also 强调的是 but also 之后部分,而 as well as 则强调其前面的部分。not only … but also 采取“就近原则” ,而 as well as 只是一个插入语, 采取“就远原则” 。如: Mr.Smith, as well as his wife and children, has come to Nanjing for a visit. not only … but also 结构中的 not only 可用于句首, 连接两个分句时, 第一个从句主谓要 倒装。 Not only is he clever ,but also he is hard working. (16)几个常用的从属连词。 ①when、while、as 都表示“当??时候” ,when 引导的从句的动作与主句的动词可同 时发生,也可先后发生;as、while 引导的从句则强调主句和从句的动作同时发生。如: When I go to the station, the train had already left. He sang merrily as he was working. ②till、until 均表示“到??时候止” ,肯定句中的谓语必须是延续性动作。如:I worked till late at night.若主句谓语是终止性动词,则主句要用否定形式,意为动作“到??才??” 开始发生。如: She didn‘t get up until her mother came in.

注意:till 和 until 通常情况下可以互换,只是在句首时 until 比 till 更常用。 ③though、although 均引导让步状语从句,意为“虽然??” ,although 较正式,though 最常用。如: Thouth (Although)he was tired,he kept on working. 注意:though、although 引导的从句不能与 but、however 连用,但可以与 yet、still 连用。 though 还可以与别的词结合使用,如 even though、 as though,而 although 则不能这样搭配。 ④no sooner … than、hardly … when、as soon as 三者都表示“一??就” ,―刚刚??就‖ 的意思。 (A)as soon as 置于主句前后都可以,而且有备各种时态。如:As soon as she gets here I‘ll tell her about it. Mary left as soon as the finished the work.(B)hardly … when、no sooner … than 不能表示将来的事,其主句的谓语动词一般用过去完成时,从句用过去时。 若将 hardly 或 no sooner 放在句首, 句子要倒装。 No sooner had he arrived than he went away 如: again. ⑤某些表示时间的名词(词组)也可用作从属连词。它们是:the moment, the minute,the instant, the day, the time, the first (second, third …) time, the spring (summer, autumn,winter), every(each, next, any) time(day),by the time,都可引导时间状语从句。如: His mother died the spring he returned. Call me up the minute he arrives. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. The home improvements have taken what little there is _________my spare time.(NMET 2001) A. from B. in C. of D. at 解析: 答案为 C。 本题考查句子结构中介词 of 的有法。 what 引导的从句作谓语 have taken 的宾语,而从句中的基本句型为“there is little of …”,表示“??有很少” ,what 修饰 little 提到了从句句首。 注意正确把握句子结构和介词用法, 要明白 of my spare time 和 in my spare time 的区别。 2. ____________ production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year.(NMET 2000) A. As B. For C. With D. Through 解析:答案为 C。本题考查 with 的复合结构作状语的用法。 “with + 名词 + 不定式/分 词/名词/形容词/介词短语等”可在句中作伴随、时间、原因、条件等状语。本题中 with 的 复合结构作伴随状语。 3. The changes in the city will cost quite a lot, ___________they will save us money in the long run.(2000 春季高考题) A. or B. since C. for D. but 解析:答案为 D。本题考查并列连词 or、for、but 和从属连词的意义和用法。并列连词 or 通常表示选择关系;for 表示因果关系;but 表示转折关系;从属连词 since 表示原因。通 过比较前后两个分句意思可知,它们是转折关系。 4. After she considered the problem, she got a tall box to stand ________. A. on B. up C. above D. by 解析:答案为 A。不定式“to stand + 介词”作定语修饰 a tall box,其中被修饰词在逻辑 意义上是不及物动词,只有加上吊尾介词,句子意思才完整。吊尾介词往往由于受到汉语的 影响而缺少,吊尾介词使用的场合有:

(1)定语从句中,先行词被一个不及物动词所修饰,不及物动词后要接介词,先行词 被“动词 + 介词”组成的短语动词所修饰,介词常在句尾。 He is the man I just spoke to. (2)what、whose、who、whatever 等引导的宾语从句,宾语从句出现吊尾介词。 I can‘t imagine what it is like. (3) 强调句型,特殊疑问句中由于被强调部分和疑问词位置变更,常出现吊尾介词。 It was the poor boy that we gave the books to. What for? Where to? Who with? (4)不及物动词的不定式修饰表“涉及对象、场合、工具、方式、材料”等意义的名词 时常带吊尾介词。 a room to live in, a bench to sit on There is nothing to worry about. She is a good girl to work with. (5)某些形容词后接不定式或“动词 + 介词”型短语,动词的不定式形式表“反射” , 常用吊尾介词。 ①fit、easy、hard、comfortable、difficult、heavy 等形容词后。 ②The river is good to swim in. The box is too heavy to carry. ③be worth doing sth.,be worthy of being done / to be done, want/ require / need doing 5.Roses need special care they can live through winter. A. because B. so that C. even if D. as 解析:答案为 B。本题考状语从句。全句意为:玫瑰花需要特殊关心,以便过冬(为了 安全度过冬天) 。其余选项不合逻辑。 6. you call me to say you‘re not coming, I‘ll see you at the theatre. A. Though B. Whether C. Until D. Unless 解析:答案为 D。本题考状事从句,全句意为:我将在剧院门口等你,除非你打电话说 你不来了。D 项表条件,符合句意。A 项表让步,意为尽管;B 项表让步,意为“不管?? (还是??)”C 项表时间,意为“直道??(才??),均不和逻辑。 ; ” 7.Several weeks had gone by I realized the painting was missing. A. as B. before C. since D. when 解析:答案为 B。本题考查连词的用法。时间 had passed(gone)by before S + did…在不 知不觉中过??(已过去了) 。

语法复习专题六——数 词
一、考点聚焦 1、序号表示法 (1)单纯的序号,可在基数词前加 number,简写为 No.。如:No.1 第一号 (2)事物名词的序号表达法有什所不同: ①对于一些小序号可有序数词也可用基数词表达,形式分别为:the + 序数词 + 名词;名词 + 基数词。如:第一次世界大战可以表示为 the First World War 或 World War One。 ②对于一些大序号我们通常只用一种表达法,即名词 + 数词。如:501 号房间表示为

Room 501, 538 路公共汽车表示为 Bus 538。 ③可用 a / the + number + 基数词 + 名词。如:a No.5 bus 一辆五路公共汽车,the No.8 bus 那辆 8 路公共汽车。 2、倍数的表达方式 一般情况下我们用以下三种倍数表达方式: (1)倍数用在 as + 形容词 / 副词(原级)+ as 结构之前。如: They have three times as many cows as we do. (2)倍数放在形容词或副词的比较级之前或 by + 倍数用在比较级之后。如: This rope is four times longer than that one. They produced more products in 2001 than those in 2000 by twice. (3) 倍数用在表示度量名词前, 其基本结构为: 倍数 + the + size / length / weight … + of + 表示比较对象的名词,也可用于倍数 + what 引导的从句中。如: This room is three times the size of that one. The college is twice what it was 5 years age. You can‘t imagine that rats eat 40 to 50 times their weight. 3、大约数的表示方法 (1)用 ten、dozen、score、hundred、thousand、million 等数词的复数后加 of 短语来表 示几十、几百、上千、成千上万等大约数概念。如: The little boy buys dozens of pencils every term. Thousands of people died in the earthquake. Every year tens of thousands of people go to work in Guangdong Province. (2)用、less than、under、below、almost、nearly、up to 等来表示小于或接近某数目。 如: He is good at English, so he can finish the paper in less than two hours. (3)用 more than、over、above、beyond、or more 等来表示超过或多于某个数目。如: Peking University has a history of more than 100 years. (4)用 or、or so、about、around、some、more or less 等表示在某一数目左右。如: About 50 people were present at that time. (5)用 to、from … to…、between … and 表示介于两数词。如: His salary rises from 20 dollars a week to 35 dollars a week. (6)注意事项:dozen、score、hundred、thousand、million 作数词表示确切数量时,不 用复数。如:three score, five dozen, seven million 等。 4、分数的表达方式 (1)分子用基数词,分母用序数词,分子大于 1 时,分母用复数。如:one-third 三分 之一,three-sevenths 七分之三。 (2)分子与分母之间加 in, 分子在前,分母在后,分子分母都用基数词。如:one in ten 十分之一,five in eight 八分之五。 (3)分子与分母之间加 out of , 分子在前,分母在后,分子分母都用基数词。如:one out of ten 十分之一,five out of eight 八分之五。 5、百分数的表示法 (1)表示百分数直接将数词放在单词 percent 前面即可,如:twenty percent 百分之二 十。 (2)分数和百分数后面不能直接接名词或代词,而用以下形式:分数/百分数 +of + 冠词 / 限定词 + 名词 / 代词 ,其谓语动词与 of 后的名词在人称和数上保持一致,如:

Two-thirds of the money was spent on food. About seventy percent of the earth surface is covered by water. 6、小数的表示法 小数的表示法,小数点前的总值发同其他数词一样,小数点用 point,小数点后面的数读 成个位数,如:9.65 表示为 nine point six five。218.39 表示为 two hundred and eighteen point three nine。 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. ____________ people in the world are sending information by E-mail every day.(2001 年 上海春季高考卷) A. Several million B. Many millions C. Several millions D. Many million 解析:答案为 A。本题考查的是 million 表示确切数量的用法。million 前需用数表确切 数量, 而不用 many 这类词, 但可说 many millions of 上百万的) 故本题中用 Several million。 ( , 2. The number of people invited __________ fifty, but a number of them __________ absent for different reasons.(NMET 96) A. were ; was B. was ; was C. was ; were D. were ; were 解析:答案为 C。本题考查的是 the number of + 名词与 a number of + 名词作主语时 谓语的单复数问题。 number of 是 the “??的数目” 作主语时谓语动词用单数, a number , 而 of 后接可数名词的复数形式,作主语时谓语动词用复数形式,故此题最佳选项为 C。 3. Shortly after the accident, two ___________ police were sent to the sport to keep order .(NMET 92) A. dozens of B. dozens C. dozen D. dozen of 解析:答案为 C。此题考查的是数词 dozen 表示确切数量时的用法,dozen 表示确切数 量时用其单数形式,当 dozens 的复数后接 of 时则表示不确切数量,本题答案为 C。

语法复习专题七——动词时态和语态
一、考点聚焦 1、动词时态考查要点简述 (1)一般现在时考点分析 ①表示客观事实或普通真理(不受时态限制) The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun. Water boils at 100oC. ②表示现状、性质、状态时多用系动词或状态动词;表示经常或习惯性的动作,多用动 作动词,且常与表频率的时间状语连用。 Ice feels cold. We always care for each other and help each other. ③表示知觉、 态度、 感情、 某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时: see、 hear、 smell、 taste、feel、notice、agree、believe、like、hate、want、think、belong seem 等。如: I know what you mean. Smith owns a car and a house. All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School.

④在时间、条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。但要注意由 if 引导的条件状 语从句中可以用 shall 或 will 表“意愿” ,但不表示时态。 If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased.如果你愿 意接受并参加我们的舞会,我的家人会非常高兴。 ⑤少数用于表示起止的动词如 come、go、leave、arrive、fly、return、start、begin、pen、 close、end、stop 等常用一般现在时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动 作。当 be 表示根据时间或事先安排,肯定会出现的状态,只用一般现在时。 The shop closes at 11:00 p.m. every day. Tomorrow is Wednesday. (2)一般过去时的考点分析(考核重点) 。 ①一般过去时的基本用法: 表示过去的事情、 动作或状态常与表示过去具体的时间状语 连用(或有上下文语境暗示) ;用于表达过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或希 望的事通常用过去式。如: I met her in the street yesterday. I once saw the famous star here. They never drank wine. I thought the film would be interesting,but it isn‘t. ②如果从句中有一个过去的时间状语, 尽管从句中的动作先于主句发生, 但从句中的谓 语动词连用过去式。如: He told me he read an interesting novel last night. ③表示两个紧接着发生的动作,常由以下词语连接,用一般过去时。如:but, and, when, as soon as, immediately, the moment, the minute。 The moment she came in, she told me what had happened to her. He bought a watch but lost it. ④常用一般过去时的句型: Why didn‘t you / I think of that? I didn‘t notice it. I forgot to tell you I had been there with my brother before. I didn‘t recognize him. (3)一般将来时考点分析。 ①表示未来的动作或状态常用 will / shall + 动词(常与表示将来的时间状语边用如 tomorrow、next week 等) 。 ②表示一种趋向或习惯动作。 We‘ll die without air or water. ③表示趋向行为的动词如 come、go、start、begin、leave 等词常用进行时的形式表示将 来时。 ④be going to 与 will / shall, be to do, be about to do 用法及区别: be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事, 这种打算往往经过事先考虑, 甚至已 做了某种准备;shall / will do 表示未事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。 be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而 will 则能,表意愿。如: If it is fine, we‘ll go fishing.(正确) If it is fine, we are going to go fishing.(错误) be to do sth.表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止,可能性等。 A meeting is to be held at 3:00 o‘clock this afternoon.

be about to do sth.表示“即可,就要” ,后面不能接时间状语或状语从句。 Autumn harvest is about to start. (4)现在进行时考点分析。 ①表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作; 表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时; 表近期特 定的安排或计划;go、come 等起止动作可用进行时代替将来时。如: It is raining now. He is teaching English and learning Chinese. I am meeting Mr. Wang tonight. We are leaving on Friday. At six I am bathing the baby.(I start bathing the bady before six.) The girl is always talking loud in public.(与 always、often 等频度副词连用,表经常反复的 行动或某种感情色彩) ②下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。A) ( 表示心理状态、 情感的动作: like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need。B) ( 表存在的状态的动词: appear, exist, lie, remain, seem belong to, depend on。 (C)表示一时性动作的动词:allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete。 (D) 表示感官的动词: hear, notice, feel, smell, sound, taste, look。 see, (5)过去完成时考点分析(考核重点) 。 ①常用过去完成时的几种情况: (A)在 by、by the end、by the time、until、before、since 后接表示过去某一时间的短语或从句以前发生的动作。如:By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. (B)表示曾实现的希望、 打 算、意图、诺言等。常用 had hoped / planned / meant / intended/ though / wanted / expected 等或用上述动词过去式接不定式完成式表示即:hoped / planned … + to have done。 (C) “时间名词 + before‖在句子中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成 时; “时间名词 + ago”在句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去式。如:He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago.(D)表示“一??就”的几 个句型:Hardly / No sooner / Scarcely had + 主语 + 过去分词 + when / than / before + 一般 过去时。如:We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No sooner had we been seated than the bus started. ②在 before 或 after 引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时态代替过去完成时。 After he (had) left the room, the boss came in. We arrived home before it snowed. (6)过去将来时考点分析。 参照一般将来时对比:用 would do、was / were going to do sth.表过去将来;come、go、 leave 等过去进行时表过去将来时;was / were to do sth.和 was / were about to do sth.表过去将 来。 (7)过去进行时考点分析。 ①过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某一阶段内发生或频繁发生。 ②某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生,其中一个在由 when 或 while 引导的时间状语从 句中。 (8)现在完成时考点分析。 ①现在完成时除可以和 for、since 引导的状语连用外,还可以和下面的介词短语连用: during / in /over the last(past)few years (months, weeks)、in recent years 等。 ②下列句型中常用现在完成时 It is (has been) + 一段时间 + since 从句

This(That / It)is the first(second…)time that + 完成时 This(That / It)is the only … + that + 完成时 This(that / It)is the best / finest / most interesting … + that 从句 + 完成时 ③在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替一般将来时。如: I shall post the letter as soon as I have written it. If you have done the experiment, you will realize the theory better. Don‘t get off the bus until it has stopped. (9)注意几组时态的区别: ①一般过去时与现在完成时:时间上有差异:凡有过去时间的均用过去时态,不能用完 成时态,如含有 ago、last year、just now、the other day 等。 结果上有差异:现在完成时强调的是对“现在”的影响和结果,动作到现在刚完成或还 在继续;一般过去时强调的是动作发生在“过去” ,和现在毫无关系。 ②过去完成时与一般过去时:过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去” ;如出现同一主语连 续几个动作( “连谓” )形式则只用一般过去时即可。 2、被动语态考查要点简述 被动语态的构成方式:be + 过去分词,口语只也有用 get / become + 过去分词表示。被 动语态的基本用法: 不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。 强调或突出动作 的承受者常用被动语态(by 短语有时可以省略) 。 (1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。 ①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。 My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday. I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday. ②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变)(作补语的)不定式前需加 to。 ; The boss made him work all day long. He was made to work all day long(by the boss) ③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴” 。 The children were taken good care of (by her). Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. ④情态动词和 be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better 等结构变被动 语态,只需将它们后面的动词原形变为 be +过去分词。 ⑤当句子的谓语为 say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report 等时, 被动语态有两种形式: (A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。 (B)用 it 作形式主 语,真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如: People say he is a smart boy. It is said that he is a smart boy. He is said to be a smart boy. People know paper was made in China first. It is known that paper was made in China first. Paper was known to be made in China first. 类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that … (2)不能用被动语态的几种情况。 ①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。 ②表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、

look like、consist to 等。 ③表示归属的动词,如 have、own、belong to 等。 ④表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate 等。 ⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。 ⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。 ⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有 sell、 write、wash、open、lock 等。 (3)主动形式表被动意义。 ①当 feel、look、smell、taste、sound 等后面接形容词时;当 cut、read、sell、wear、write 等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。 This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。 These novels won‘t sell well.这些小说不畅销。 My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。 The door won‘t lock.门锁不上。 The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。 ②当 break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out 等动词表示“发生、关闭、制定” 等意思时。 The plan worked out successfully. The lamps on the wall turn off. ③want, require, need 后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。 ④be worth doing 用主动形式表示被动含义。 ⑤在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。 This kind of water isn‘t fit to drink. The girl isn‘t easy to get along with. 另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。 (4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。 ①be seated 坐着 He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。 ②be hidden 躲藏 He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后。 ③be lost 迷路 ④be drunk 喝醉 ⑤be dressed 穿着 The girl was dressed in a red short skirt. (5)被动语态与系表结构的区别 被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态。如: The book was sold by a certain bookstore.(被动语态) The book is well sold.(系表结构) 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. Visitors ________not to touch the exhibits.(NMET 2001) A. will request B. are requested C. are requesting D. request 解析: 答案为 B。 此题的时态是不难判断的, 因为说的是一条规定, 所以用一般现在时,

而 visitor 与 request 之间是动宾关系, request visitors not to touch the exhibits,究竟是谁要求 即 他们这样做呢?不清楚,也不必知道,因此需要用被动语态。分析 visitors 与 request 之间的 关系是此题的解题关键。 2. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology __________ so rapidly.(NMET 2001) A. is changing B. has changed C. will have changed D. will change 解析:答案为 A。此题考查现在进行时态的用法。句意为“选择一部移动电话不是一件 容易的事, 因为科技发展得十分迅速。 本句的主句一般现在时表达的是目前的情况, “科 ” 而 技发展迅速”也是现阶段正存在的一种状态,不是在过去,也不是在将来,因此只能用现在 进行时表达。 3. All the preparations for the task ___________, and we‘re ready to start.(2000 年春季高 考) A. completed B. complete C. had been completed D. have been completed 解析: 答案为 D。 现在完成时表示过去年做的事对现在的影响。 and we‘re ready to start 从 句意可知,一切准备工作已经就绪,可以开始工作了。complete 是及物动词,与句子的主语 是被动关系,所以需要用被动语态表达。注意①分清 complete 与主语之间的关系;②结合 语境选择正确时态。 4.My mind wasn‘t on what he was saying so I‘m afraid I half of it. A. was missing B. had missed C. will miss D. missed 解析:答案为 D。本句考时态和语境。全句意思是;我的心没在他说的话上,所以恐怕 他说的话我有一半没听到。整个事情是过去的事,且是做过的事,所以选一般过去时 D。 5.The discussion alive when an interesting topic was brought in. A. was coming B. had come C. has come D. came 解析:答案为 D。come alive“变得活跃” 。照顾时间状语从句时态一致时。 6.—I hear Jane has gone to the Holy Island for her holiday. —Oh, how nice! Do you know when she ? A. was leaving B. had left C. has left D. left 解析:答案为 D。考查动词时态,由现完成时的用法,可知动作发生在过去,故选 D。

语法复习专题八——情态动词
一、考点聚焦 1、 情态动词的基本用法 (1)can、be able to 和 could ①can 和 be able to 都表示能力, 意思上没多大区别。 can 只有现在和过去时, be able 但 而 to 则有更多的形式。但当成功地完成某一具体动作时,通常不用 could 而用 was/were able to 来表示。这时 was/were able to 相当于 managed to,表示经过一番努力,终于能够完成某事。 如: Can you use chopsticks? The wounded man still was able to get to the village and was saved in the end. ②can 和 could can 和 could 都可以表示能力、技能、许可、建议或请求和可能性。但比较委婉客气地

提出问题或陈述看法,一般用 could,回答时则用 can。如: Could you help me carry the bag? Can I help you? (2)may/might ①may/might 表示可能,但 may 比 might 可能性大。如:-Why isn‘t he in class? He may be sick.(生病的可能性较大) — He might be sick.(生病的可能性较小) ②may/might 表示“允许” ,may 用于现在时或将来时,might 常用在间接引语中表过去 时,但 might 也可用于现在时间,表示比较委婉的语气,回答用 may。如: He says we may leave. He said we might leave. ③may / might 表示建议或请求,但 might 比 may 更客气,意思更肯定而无过去时态的 含义。 Yes, you can / may. —May / Might I use your bike? — No, you mustn‘t (3)must ①must 表示必须,应该,没有时态变化。如: You must do everything as I do. ②must 表示肯定的推测。如: The light is still on, so he must be at home. ③mustn‘t 表示禁止做某事。如: You mustn‘t smoke in the office. (4)have to have to 表示“必须、不得不” ,是由于某种外界(客观)原因而“必须”“不得不”做 , 某事,也可表示经常的或习惯性的事“必须”做。have to 的否定形式表示不必。have to 可 用于多种时态中。如: You will have to clean your own boots when you join the army. I have to be at my office every evening. (5)should / ought to ①should 和 ought to 表示应当、应该,前者比后者语气轻。如: You should / ought to work hard. ②should / ought to work hard. Since she is not here, whe should / ought to be in the classroom. ③should / ought to 的否定形式表示禁止之意。如: Children shouldn‘t smoke. ④should 可表示陈述意见,推出建议或请求;而 ought to 可以表示劝告之意。如: You ought to respect your parents. He suggested that they should leave at once. (6)will / would ①will 用于各种人称表示“意志”“意愿”或“决心”等,否定式 won‘t + 动词。如: 、 I will tell you all about it. Tom won‘t do such a thing.

②will 用于疑问句中,常用在第二称时表示说话人向对方提出“请求”或“询问”如: Will you please tell her the news when you see her? ③will 表示习惯性的动作,有“总是”“惯于”的含义。如: 、 Fish will die out of water. ④would 表示客气的请求、建议或意愿。如: Would you please be quiet? Would you like coffee? ⑤would 表示过去反复发生的动作。如: When I passed my school I would see my teachers who taught me 5 years ago. (7)need need 作“必要”讲,既可作情态动词,也可作实义动词。作实义动词时后面的动词不 定式要带 to,其变化与一般动词相同。如: I need to think it over. —Need you go now? —Yes, I must./No, I needn‘t (8)dare dare 表示“敢”的意思。作为情态动词时,主要用在疑问句和否定句中。dare 若作实义 动词,后面可带 to 的不定式,此时 to 也可以省略。dare 与 need 的用法相似。如: How dare you say that? She doesn‘t date(to)ask her father. (9)used to used to 表示过去常常发生的动作或存在的习惯,但现在已不复存在了。如: He used to smoke. (10)shall ①shall 作为情态动词用于第二、三人称,表示说话人的意愿,有“命令”“警告、威 、 胁、强制”和“允许”等意思。如: We shall do as our teacher says. You shall have the book as soon as I finish it. ②在疑问句中,shall 用于征求对方的意见或请求指示,常用于第一、第三人称。如: Where shall he wait for us? Shall we go out for a walk? 2、情态动词表示推测或判断的用法 下表即是表示推测的情态动词使用的场合:

情态动词 must may / might can /could should 例如:

对现在和未来的推测 must + 动词原形 may / might + 动词原形 can / could do 用来表示一种估计的情况 “按 理会/估计会”should do/be

对过去的推测 must have done May / might have done Can / could have done should have done

使 用 场 合 肯定句 肯定句、否定句 否定句、 疑问名 (could 可用于肯定句) 肯定句、否定句、疑 问句

It must have rained last night. She may not be at home. = It is possible that she is not at home. She can‘t be at home. = It is impossible that she is at home. They should be there right now. 3、情态动词在虚拟语气中的用法 情态动词用于虚拟语气中表示责备的感情色彩,用法如下: (1)should have done 表示“本来应该做某事而实际上未做” ,而 shouldn‘t have done 则 表示“本不应该做某事而实际上做了” 。如: You should have told me about it earlier. You shouldn‘t have said such words to your parents. (2)ought to have done 也表示“本应该??”而 ought not to have done 则意为“本不应 该??” 。如: You ought to have told me about it earlier. You ought not to have said such words to your parents. (3)needn‘t have done 表示“本无必要做某事而实际上做了” 。如: You needn‘t have walked so quickly since time was enough. (4)could have done 表示“本来有可能??而事实上未做到” 。如: I could have come on time, but my car broke on the way. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. I was really anxious about you. You________home without a word.(NMET 2001) A. mustn‘t have B. shouldn‘t have left C. couldn?t have left D. needn‘t have 解析:答案为 B。本题考查的是情态动词在虚拟语气中的用法。题目给出的条件是“我 确实非常担心你” ,因此后面可知应是责备 you 不应该没说一句话就离开了。 2.—Are you coming to Jeff‘s party? —I‘m not sure. I__________ go to the concert instead. (NMET 2000) A. must B. would C. should D. might 解析:答案为 D。本题考查情态动词的基本用法。由题目中“I‘m not sure”,表明我可 能去 Jeff‘s party,也可能去音乐会,故用 might。 3. —Will you stay for lunch? —Sorry, ____________. My brother is coming to see me.(NMET 99) A. I mustn‘t B. I can‘t C. I needn‘t D. I won‘t 解析: 答案为 B。 本题考查表示请求的英语口语, will 来向第二人称提问的疑问结构, 用 是表示一种请求和意愿,是用疑问的形式来表达较为婉转的祈使语气,意思是“请你??, 好吗” ,对于这种问句的肯定回答是:Suree! Gertainly! Yes, of course. I‘d be glad to 等;否定 回答通常是:I‘m sorry, I can‘t. No, I‘m afraid I can‘t. I‘m sorry, but … I‘d like to, but …等。注 意情态动词表客气的用法及其在一般疑问句中的问与答。 4.—Isn‘t that Ann‘s husband over there? —No, it be him I‘m sure he doesn‘t wear glasses. A. can‘t B. must not C. won‘t D. may not 解析:答案为 A。本题考查情态动词表推测。问:那边的难道不是 Ann 的丈夫吗?答: 不是。不可能是他,我确信他不戴眼镜。 5.You be tired-you‘ve only been working for an hour.

A. must not B. won‘t C. can‘t D. may not 解析:答案为 C。本题考查情态动词。句中破折号后的内容对前一句进行解释说明:你 只工作了一个小时,所以你不可能累的。表否定推测时用 can‘t。A 项表禁止(不许) 项 ,B 表未来,D 项表不允许。均不可用,故选 C。 6.I often see lights in that empty house. Do you think I report it to the police? A. should B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever 解析: 答案为 A。 本题考情态动词。 在空房子里看到灯光, 是一件奇怪而令人生疑的事, 故问:你是否认为我应当把这事儿报告给警察?应用 A。

语法复习专题九——非谓语动词
一、考点聚焦 1、非谓语动词的句法功能 名称 不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词 语 主语 √ √ 宾语 √ √ √ √ 法 √ 功 能 表语 √ √ √ √ 定语 √ √ √ √ √ √ 状语 √ 宾语补足语

2、动词不定式复心中应注意的几个问题 (1)不定式作表语与“be + to do sth.”的异同。不定式作表语说明主语的内容或性质。 His job is to guard. (说明内容) be + to do sth.(表示按计划要做的事) (2)带不定式作宾语的词语。 下列词语常不定式作宾语:afford、promise、refuse、expect、hope、learn、offer、wish、 want、fail、plan、agree、forget、like、prefer、decide、manage、try、arrange、determine、 desire 等。 下列动词后可接疑问词+不定式: teach、 decide、 wonder、 show、 learn、 forget、 ask、 find、 out、advise、discuss 等。 (3)如何理解和使用不定式作宾补。 ①动词 see、watch、notice、hear、listen to、observe、feel、taste、smell、make、let、have 等的宾补用动词原形,变被动时要加 to,此时的不定式就是主语补足语。 ②常用带不定式作宾补的几种情况: 主语 + ask / require / tell / order / force / get / want / like + sb.to do sth. ③主语 + think / judge / suppose / believe / consider /imagine/ consider / feel + sb. + to be/ to have done ④主语 + call on / upon / depend on / wait for / ask for + sb.+ to do sth. (4)不定式作定语的特殊用法。 ①下列词语后常接不定式作定语:chance、wish、right、courage、need、promise、time、 opportunity、way、the first、the second、the last、the only 等。 ②不定式作定语和所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主谓关系。 There is no one to look after her. ③不定式与被修饰的名词在逻辑上有动宾关系。

She is now looking for a room to live in. (5)不定式作状语的用法。 不定式作状语,修饰动词,在句中表示行为目的、结果、原因。only to do 表示出人意 料的结果。 We hurried to the classroom only to find none there . in order(not)to,so as(not)to 用来引导目的状语,enough,too, so… as to do, such + 名词… as to do 作结果状语,如:The girl was so kind as to help the old man off the bus. I‘m not such a fool as to believe that. (6)不定式的完成时的特殊用法。 ①表示不定式中谓语动词发生的动作先于主句的谓语动词发出的动作。 The novel was said to have been published. I regret to have been with you for so many years. seem、appear、be said、be supposed、be believed、be thought、be known、be reported 等动词常用于上面句型。 此外,glad、happy、satisfied、sorry、surprised、disappointed 后也接完成时,但要注意 与一般时的区别。 I‘m sorry to keep you waiting for a minute.对不起,请稍等。 (说话时还未等) I‘m sorry to have kept you waiting.对不起,让你久等了。 (说话时已等了很久) ②不定式的完成时还可表示“过去本想做某事但未做”的虚拟语气。 (A)should like to / would like to / would love to + 不定式的完成时。 (B)was / were to + 不定式的完成时,表 示该做某事或想做但未实现。 expect / hope / mean / promise / suppose / think / want/ wish + (C) 不定式完成时,表示过去未曾实现的愿望。 (7)不定式的省略。 ①同一结构并列由 and 或 or 连接。 I want to finish my homework and go home. I‘m really puzzled what to think or say. 特例:To be or not to be,this is a question. He is better to laugh than to cry.(表示对比) ②不定式作表语,其前面的主语从句中含有 do 时,后面的 to 省略。 What he did was lose the game. ③句中含有动词 do 时,but、except、besides、such as 等后面 to 可省略。即“前有 do, 后省 to” 。 Don‘t do anything silly, such as marry him. ④主句含有不定式,后面有 rather than, rather than 后省 to。 ⑤Why not、had better、would rather、can‘t but 等词后省 to。如: He could not but walk home. (8)不定式的替代。 多用在同一句或联系紧密的对话中,为了避免重复,作宾语或主补,宾补的不定式再次 出现时,to 后的内容常承前省略(只保留 to 即可) 。但如果承前省略的不定式有助动用的 have 或 be 任何形式,后应该保留原形 be 或 have。如: Susan is not what she used to be. —You came late last night. You ought to have finished your homework. —I know I ought to have. 常见的有:I‘d like / love / be happy to.

3、动名词复习中应注意的几个问题 (1)动名词作宾语。 ①下列动词后只能接动名词:suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can‘t help, mind, enjoy, require, practise, miss, escape, pardon, advise, consider, imagine, keep, appreciate, eacape, permit。 ②下列动词短语接动名词:leave off, put off, give up, look forward to, feel like, have trouble / difficulty(in) doing sth. devote to, get used to, pay attention to, be fond of, be worth。 ③介词后要接动名词。what about、how about、without、be fond of、be good at 等介词 后接动名词。注意 on / upon doing sth. = as soon as 引导的从中。作此意讲时 on / upon 后也 可以接名词。如 on his arrival…。 ④动名词作宾语和动词不定式作宾语的区别: begin, start, continue, like, love, dislike, hate, prefer, can‘t stand 例 句 解 析 1. It began to rain. It began raining. 2. It was beginning to snow. 3. I love lying (to lie)on my back. 4. I like listening to music, but today I don‘t like to. 5. I don‘t prefer to swim in the river now. remember, forget, regret, try 例 句 解 析 1. remember to do sth.记住要做的事 remember doing sth.回顾过去发生的 事 2. forget to do sth. 忘 记 要 做 的 事 forget doing sth.忘记做过的事 3. regret to do sth.对将要做的事抱歉 regret doing sth.对发生过的事后悔 4. try to do sth.设法??,试图 try doing sth.试试看,试一试 5. mean to do sth.打算做??,想要 mean doing sth.意味着,就是 解 析

1. 意思无差别,但谓语动词用 进行时,后面只跟不定式。 2. 表示一种倾向多接动名词作 宾语,如果表示某一特定的或具体 的行动,多接不定式。

1. I remember to meet her at the station. I remember seeing her once somewhere. 2. I forgot giving it to you yesterday. I forgot to tell you about it. Now here it is. 3. I regret not having working hard. I regret to hear of your sister‘s death. 4. Try knocking at the back door. We must try to get everything ready. 5. That will mean flooding some land. I had meant to go on Monday. want, require, need 例 句

These desks need repairing. These desks need to be repaired. The patient required examined The patient required to be examined.

1. need doing 需要被做 need to be done 需要被做 2. want doing want to be done 3. require doing require to be done

4、分词复习应注意的几个问题 (1)现在分词在句中作时间、原因、伴随、条件、结果等状语。 ①时间状语(分词作状语前面可加 when, while 等) Hearing the good news, he jumped with greatjoy.

Not having finished her work in time, the boss fired her. ②原因状语 Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note ③伴随状语 The girls came in, following their parents. ④结果状语 The poor old man died, leaving nothing to his children. 注意:现在分词作状语的几个特性。①时间性。与谓语动词同时发生,用一般时,如发 生在谓语动作之前时则用完成式 having done。②语态性。与句子的主语之间的关系,是主 谓关系或动宾关系。遵循的规则“主动进行,被动完成” 。③人称一致性。分词的逻辑主语 就是句子的主语。 (2)分词作表语。 S. + be + 动词-ed 表示被动,主语是人;S. + be + 动词-ing 表示主动,主语是物。分词 作宾补不定式作宾补的区别:

动词原形→做了某事 S.+ + 宾语 + 现在分词→正在做某事 使役动词 过去分词→做了或被做 5、复习过去分词应注意的几个问题 过去分词作状语,相当于一个状语从句,有来说明原因、时间、条件等。 (1)过去分词作原因状语 Tired by the trip, he soon feel asleep. = Because he was tired by the trip, he soon fell asleep. Lost in thought, he almost ran into a car. =As he was lost in thought, he almost ran into a car. (2)作时间状语 Seen from the hill, the city looks like a garden. =When the city is seen from the hill, it looks like a garden. (3)作条件状语 Given more time, I would have worked out the problem. =If I have been given more time, I would have worked out the problem. (4)伴随状语 The teacher came in, followed by some students. =The teacher came in and was followed by some students. 分词短语作状语时, 通常与主句中的主语在逻辑上一致, 但有时它也可以有自己独立的 逻辑上的主语,这种结构称为独立主格结构。如: Her grandfather being ill, she had to stay at home looking after him. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. __________such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. (NMET 2001) A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D. Suffered 解析:答案为 A。本题考查分词短语作状语的用法。分词作状语,其逻辑主语必须是句

感官动词

子的主语,而本句的主语看似是 it,其实它为形式主语,真正的主语为不定式,而不定式省 略了逻辑主语 for people,所以应用现在分词,又因 already,应用完成时。 2. One learns a language by making mistakes and _______ them.(2001 年春季高考) A. correct B. correcting C. corrects D. to correct 解析: 答案为 B。 本题考查动名词作介词宾语的用法。 介词 by 意为 “通过??, 凭??” , 后面常接动名词,形成“by+ v. –ing ”结构,表示通过做某事而得到某种结果。本题中只有 correcting 符合。 3. The picture _________ on the wall is painted by my nephew.(2000 年春季高考) A. having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung 解析:答案为 B。本题考查现在分词作定语的用法。根据句意“墙上挂的那幅画是我侄 子画的” ,可知空白处所填的动词形式在句中作定语,表说话时仍在进行的动作或所处的解 题关键在于分析 picture 与 hang 之间的逻辑关系。 4.“We can‘t go out in this weather,”said Bob, out of the window. A. looking B. to look C. looked D. having looked 解析: 答案为 A。 本句考非谓与动词作伴随状语。 全句合理的句意是: Bob 看着窗外说, “我们不能在这种天气出去” 。Bob 在说话的同时在看着窗外,应使用现在分词一般式,表 主动和进行。A 项正合语境。B 项不定式表主动、将来的动作。C 项表被动完成的动作(上 处不是并列谓语) 项表完成的主动动作,均不和语境。 。D 5.Reading is an experience quite different from watching TV; there are pictures in your mind instead of before your eyes. A. to form B. form C. forming D. having formed 解析: 答案为 C。 全句意为: 读书是一种与看电视相当不同的体验, 有画面在你的心中, 而不是在你的眼前形成。所以本题考非谓语动词,表主动且进行着的动作。人们看书时,读 到什么情节或场面,这样的情节或场面便(同时)在心中形成。 6. The news reporters hurried to the airport, only the film stars had left. A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told 解析:答案为 B。本题考查非谓语用法。only + to do 常用此结构作结果状语,tell 及物 动词,tell 之后常带双宾结构,故 tell 采用被动形式。

语法复习专题十——虚拟语气
一、考点聚焦 1、虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中 (1)表示与现在事实相反的假设,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用“过去式(be 动词的 过去式用 were),而主句中的谓语动词用“would / should/ could / might + 动词原形” ” 。如: If I were a boy, I would join the army. If the had time, she should go with you. (2)表示与过去的事实相反,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用过去完成时,主句中的谓 语动词则用“would / should / might / could + have +过去分词” 。如: If he had taken my advice, he would have succeeded in the competition. (3)表示与将来事实相反,条件状语从句中的谓语动词一般过去时或 should(were to) + 动词原形,而主句中的谓语动词则用 would / should/ could might + 动词原形。如; If it were to rain tomorrow, the football match would be put off.

(4)当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,动词的形 式要根据它所表示的时间作相应调整。如: If they had worked hard, they would be very tired.(从句说的是过去,主句指的是现在) 以下表格是虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中时,主句和从句谓语动词的形式: 条件状语从句 与过去事实相反 与现在事实相反 与将来事实相反 had + 过去分词 一般过去时(be 用 were) 一般过去时或 should(were to) + 动词原形 主 句 should /would/could/might + have + 过去分词 would/should/could/might + 动词原形 Would/should/cold/might + 动词原形

有时侯在使用时可省略 if,句子则可换成下列形式,即“were / had / should +主语” 。如: Were I a boy, I would join the army. Had he taken my advice, he would have succeeded. Were it not for the expense, I would go to Britain. 2、虚拟语气用于名词性从句 (1)虚拟语气在宾语从句中的运用。 ①“wish + 宾语从句”表示不能实现的愿望,译为“要是??就好了”等。表示现在 不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时;表示将来不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓 语动词用“would/could + 动词原形” ;表示过去不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓语动词用“had + 过去分词”或“could(should) + have + 过去分词” 。如: I wish it were spring all the year round. I wish I had known the answer. I wish I could fly like a bird. ②在表示建议、要求、命令等的动词 suggest、advise、propose、demand、require、insist request、command、order 等后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用 should + 动词原形或是动词原形。 如: She suggested we (should)leave here at once. The doctor ordered she should be operated. (2)虚拟语气在同位语从句和表语从句中的运用。 作表示建议、 要求、 命令等的名词 advise、 idea、 order、 demand、 plan、 proposal、 suggestion、 request 等的表语从句和同位语从句,从句中的谓语动词用“ (should) + 动词原形” 。如: His suggestion that we (should)go to Shanghai is wonderful. My idea is that they (should)pay 100 dollars. (3)虚拟语气在主语从句中的运用。 在主语从句中,谓语动词的虚拟语气用“should + 动词原形”的结构,表示惊奇、不相 信、理应如此等。如: It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.)that we should clean the room every day. It was a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc.)that you should be so careless. It will be desired (suggested, decided, ordered, requested, proposed, etc.)that she should finish her homework this afternoon. 注意:这种从句表示的是事实。如果说人对这种事实表现出惊奇的情感,就可用虚拟语 气。反之,如果不表示惊奇等情感,that 从句也可用陈述句语气。如: It is pity that you can‘t swim. 3、虚拟语气在其他场合的运用 (1)虚拟语气在 as if/as though、even if/even though 等引导的表语从句或状语从句中,

如果从句表示的动作发生在过去,用过去完成时;指现在状况,则用一般过去时;指将来状 况则用过去将来时。如: He did it as if he were an expert. Even if she were here, she could not solve the problem. (2)虚拟语气用于定语从句中。 这种从句常用于句型“It is (high)time (that) … ”中,定语从句的谓语动词用一般过去 时(be 用 were)或 should + 动词原形,意思是“(现在)该??” 。如: It‘s time that I picked up my daughter. It‘s high time we were going. (3)虚拟语气用在 if only 引导的感叹句中。如: If only I were a bird. If only I had taken his advice. (4)虚拟语气在一些简单句中的运用。 ①情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说话人谦虚、客气、有礼貌或语气委婉,常 出现在日常会话中。如: It would be better for you not to stay up too late. Would you be kind enough to close the door? ②用于一些习惯表达法中。如: Would you like a cup of tea? I would rather not tell you. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it _______. (NMET 95) A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken 解析:答案为 C。本题考查的是 as if 引导的让步状语从句中的语气问题,as if 引导的 状语从句如果与事实一致,不用虚拟语气,如果与事实相反,应用虚拟语气。题中“当铅笔 的一部分浸在水中,铅笔看上去好像断了” 。而实际上铅笔并未断,与事实相反,前半部分 陈述是一般现在时,因而本句是对一般现在时的虚拟,用 were broken。 2. I didn‘t see your sister at the meeting. If she ___________, she would have met my brother.(NMET 94) A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come 解析:答案为 D。本题考查的是 if 条件句中的虚拟语气。题意是:我在会议上没看到 你姐姐,故你姐姐没来。因此如果“她来了”与事实相反,前面一句交代了虚拟语气的时态 是一般过去时的虚拟,所以 if 从句中用 had+过去分词。 3. —If he ___________, he ________that food. —Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately.(NMET 93) A. was warned; would not take B. had been warned; would not have taken C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken 解析: 答案为 B。 本题考查的是条件状语从句与主句表示与事实相反时虚拟语气的用法。 根据下一句语境可知,他事先并没有得到警告,表示过去时间的虚拟语气,故选 B。 4. Mr.White at 8:30 for the meeting, but he didn‘t show up. A. should have arrived B. should arrive

C. should have had arrived D. should be arriving 解析:答案为 A。本题考虚拟语气及责备的用法,全句意为:Mr.white 8:30(原本)应 该到会的,但他没露面。全句谈的是过去的事,故应使用 should have done 结构,表原本该 做而没做的事。 5.—I‘ll tell Mary about her new job tomorrow. —You her last week. A. ought to tell B. would have told C. must tell D. should have told 解析:答案为 D。本题考查情态动词用法,should(ought to)have done 表示说话人对 发生的事性“责备”故选 D。 6.—Let‘s go and have a good drink tonight. — Have you got the first prize in the competition? A. What for? B. Thanks a lot. C. Yes, I‘d like to. D. Why not? 解析:答案为 A。考语境及交际用语。前句建议:今晚咱们出去好好喝一顿吧。喝一顿 应有个来由和原因,且多是为了庆祝某事,所以后句问:为何事(庆祝)?你是不是在竞赛 中得了一等奖?这样才能表示后者惊讶、疑问和兴奋,what for:为何而做某事?其余均不 合语境。

语法复习专题十一——名词性从句
一、考点聚焦 1、名词性从句中连接词的运用 名词性从句中的连接词有连词 that / whether / as if, 连接代词 what / who/ which / whose / whatever / whoever / whomever / whichever,连接副词 where / when / why / how / wherever / whenever。 (1)that 的用法。 ①主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句中用 that 但不能省略。如: That they are good at English is known to us all. The problem is that we don‘t have enough money. She expressed the hope that they would come to China one day. ②宾语从句中的连接词 that 有时可省有时又不可省,在以下几种情况中 that 不能省略: (A)当 that 从句和主句谓语动词之间有插入词语或者从句主语之间有插入语时,that 不可 省略; (B)当 that 从句与另一名词性从句并列作宾语时,that 不能省; (C)当 that 作介词 宾语时,that 不可省掉。如: He judged that, because he was a child, he did not understand wine Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do. ③that 从句作主语和宾语时,可以用 it 来替换成以下几种结构表达。 (A)It is clear/certain/likely/true/surprising that… (B) is a pity/shame/good idea/no wonder It that ...(C)It is said/reported/ believed/known/thought/suggested that … (D)It seems/happens that。如: It happened that I went out last night. It is said that China will win in the World Cup.

④that 和 what 的区别。 that 引导名词性从句时,在主从句中不以当任何句子成分,也没有任何含义;而 what 引导名词性从句时,在主从句中都要充当一定的句子成分,what 可以分解成定语从句中的 先行词 + 关系代词即常说的先行词 + that。如: It‘s shame that he has made such a mistake. Do what he says. ⑤同位语从句与定语从句中 that 的区别。 同位语从句中的连词 that 只起连接作用, 在从句中不担当任何句子成分; 而定语从句中 的关系代词 that 在句中做宾语或主语,宾语与先行词有修饰关系。如果句子是同位语从句, 就应用连词 that 而不能用 which.同位语从句一般放在表具体含义的名词后解释名词的含义 或内容,如以下名词:news、fact、suggestion、truth、plan、belief、doubt、possibility、idea 等,而定语从句只是对先行词的限定和修饰。如: They expressed the hope that they would come to visit China again.(同位语从句) The hope she expressed is that they would come to visit China again.(定语从句) (2)whether 和 if 的用法。 ①whether 和 if 在宾语从句中可以互换,但是作介词宾语时连接词一般用 whether。如: It all depends on whether they will come back. ②后面直接跟 or not 时用 whether。如: I didn‘t know whether or not he had arrived in Wuhan. ③主语从句表语从句中只能用 whether。如: Whether the meeting will be put off has not been decided yet. The question is whether they have so much money. ④whether 可以引导同位语从句,用以说明前面的名词的内容,if 不能。如: We ought to discuss carefully the question whether we can do it or not. ⑤whether 常与 or 连用表示一种选择,if 不能这样用;whether 也可与动词不定式连用 但 if 不能。如: The question of whether they are male or female is not important. I have not decided whether to go or not. ⑥间接引语位于句首时或者是间接引语提前时用 whether 不用 if。如: Thank you, but whether I‘ll be free I‘m not sure at the moment. ⑦whether 可引导一个让步状语从句表示“不管”“无论” 、 ,而 if 不能。如: Whether he comes or not, we will begin our party on time. (3)疑问词 + ever 和 no matter + 疑问词的区别。 ①疑问词 + ever 可引导名词性从句,在主从句中要充当一定的部分。如: Whoever breaks the rule must be punished. You can choose whatever you like in the shop. ②疑问词 + ever 还可引导让步状语从句。如: Whoever breaks the rule, he must be punished, Whatever you do, you must do it well. ③no matter + 疑问词只能引导让步状语从句。如: No matter what you do, you must do it well. No matter who breaks the rule, he must be punished. (4)when 和 where 引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别。 when 和 where 前面的名词若是表示时间、地点的名词,则 when 和 where 引导的是定

语从句,否则则为同位语从句。如: They put forward the question where they could get the money. This is the place where the accident happened. 2、名词性从句中主句和从句的时态一致 (1)宾语从句中主句和从句的时态保持一致,但如果从句中表示提示的是客观现象, 虽然主句是过去时态,从句仍用一般现在时。如: Hello,I didn‘t know you were in London. How long have you been here? The teacher told us that light travels at a very high speed. (2)主语从句作主语相当于单数第三人称作主语,谓语动词用单数,如果由 and 连接 两个或两个以上的主语从句作主语时, 谓语动词用复数; 由两个或多个连接词引导一个主语 从句,谓语动词用单数。如: When the meeting will begin has not been decided yet. When they will start and where they go have not been decided yet. When and where the meeting will begin has not been decided. 3、名词性从句的词序 名词性从句在句中要用陈述句语序。如: He asked me what was the matter with me. We‘ve heard the news that we‘ll move into the new house. Whatever you say will interest us all. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. A computer can only do ________ you have instructed it to do.(NMET 2001) A. how B. after C. what D. when 解析:答案为 C。本题考查的是名词性从句作宾语的用法。此句的引导词既作连词又在 宾语从句中充当一成分,故 what 最合适。 2. —I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.. —Is that _________ you had a few days off ? (NMET 99) A. why B. when C. what D. where 解析:答案为 A。此题考查的是从句的用法。根据题意“我上周开车去珠海看航空展去 了。 ”下面一句接着问: “那就是你为什么离开的原因吗?”故用 why 引导表语从句表示原 因。 3. I hate __________ when peope talk with their mouths full.(NMET 98) A. it B. that C. these D. them 解析:答案为 A。本题考查的是形式宾语的用法。题意为“我讨厌人们谈话时嘴里塞满 东西” 。该空白处没有任何含义,而且已经用了 when 连接该宾语从句,所以此处只填一个 形式宾语 it。 4.I think Father would like to know I‘ve been up to so far, so I decide to send him a quick note. A. which B. why C. what D. how 解析:答案为 C。考查宾语从句连词用法,由结构 sb. be up to sth.可知,应选 what 作介 词 to 的宾语。 5. We cannot figure out quite a number of insects, birds, and animals are dying out. A. that B. as C. why D. when

解析:答案为 C。本题考查宾语从句知识,figure out 为及物动词,故此句为宾语从句, 从句意得知连词在从句中作原因状语,故选 why. 6.After Yang Liwei succeeded in circling the earth, our astronauts desire do is walk in space. A. where B. what C. that D. how 解析:答案为 B。此题句子为时间状语从句,全主句的主语是由主语从句来充当的,并 且主语从句中不定式动词 do 缺少宾语,故选 what。

语法复习专题十二——定语从句
一、考点聚焦 1、功能:相当于形容词,修饰名词或代词,在句中作定语 2、位置:定语从句置于被修饰词之后 Those who are willing to attend the party, sign here please. 3、先行词:被定语从句修饰的词称为先行词 (1) 先行词一般是名词和不定代词, 如:some-, any-, every-和 no 与-boy, -thing 的合成词; 或 all、none、any、some、that、those 等代词。数词也可以作先行词,人称代词也同样可作 先行词。 (2)先行词与关系词是等量关系。必须注意两点: ①先行词在从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的数由先行词而定。 This is the place which is worth visiting. ②关系词在从句句子中充当了成分, 其意思就是先行词的意义, 所以在从句中不能重复 其意。 There are many places we can visit(them)in China. 4、关系词:引导定语从句的都称关系词 关系代词:who, whom, which, that, whose, as。 关系副词:when, where, why。that 偶尔也作关系副词。 5、确定关系词的步骤 (1)先找关系词,看先行词指的是什么。 (2)看关系词在从句中所充当的成分。 6、在定语从句中,当先行词指物时,下列情况的关系词宜用 that 而不用 which (1)先行词被①形容词最高级 ②序数词 ③数词几种词修饰或被 ④only、any、few、 little、no、all、one of 等修饰时。 (2)先行词为 all、much、little、none、few、one、something、anything 等不定代词时。 (3)先行词中既有人又有物时。 He was looking pleasantly at te children and parcels that filled his bus. (4)先行词在主句中作表语关系词在从句中作表语时。 The village is no longer the one that was 5 years ago. (5)当主句中含有疑问词 which 时。 Which are the books that you bought for me ? 7、宜用 which 而不用 that 的情况 (1)在非限制性定语从句中 (2)在关系词前有介词时 (3)当先行词本身是 that 时

(4)当关系词离先行词较远时 8、关系词 who 与 that 指人时,也有不同情况分别用不同的关系词 (1)当主句是 there be 句型时,关系词用 who。 (2)先行词是为 anyone、those、someone、everyone、one 等词时,关系词用 who。 (3)当主句是 who 作疑问词时,关系词用 that。 Who is that girl that is standing by the window? (4)whom 在从句中只作宾语,可被 who 取代。 9、whose 作关系词既指人又指物,在从句中作定语。如: Do you know Mr.Smith whose story is very moving ? There is a room, whose window faces the river. There is a room, the window of which faces the river. 10、关系代词 as,在从句中作主语、宾语和表语。 (1)先行词被 such 和 the same 修饰,或句型 as many(much)中,从句都用 as 引导。 Such books as you bought are useful. The school is just the same as it was 10 years age. 注意:区别①such … that … 引导的结果状语从句。They are such lovely children that we love them much.②the same … that … 引导定语从句。I want to use the same tool that you used just now. (2)无先行词的定语从句用 as 和 which 引导。 区别:①意义上:as 含有“这点正如??一样” 。②位置上:as 从句可置句首,也可 在另处。 He didn‘t pass the exam, as we had expected. There is lots of air in loose snow, which can keep the cold out. As is known, the earth is round, not flat. 11、关系副词 when 与 where、why、that when 指时间 = in / at / on / during which where 指地点 = in / at / from / which why 指原因 = for which 当先行词为 way、day、reason、time 时,可用 that 作关系副词。 (非正式场合) I don‘t like the way that / in which / he talks. 当 time 作先行词时,关系词可以省掉。 This is the first time I have given you a lesson in French. 12、必须注意的问题 (1)关系词作主语时,从句中谓语的数。 (2)注意区别定语从句与强调句。 ①定语从句中关系词作从句成分,复合句。 ②强调 it 无意义,that / who 不是引导词。 ③强调 it is / was 和 that / who 后如果句子意思讲得通则是强调句,讲不通则不是。 It is the museum that / which we visited last year.(定语从句) It was in the hotel that we stayed last night.(强调句) (3)定语从句与同位语从句的区别。 ①定语从句引导词被称为关系词,that 充当主语、宾语、表语。有时可省略。 ②同位语从句引导词被叫做连词,that 不能充当任何成分,不可省。 Word came that their army was defeated.(同位语)

We expressed to them our wish that was the same as their.(定语) (4)关系词在从句中省略的情况。 ①关系词作宾语,前无介词时。 ②关系词作表语。 (5)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的翻译。 (6)关系词前有介词或复杂介词,关系词只能是 which 和 whom。 (7)几个特殊的定语从句句型: ①He is the only one of the students who has got very good marks in the match.(句中 one 为先行词) He is one of the students who have got good marks in the match.(句中 students 为先行词) ②Is this place the one (that) we visited yesterday? Is this the place(that / which)we visited yesterday ? ③He stood at the window, from where he could see what was happening. ④It may rain, in which case the match will be put off. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. The film brought the hours back to me _________ I was taken good care of in that faraway village.(NMET 2001) A. until B. that C. when D. where 解析:答案为 C。本题考查分隔定语从句的关系词的选择。作好本题的关键是要能辨认 出该定语从句的先行词 the hours 和关系词被介词短语 to me 所分隔。 定语从句的先行词是表 时间的名词 hours, 并且关系词在从句中用作状语,故应选择表示时间的关系副词 when。 2. ___________ is known to everybody, the noon travels around the earth once every month. (NMET 2001) A. It B. As C. That D. What 解析:答案为 B。本题考查 as 引导的非限制定语从句。as 作“正如??”解时,引导 的非限制性定语从句来修饰整个句子。当 as 在从句中作主语时,常用于下列短语:as is known、as is said、as is reported、as is announced 等。要注意掌握作关系代词引导定语从句 的用法。 3. After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ___________ he grew up as a child. (NMET 1996) A. which B. where C. that D. when 解析:答案为 B。本题考查限制性定语从句中关系词的选择。定语从句的先行词是 表示地点的名词短语 the small town, 且关系词不作定语从句中的主语和宾语而作地点状语, 因此定语从句必须用关系副词 where 引导。 要注意分清先行词在从句中充当的成分, 然后选 择适当的关系词。 4. The English play my students acted at the New Year‘s party was a great success. A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 解析: 答案为 C。 考定语从句。 主句部分应是 The English play at the New Year‘s party was a great success.从句补全为独立句子应是 my students acted in the play。所以应选 in which,其 余介词不妥。 5. There were dirty marks on her trousers she had wiped her hands. A. where B. which C. when D. that 解析:答案为 A。本题考地点状语从句,用 where 引导。句意是“她的裤子上她擦过手

的地方有脏痕” 。此处不能用时间状语从句,排除 C,本题易被误认为考定语从句,意为“在 她擦过手的裤子上有脏痕” 。定语从句修饰 trousers,也只能用 where。B 和 D 可引导定语从 句,但只作主、宾等成分。定语从句缺少状语,不缺主语、宾语,故不可用。 6. The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, the sailing time was 226 days. A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which 解析:答案为 A。本题考定语从句,关系代词 which 指代 the journey,定语从句恢复为 独立句子应是:The sailing time of the journey was 226 days,故选 of which。

语法复习专题十三——状语从句
一、考点聚焦 1、时间状语从句 (1)as、when、while 用法一览表。 类 别 作 用 例 句

as

as 表示“当??的时候” ,往往和 when/ while 通用,但它着重强调 主句与从句的动作或事情同时或 几乎同时发生。 (at or during the time that )既可以 表示在某一点的时候,又可表示 在某一段时间内,主句与从句的 动作或事情可以同时发生也可以 先后发生。 while 意思是“当??的时候”或 “在某一段时间里” 。主句中的动 作或事情在从句中的动作或事情 的进展过程中发生,从句中的动 词一般要用延续性动词。在 when 表示 a period of time 时, 两者可以 互换。

She came up as I was cooking.(同时) The runners started as the gun went off.(几乎同时) It was raining when we arrived.(指 时间点) When we were at school, we went to the library every day.(在一段时间 内) Please don‘t talk so loud while others are working. He fell asleep while/when reading. Strike while the iron is hot. (用 as 或 when 不可,这里的 while 意思是 “趁??”)

when

while

(2)引导时间状语从句的连接词除上述外还有: ①till, not … until …, until, before, since Don‘t get off the bus until it has stopped. He waited for his father until(till)it was twelve o‘clock. It will be five years before he returns from England. ②hardly / scarcely … when, no sooner … than, as soon as once 表示“一??就” As soon as I have finished it , I‘ll give yu a call. Once you show any fear, he will attack you. We had hardly got / Hardly had we got into the country when it began to rain. No sooner had he arrived / He had no sooner arrived than she started complaining.

③directly, immediately, the moment, the minute that… 一??就 He made for the door directly he heard the knock. ④each time, every time, by the time Each time he came to my city, he would call on me. 注意:表示未来情况,主句用将来时,从句用现在时。 2、让步状语从句 (1)although 与 though 可以引导让步状语从句,不能与 but 连用,但可以与 yet 连用。 Although they are poor,(yet)they are warm-hearted. (2)even if 或 even though 引导让步状语从句,表示“即使”“纵然” , ,用来使人注意 下文所强调内容的性质。 I‘ll get there even if(though)I have to sell my house to get enough money to go by air. (3)no matter 后接上 who、what、where、how 等疑问词,也可以在这类疑问词后面加 上 ever 构成 whoever、whatever、wherever、however 等。 Don‘t trust him, no matter what / whatever he says. Whoever breaks the law will be published. No matter how hard the work is, you‘d better try to do it well. (4)as 也可以引导让步状语从句。要用倒装。 Child as(though)he is, he knows a lot. Much as I like it, I won‘t buy. Try as he would, he couldn‘t lift the heavy box. 3、原因状语从句:because, for, as, since, now that (1)表示不知道的原因时用 because,即说话人认为听话人不知道,因此 because 从句是 全句最重要的部分,通常它被置于主句之后。 You want to know why I‘m leaving? I‘m leaving because I‘m full. for 虽然表示不知道的原因,但其语气较 because 要弱得多,是可说可不说的话,它只 能置于主句之后,这时,for 是并列连词。如果不是因果关系,而是对前面主句的内容加以 解释或推断时,只能用 for。如:It‘s morning now, for the birds are singing.(很显然,鸟叫不 可能是“现在已是早上”的原因。 ) (2)表示已经知道的原因时用 as 或 since,即某种原因在说话人看来已经很明显,或已 为听话人所熟悉,因此它是句中不很重要的部分。since 要比 as 正式一些,它们通常被置于 语句之前,但有时却相反。 Seeing all of the children already seated, he said,“Since everyone is here, let‘s start.” (3)下列情况下只能使用 because: ①在回答 why 的问句时; ②在用于强调句型时; ③被 not 所否定时。 4、地点状语从句:where, wherever Make a mark wherever you have any questions. We will go where the Party directs us. 5、目的状语从句:that, so that, in order that 注意:目的状语从句的谓语动词常与情态动词连用,否则可能是结果状语从句。不可置 于句首。 6、结果状语从句:that, so that, so … that, such … that … 注意:so + 形容词/副词 + that 从句;such + 名词 + that 从句。

7、方式状语从句:as, as if(though) I‘ll do as I am told to. It looks as if it is going to rain. 8、比较状语从句:than, as 9、条件状语从句:if, unless, so (as) long as, in case, once, a far as, on condition that. 注意 if 与 unless 的区别:不能用 and 连接两个 unless 从句,即不能有? unless …,and unless … 。但 if … not and if … not 却不受此限。 You won‘t lose your weight unless you eat less and unless you exercise more. (×) 但可以说 … unless you eat less and exercise more. 10、注意状语从句中从句的省略现象 (1)连接词 + 过去分词 Don‘t speak until spoken to. Pressure can be incrased when needed. Unless repaired, the washing machine is no use. (2)连词 + 现在分词 Look out while crossing the street. (3)连词 + 形容词/其他 常见的有 it necessary、if possible、when necessary、if any 等。 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. I don‘t think I‘ll need any money but I‘ll bring some ____________.(NMET 2000) A. as last B. in case C. once again D. in time 解析:答案为 B。句意为“带些钱以防万一” ,只能选择 in case。引导的条件状语从句, 后面省略了 I should need it。 2. The WTO can‘t live up to its name _________ it doesn‘t include a country that is home to one fifth of mankind.(NMET 2000) A. as long as B. while C. if D. even though 解析:答案为 C。本题考查状语从句的用法。句意为“假如世贸组织不包括占世界人口 五分之一的中国的话,那它就名不副实” 。as long as 语气过于强烈,while 和 even though 不 符合句意。 3、Someone called me up in the middle of the night, but they hung up_________I could answer the phone.(NMET 2000) A. as B. since C. before D. until 解析:答案为 C。题意为:半夜里有人打来电话,我没来得及就挂了。but 暗示在接话 前就挂了。 4. You should try to get a good night‘s sleep much work you have to do. A. however B. no matter C. although D. whatever 解析:答案为 A。此题考查连词用法,依据结构 However +形/副+主语+谓语。故选 A。 5. He speaks English well indeed, but of course not a native speaker. A. as fluent as B. more fluent than C. so fluently as D. much fluently than 解析:答案为 C。此题考查 So adj./adv. As 和 as adj. / adv. As 用法,前者主要用于否定 句,在这里要修饰谓语动词,故选 C。

语法复习专题十四——主谓一致和倒装
一、考点聚焦 1、语法形式上的一致 主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。 The number of students in our school is 1,700. Mary and Kelly look alike. 2、意义上一致 (1)主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。 The crowd were runing for their lives. 单数形式代表复数内容的词有 people、police、cattle 等。 (2)主语形式为复数,而意义上却是单数,谓语动词用单数。The news is very exciting. 形复意单的单词有 new、 works 工厂) means 和以 ics 结尾的学科名称 physics、 ( 、 poli-tics、 economics 等。 3、就近原则。即谓语动词的单复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。如果连词 or、either … or、neither … nor、not only … but also 等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数, 谓语动词与靠近它的主语一致。 Either you or I am mad. 4、应注意的若干问题 (1)名词作主语。 ①某些集体名词如 family、team 等作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语用单数, 反之用复数。 My family is going out for a trip. The whole family are watching TV. 这类词常有 audience、 class club、 committee、 company、 crew、 crowd、 enemy、 government、 group、party、public、team 等。 Population 和“a group(crowd)of + 复数名词”也适用于这种情况,强调整体用单数,强 调各个部分用复数。 ②某些集体名词如 people、police、cattle、oxen 只当复数看待,谓语动词必须用复数。 ③单、复数同形的名词作主语时,谓语动词应根据意义决定单、复数。 A sheep is over there. Some sheep are over there. ④名词所有格之后的名词被省略,这种情况一般只指商店、工场、住宅等;作主语时, 动词一般用单数。My uncle‘s is not for from here. 常见的省略名词有 the baker‘s 、the barbar‘s、the Zhang‘s 等。 表示店铺的名词一般作集体名词看待,但用作主语时,谓语动词往往用复数。如: Richardson‘s have a lot of old goods to sell. ⑤当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间、书名等复数名词时,往往可以根 据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语用单数。 Thirty years has passed. Five minutes is enough to finish the task. ⑥不定代词 each、every、no 所修饰的名词即使以 and 或逗号连接成多主语时,谓语动 词仍用单数形式。如: Each boy and each girl in my class has a dictionary. ⑦如果主语有 more than one … 或 many a … 构成,尽管从意义上

看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词用单数形式。 More than one student has seen the play. Many a boy has bought that kind of toy. 但是, “more + 复数名词 + than one”结构之后,谓语用复数。 ⑧一些由两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式。如 glasses、clothes、trousers、shoes、compasses、chopsticks、scissors 等。 但如果主语用 a kind of、a pair of、a series of 等加名词构成时,谓语动词一般用单数形 式。 A pair of shoes was on the desk. ⑨this kind of book = a book of this kind(这种书), 其谓语动词; 短语 this kind of men = men of this kind = these kind of men(口语)(这一类人) ,但 this kind of men 的谓语用单数,men of this kind 和 these kind of men 的谓语用复数,all kinds of 后跟复数名词,谓语用复数形式。如: This kind of men is dangerous. Men of theis kind/sort are dangerous. ⑩复数形式的单、复数同形名词作主语时,按意义一致的原则,用作单数意义时,谓语 用单数,反之,谓语用复数。这类名词有 means、works、species(种类)、Chinese、Japanese 等。当它们的前面有 a、such a、this、that 修饰时,谓语用单数;有 all、such、these、those 修饰时,谓语用复数。 11如果名词词组中心词是 all、most、half、rest 等词语,所指是复数意义,谓语动词用 ○ 复数形式,反之用单数。 All of my students work hard. All of the oil is gone. 12在主谓倒装的句子中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如: ○ Between the two windows hangs an oil painting. (2)由连接词连接的名词作主语。 ①用 and 或 both … and 连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式。但如果并列主语指 的是同一个人,同一事物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数形式,这时 and 后面的名词没有冠 词。 Truth and honesty is the best policy. To love and to be loved is the great happiness. Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit. A knife and fork is on the table. ②当主语后面跟有 as well as、 much as、 less than、 as no along with、 with、 like、 rather than、 together with、but、except、besides、including、in addition to 等引导的词组时,采取“就远 原则” 。 ③以 or、 either … or、 neigher … nor、 only … but also 等连接的词作主语时, not 采取 “就 近原则” 。 (3)代词作主语。 ①名词型物主代词连接的动词,既可以用单数,也可以用复数,这取决于它所代替的是 单数还是复数。 Ours (Our Party) is a great Party.

Your shoes are white, mine (= my shoes) are black. ②such、the same 起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。 Such is our plan. Such are his last words. ③关系代词 who、that、which 等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先 行词的数一致。 ④疑问词 who、what、which 作主语时,谓语动词可根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单、 复数。 Who lives next door? It is Xiao Liu. Who lives next door? It is Wang and Li. ⑤不定代词 any、either、neither、none、all、some、more 等作主语时,要注意下列情 况: (A)单独作主语时,视其在文中的意义,动词可用单数或复数形式。Now all has been changed. All are present.(B)其后接 of 时,若 of 的宾语为不可数名词,动词用单数形式; 若 of 的宾语为复数名词或代词时,动词可以是单数,也可以是复数;在正式文体中,单数 形式的动词更常用。Do (es) any of you know about the accident? None of us has (have) seen the film. (4)分数、量词作主语。 ① “分数或百分数 + 名词” 构成的短语以及由 lot of, lots of, plenty of, a large quantity “a of, a heap of, heaps of, half of + 名词”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中 of 后面 的名词的数保持一致, 这是因为短语中后面的名词是中心词, 而短语中前面的量词是修饰语。 如: Lots of damage was caused by flood. A number of students have gone to the countryside. A large quantity of people is needed here. Quantities of food (nuts) were still on the table. ②a great deal of、a large amount of 修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用 单数;large amounts of 修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数。 ③表示数量的 one and a half 后,名词要用复数形式,但是其短语作主语时,谓语动词 用单数形式。 One and a half apples is left on the table. ④half of、(a)part of 修饰可数名词单数及不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数,修饰可数名 词复数时,谓语动词用复数。 (5)名词化的形容词作主语。 如果主语由 “the + 形容词 (或分词) 结构担任时, ” 谓语通常用复数。 这类词有 the rich、 the poor、the brave、the injured、the living、the wounded 等。如表抽象的也可以用单数,如 the unknown、the beautiful 等。 (6)从句作主语。 ①由 what 引导的主语从句,谓语动词通常用单数,但所指的具体内容是复数意义时, 谓语动词一般用复数形式。 What we need is more money. What we need are more people/teachers. ②在 “one of + 复数名词 + who/that/which” 引导的从句结构中, 关系代词 who/that/which 的先行词是靠近它的复数名词而不是 one, 因此从句中的谓语动词也应该是复数形式。 one 如 前有 the only 则用单数形式。

This is one of the most interesting stories that have been told by my father. She was the only one of the girls who was late for class today. (7)不定式、名动词(短语)作主语用单数形式;There be 句型中 be 的单复数取决于 be 后的第一个词的数。 There is a book, two pens on the desk. There are two pens, a book on the desk. 5、倒装句的要点复习 (1)在以 there、here、now、then、such 引导的,引起人们注意的招呼句要倒装。 There goes the bell. Here comes the bus. (2)表示动态的状语,置于句首时,句子要倒装。 Off went the horse. In came the boss. From the speaker comes the doctor‘s voice. (3)表示地点的词语置于句首或强调地点概念时。 South of the town lie two steel factories. Between the two buildings stands a tall tree. 注意:句子的主语为人称代词时,句子不倒装。 Here it is. Away they went. (4)否定词 never、seldom、hardly、scarcely、barely、rarely、little、not、nowhere、 by no means、at no time、neither、nor 等放在句首时,句子常倒装。如: By no means shall we give up. Never have I been to the USA. Seldom does she get up late in the morning. (5)在 not only … but also … no sooner … than …、hardly … when …、scarcely … when …、not until …、so … that …、such … that …句型中,主句倒装,从句不倒装,但要 注意:neither … nor … 连接的句子前后两个分句都要倒装。 Not only is she smart but also she is beautiful. Such great progress did he make that he was praised. So heavy is the box that I can‘t carry it. Neither has he a pencil, nor has he a pen. (6)Only + 状语或状语从句 +其他(only 在句首时要倒装) 。 Only then did I realize the importance of learning English. (7)so、neither、nor 放在句首时,表示前面的情况也适用于另一个人或物时,用部分 倒装。 (8)表语或状语或动词原形 + as/though + 主语 + 其他时,句子要倒装。 (在让步状 语从句中) (9)虚拟语气中用倒装代替 if。 Were I you, I would go there at once. Had you come yesterday, you could have helped us. (10)在一些表示祝愿的句子中。 Long live China! 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1.—Each of the students, working hard at his or her lessons, _________to go to university. —So do I. (上海 1998)

A. hope B. hopes C. hoping D. hoped 解析:答案为 B。 本题考查主谓一致中的意义一致原则, 不定代词 either、 neither、each、 one、the other、another 以及所有的复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词应根据意义一致的原 则采用单数形式,排除 A。选项 C 是非谓语动词的一种,不能单独作谓语,亦应排除。根 据答语中的时态又可排除选项 D。 2. The number of people invited _________ fifty, but a number of them __________ absent for different reasons.(NMET 1996) A. were; was B. was; was C. was; were D. were; were 解析:答案为 C。本题考查 the number of 和 a number of 的区别。 “the number of + 复数 名词/代词”结构中的中心词是 number,“a number of + 复数名词/代词”结构中的中心词是 of 后的复数名词或代词,故谓语动词分别用单、复数。解题关键在于仔细区分哪个是真正 的主语。 3.—David has made great progress recently. —_______, and __________.(上海 1997) A. So he has; so you have B. So he has; so have you C. So has he; so have you D. So has he; so you have 解析:答案为 B。 本题考查倒装知识。 “So + 主语 + 助动词”表“确实如此”“So + , 助动词 + 主语”表“也一样。 ” 4.—I would never ever come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible! — . A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I 解析:答案为 B。本题主要考倒装,以 so/nor/neither 开头的倒装句子,在时态、语态、 助动词、情态动词等谓语形式上,要尽可能与上文一致,故选 B,排除 A、D。如说“It‘s the same with me”也可,但不能省略“the” 。 5. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, visiting a museum when the earthquake struck. A. was B. were C. had been D. would be 解析: 答案为 A。 本题考查主谓一致及时态知识, 句子的主语是 the teacher, 后面跟 with 结构表补充说明,谓语应该与最前面的主语,即 the teacher 一致,应用单数,又因事情发生 在地震的时候,因此应该用过去进行时。 6. snacks and drinks, but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in forest. A. Not only they brought B. Not only did they bring C. Not only brought they D. Not only they did bring 解析: 答案为 B。 此题考查倒装句的用法 not only…but 等有否定意义的连词及副词位于 句首,句子使用部分倒装,故选 B。

语法复习专题十五——it 的用法
一、考点聚焦 1、it 的基本用法 (1)用作人称代词,代替前文提到过的事物。 The train has arrived. It arrived half an hour ago.

(2)用以代替提示代词 this, that。 —What‘s this? —It‘s a knife. —Whose watch is that? —It‘s mine. (3)起指示代词的作用,指一个人或事物。 —Who is knocking at the door? —It‘s me. (4)指环境情况等。 It was very noisy (quiet) at the very moment. (5)指时间、季节等。 —What time is it? —It‘s eight o‘clock. It often rains in summer here. (6)指距离。 It is a long way to the school. (7)作形式主语。 It is not easy to finish the work in two days. It is no use crying over spilt milk. It is as pity that you didn‘t read the book. (8)作形式宾语。 I think it no use arguing with him. I found it very interesting to study English. He made it clear that he was not interested in that subject. (9)用于强调结构。 It was Xiaoming whom (that) I met in the street last night. It was in the street that I met Xiaoming last night. It ws last night that I met Xiaoming in the street. It was I who met Xiaoming in the street last night. 2、含有“It is …”的句型 (1)It is time (for sb.) to do sth. It is (high) time that sb. did sth.(虚拟语气) (2)It is + 形容词(+of / for sb.)+ to do sth. 通常用 of 的词有 brave、clever、careful、hopeless、kind、good、naughty、nice、silly、 stupid、foolish、wise 等。 (3)It is + 形容词 + that + sb. + (should) do sth.(虚拟语气) 能用于这个句型的形容词有 strange、wonderful、natural、good、proper、right、wrong、 well、fortunate、important、necessary、useless、likely、probable、impossible 等。有时可省 去 should 而直接用动词原形。如: It is important that we should pay close attention to grain. It is natural that he(should)say so. (4)It is no use/ good + doing sth. It is no use trying again = It is of no use to try again. (5)It is + 被强调部分 + that/who + … Was it in the street that you met her? Who was it that called him“comrade”? It was not until yesterday that I met my old friend. It is in a small factory that my brother is going to work. 注意上述各句均为强调句型的 ( “考

点” ) 比较:It is a small factory where my brother is going to work.(定语从句) (6)It is said/reported/announced/ (well) known … that… (7)It is/was + 时间 + since … 从??已多久了。 It is three years since I met him in Beijing. It was a long time since I (had) lived in that small mountain village with these farmers.(注意 两句中的时态) It is five months since I arrived in New York.我到纽约已经五个月了。 It is five months since I was in New York.我离开纽约已经五个月了。 (注意:终止性动词表示从动作发生时算起;如果是状态动词或持续性动词,则从动作 或状态结束时算起。 ) (8)It is + 时间 + before … 这个句型和上面句型中时间都是时间段, long、 如 years、 months、 weeks、 five days、 three hours、twenty minutes 等。不过主句的时态多用一般将来时或一般过去时。 It will be several years before we meet again. 我们要过好几年才能再见面。 It was not long before they set out for the front. 不久他们就出发去了前线。 (9)It is /was/will be the first/second/third … time that … It is the first time that I have been here. It was the second time that he had seen the film. (10)It is up to sb. to do sth … 应由某人做某事。 It is up to you to decide whether we start or not. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. _________ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. (NMET 1995) A. There B. This C. That D. It 解析:答案为 D。本题考查作形式主语的用法。that 引导的从句是真正的主语。为避免 头重脚轻而平衡句子结构,将 it 置于句首作形式主语。 2. I hope there are enough glasse for each guest to have ________. (NMET 1995) A. it B. those C. them D. one 解析:答案为 D。本题考查替代词 it 和 one 的区别。it 用于替代同类的、特定的、同一 的事物;one 替代同类的、泛指的人或物。根据题意“我希望有足够的杯子使每个客人有一 个。 ”可知应用 one 泛指 enough glasses 中的一个。 3. Was __________ that I saw last night at the concert? A. it you B. not you C. you D. that yourself 解析: 答案为 A。 本题考查强调句型的疑问式。 只须将句序变为陈述句便不难得出答案。 4. It was back home after the experiment. A. not until midnight did he go B. until midnight that he didn‘t go C. not until midnight that he went D. until midnight when he didn‘t go 解析: 答案为 C。 此题考查的是 not…until 句型的强调结构, 其最根本结构是: did not He go back home after the experiment.①,把①转变为 Not until midnight did he go back home after the experiment.②,注意②中的倒装结构,把②中划线部分放在强调结构 It be 被强调部分

that…中进行强调,但注意 that 从句后面不用倒装形式。


更多相关文档:

高三英语二轮复习语法 15个教案

高中英语语法专题复习教案大全(15 个教案) 语法复习专题一——名词一、考点聚焦 1.可数名词单、复数变化形式 (1)规则变化。 ①单数名词词尾直接加-s。如:boy ...

2013年高考英语二轮复习易错题库之语法15

嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用 2013 年高考英语二轮复习易错题库之语法 15 介词考点 ◆ 典型陷阱题分析◆ 1. “You went late ___ the...

2015届高三英语二轮复习教案:语法词汇篇 第五讲 非谓语动词

2015届高三英语二轮复习教案:语法词汇篇 第五讲 非谓语动词_英语_高中教育_教育...如果表示一个未来的动作,就用动词不定式; 如果表示的动作正在发生或与谓语动作...

2010高考二轮复习英语教案

高三英语二轮复习语法 15个... 62页 免费 2010高考二轮复习英语教案 暂无评价 7页 免费 英语选修六语法 6页 免费如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心;如要提...

高三英语复习教案(SB I—Units 15-16)

08英语高考二轮复习学... 暂无评价 9页 免费 高三...高三英语复习教案(8)(SB I—Units 15-16) ? 一...grammar mistakes.你的文章写得好,只是有几处语法...

高考英语第二轮语法复习全套讲稿

高三英语二轮语法教案 闽侯一中 2012-3-1 高三英语二轮复习语法讲稿 英语二轮复习语法讲稿 复习第 1 讲 现在完成时和现在完成进行时 Summary: 英语的动词时态有四种...

高考英语第二轮语法专题复习教案 句子The Sentences

高考英语语法专题复习教案... 84页 5财富值 高考英语语法专题复习15个... 86页 免费 高考英语二轮语法专题复... 12页 2财富值 高考英语二轮语法专题复....

高考英语第二轮语法专题复习教案

高三英语语法专题复习讲... 43页 免费 2009年高考英语二轮语... 8页 免费...15.Crusoe’s dog hecame ill and died , A.as C.that 16.They’ve ...

高考英语第二轮语法专题复习教案-

高考英语二轮语法专题复习教案高考英语二轮语法专题复习教案隐藏>> 2009 年高考...15,or, either…or…, neither…nor…, whether…or, not only…but (also...

高考英语第二轮语法专题复习教案 并列句

高考英语二轮语法专题复习教案 并列句 单选单选隐藏>> 高考英语二轮语法专题复习六 并列句知识要点: 知识要点: 1、熟悉并掌握并列句的结构和常用的并列词的用法...
更多相关标签:
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com