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高考英语独立主格结构精讲精练


高考英语独立主格结构讲练与链接 独立主格结构是由一个相当于主语的名词或代词加上非谓语动词、形容词(副)词、或介词短语构成的一种独立 成分。该结构 不 是句子,所以它内部的动词不能考虑其时态、人称和数的变化,它与其主句之间不能通过并列连

词连接也不能有从句引导词引导,常用逗号与其主句隔开。独立主格内部动词的逻辑主语与主句主语不一致。 一、独立主格结构的构成形式

1、逻辑主语+V-ing 1. __________no bus, we had to walk home. A. There being B. Being C. Having been D. There was

2. _______no bus, we had to walk home. A. As there being B. As there was C. Being D. There was

3. _______Sunday, the library doesn't open. A. Being B. There being C. It being D. Having been

4. ______Sunday, the library doesn't open. A. As it being 2、逻辑主语+V-ed 1. _________, the train starte. A. The signal given B. Giving the signal C. The signal being given D. The signal giving 2. __________, the train started. A. After having given the signal B. After the signal given C. Giving the signal D. After the signal was given 3. _________, the text became easier for us to learn. A. Explaining new words C. Being explained new words B. New words explained D. Having explained new words B. Being C. It is D. As it is

4. ______________, the text became easier for us to learn. A. When new words were explained C. New words explaining 3、逻辑主语+形容词(副词) 该结构相当于一个未带动词的“主—系—表”结构。如: (1). He entered the room, his nose red with cold. (2). He sat in the front row, his mouth half open. (3). Dinner over, we decided to play bridge. (4). Father away, he played games with his friends. 1. ___________, the patient can leave the hospital. 第 1 页 共 10 页 B. Explaining new words D. Being explained new words

A. Better conditions

B. Conditions better

C. Conditions are better

D. Being better conditions

2. _________, the patient can leave the hospital. A. If better conditions B. If conditions better C. If conditions are better D. Being better conditions

3. ________, we’d like to go outing. A. Being Sunday B. Sunday OK C. Sunday is OK D. If Sunday OK

4. ___________, we’d like to go outing. A. If Sunday is OK B. Sunday being OK C. Sunday OK D. A,B and C

5. _________, you can wait a while. A. The play being still on B. The play still on C Being still on the play D. A and B

6. _________, so you can wait a while A. The play is still on C. As the play is still on 4、逻辑主语+介词短语 该结构相当于不带动词的“主—系—介词短语”结构。如: (1). Book in hand, Mr Smith came in. (2). Gun on shoulder, the soldiers are marching on. 1. The boy followed the nobleman here, ___________. A. a sword in hand C. being a sword in hand B. a sword in his hand D. sword in hand B. The play being still on D. The play still on

2. The boy followed the nobleman here ___________. A. with a sword in his hand C. with a sword being in hand 3. He left the office, __________. A. tears being in eyes C. being tears in eyes 4. He left the office __________. A. with tears being in eyes C. being tears in eyes 5、逻辑主语+名词 (1). The doctor has two daughters, one a nurse, the other an engineer. 二、独立主格结构在整句中可作以下成分: 1、原因状语 第 2 页 共 10 页 B. with tears in his eyes D. tears being in eyes B. tears in eyes D. with tears being in eyes B. with a sword in hand D. a sword being in hand

该结构在句中作原因状语时相当于一个原因状语从句。如: 1). ________ no bus, we had to walk home. A. There being B. As there was C. There was D. A and B

2). _________Sunday, the library doesn't open. A. It being B. As it is C. Being D. A and B

3). ____________, I had to ask for two days’ leave. A. Mother being ill B. Mother ill C. As mother was ill D. A,B and C

4). ____________, we have to work late into the night. A. The exam near 2、时间状语 独立主格结构作时间状语时相当于一个由 when, as soon as, after 等引导的时间状语从句。如: 1). __________, the train started. A. The signal given B. After the signal was given C. Given the signal D. A and B B. The exam being near C. As the exam is near D. A,B and C

2). __________, the text became easier for us to learn. A. New words explained C. When teacher explained new words 3、条件状语 独立主格结构作条件状语时可以改为由 if 引导的条件状语从句。如: 1). ___________, we'll go to visit the Great Wall. A. Weather permitting B. If weather permits C. If permitting D. A and B B. When new words were explained D. all above

2). _________, the patient will recover himself soon. A. If the treatment is in time C. The treatment being in time 4、伴随状语 独立主格结构作伴随状语时相当于一个介词短语或并列谓语。如: 1). We have lessons every day, ___________. A. Sunday included B. Sunday including C. Sunday is including D. all the above B. The treatment in time D. A,B and C

2). The boy fell asleep,___________. A. cap on head B. with a cap on head C. a cap was on head D. all the above

3). Father came home,_________ A. a dog following him C. being followed by a dog B. a dog followed him D. all the above 第 3 页 共 10 页

With 复合结构 1、原因状语 1. With the man ______ us ahead, we had no trouble finding the village. A. to guide B. guiding C. guided D. to have guide

2. With a lot of work_____, she doesn’t have time to rest. A. to do B. to be done C. doing D. done

3. With the machine _____all the time, we finished harvesting crops in time. A. to work 2、时间状语 1. The street looks more beautiful with all the lights _____. A. are on B. on C. to be on D. been on B. worked C. working D. being working

2. With our problem ________, we all felt happy. A. to settle B. to be settled C. settled D. being settled

3. With his work______, the secretary began to walk home. A. to do B. doing C. done D. to be done

3、伴随状语 1. She left the offices with tears ________. A. in her eyes B. in eyes C. being in eyes D. to be in eyes

2. The man found the door with both his eyes ______. A. to be closed B. being closed C. closed D. closing

3. We felt uncomfortable with two waitresses_______. A. standing by B. to be standing by C. stood by D. being standing by

4. The murderer was brought in, with his hands________. A. to be tied behind B. tied behind C. tying behind D. being tied behind

5. You can’t see well ________. A. with the glasses on C. with the glasses to be on 4、后置定语 1. Do you know the man ______ a book in his hand? A. with B. having C. being D. A and B B. being on the glasses D. with the glasses

2. Please offer your seat to the woman _____ a baby in her arms. A. carrying B. having C. with D. all the above 第 4 页 共 10 页

分词、独立主格和“with + 复合宾语”作状语的区别 分词结构、独立主格结构、with + 复合宾语结构在句中均可作状语,其区别是这样的: 一、分词在句中作状语时句子的主语是分词的逻辑主语,即主句主语是分词的动作执行者(用现在分词)或动作 承受者(用过去分词或现在分词被动式) 。这种情况下的分词短语可以改为相应的状语从句或并列谓语。 分词短语在句中常作以下状语: 1、原因状语 1. _______late, we had to walk home. A. Being B. As we were C. We being D. A and B

2. ______ busy, they had no time to play. A. As they were 2、时间状语 1. _______ the students' homework, the teacher found a lot of mistakes. A. When he was correcting B. When he corrected C. Correcting D. all the above B. Being C. Because they were D. all the above

2. ________by your teachers, you are supposed to be modest. A. When you are praised 3、条件状语 1. ______ more time, he is sure to finish his test paper. A. If he is given B. If given C. Given D. all the above B. Praised C. When praised D. all the above

2. _______ another chance, I'll do my job better. A. If I have 4、伴随状语 1. Father came back, _______ a bag of money on his left shoulder. A. carrying B. he was carrying C. and carrying D. all the above B. If having C. Having D. all the above

2. Father came back, _______ by a monkey. A. and he was followed B. followed C. and was followed D. all the above

二、独立主格结构和 with + 复合宾语结构在句子中作状语时,这种结构内部的分词或介词短语的逻辑主语不是整 句的主语,即主句主语与分词的逻辑主语不一致。如: 1. ______, we’ll go fishing in the country. A. Permitting weather C. Weather permitting B. Weather permitted D. Permitting

2. _________, he finished playing the game of chess. A. His eyes closing B. With his eyes closed 第 5 页 共 10 页

C. Closing his eyes

D. Closed his eyes

3. _________, I couldn’t get the book I wanted. A. Closed B. Library closed C. Closing library D. With library closing

三、使用分词短语、独立主格结构、with + 复合宾语结构分别在句子中作状语时要注意:它们与主句之间不应有 从属连词(如 when, if, as soon as, as, while 等)或并列连词(如 and, but, or, so 等) 。例如: 1. _________, the teacher told the class to go through the text A. Checking the answers C. When checking the answers and B. Checking the answers and D. all the above

2. _________a rainy day, so all the farmers had to stay inside. A. It being B. Being C. It was D. all the above

3. As_______a little sick, he remained at the clinic. A. feeling B. he felt C. he felling D. all the above

四、在使用独立主格结构、with +复合宾语结构、分词结构作句子的状语时,一定要看句子主语同这些结构的逻 辑关系。 1、当句子主语与该状语内部动词之间有逻辑上的主谓或动宾关系时,该状语可用分词结构或从句表示。 1. ______ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Lost B. As he was lost C. He lost D. A and B

2. _______for the bus at the stop, he suddenly caught sight of a thief. A. Waiting B. When he was waiting C. As he was waiting D. all the above

2、 若句子主语与状语内动词之间不存在逻辑上的主谓或动宾关系且状语内有自已的逻辑主语。 则该状语不能用分 词结构,只能用独立主格结构、with +复合宾语结构或从句。如: 1. The soldier fell asleep ___________. A. with the candle burning C. when he was burning the candle B. burning the candle D. when burning the candle

2. __________, the Tiananmen Square looks more beautiful. A. Being on C. With all the lights on B. When being on D. When it turns on all the lights

3. ________ the notice, he had an idea. A. When he was watching B. Watching C. When watching D. all the above

4. ________ the notice, an idea came to his mind. A. When he was watching 案例探究 第 6 页 共 10 页 B. Watching C. When watching D. all the above

1. (★★★★★)________,there is no school. A. It is Sunday B. It was Sunday C. It will be Sunday D. It being Sunday

2. (★★★★)________,all the students ran out of the classroom. A. Class was over B. Class is over C. Class over D. When class over

3. (★★★★)________,everything has changed. A. Time goes on B. Time going on C. As time going on D. With time went on 4. (★★★★)He was lying on the grass, his hands________ under his head. A. crossing B. crossed C. was crossing D. were crossed

5. (★★★★★)The storm________ their house, they had to live in a cave. A. destroyed B. destroying C. having destroyed D. being destroyed

6. (★★★★)He entered the room, ________. A. his nose was red with cold C. his nose red with cold B. and his nose red with cold D. his nose been red with cold

7. .(★★★★)Here are the first two volumes, the third one________ next month. A. to come out B. coming out C. will come out D. having come out

8. .(★★★★)All things________, I think we ought to give the job to Mike. A. considering B. considered C. having considered D. are considered

9. .(★★★★)____________ ,they will go and visit the zoo. A. Weather permitting C. Weather being permitted B. Weather permitted D. Weather having permitted

10. .(★★★★)The problem__________ ,they all went home happily. A. settling B. to be settled C. settled D. to settle

11. (★★★★)A lot of work_________ ,he had no time to talk with us. A. done B. to do C. doing D. to be doing

1 2 . Everyone________ their seats, the meeting began. A. taken B. taking C. having taken D. to take

13. He stood there, his hands________ behind. A. tying B. tied C. were tying D. were tied

14. ________, Mother had to stay at home and looked after him. A. Being ill B. He was ill C. Tom being ill D. To be ill

独立主格结构链接: 1. The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ________at the end of last March. 第 7 页 共 10 页

[2007. 山东卷] A.has been launched C.being launched B.having been launched D.to be launched

2. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _______ for the day. [07. 重庆] A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished

3 . There are a lot of stars existing in space, most of ____ are unknown to us. and most of _____ are unknown to us. most of ____being unknown to us. A. who B. which C that D them B D D

4. Anderson entered the classroom,_____ book in _____ hanD. A. /; his B. /; / C. a; / D. a; the

5. He left, his sweetheart ____ very lonely. A. felt B. feels C. has felt D. feeling

6. Mr. Black left for Beijing this morning, his secretary ____ him there this Friday. A. would join B. joined C. joining D. to join

7. . ____ at hand, he had to borrow some to buy his wife a present. A. There was no money C. Being no money B. There being no money D. Not been money

8. A team of 15 Indian experts are organizing a workforce of 400 Cambodians, ____. A. most of them women C. and most of whom are women B. most of whom women D. most them are women

9. .The final exam ________ , your parents will not properly allow you to listen to music. A. drawing near B. draw near C. is drawing near D. is drew near

10. . The thief was brought in, his hands ____________ behind his back. A. tying B. tied C. being tied D. having tied

11. So many students __________ for the traffic jam, the exam had to be put off. A. were late B. been late C. has been late D. being late

A. have been canceled C. having been canceled

B. had been canceled D. being canceled

12. He wrote a lot of novels, many of _______ translated into a foreign language. A. them B. which C. it D. what 第 8 页 共 10 页

13. We got near a garden, ______ owner sitting in it. A. its B. whose C. that D. which

14. The fine day ______________ our pleasure, we had a good time in the country. A. added up B. added in C. added up to D. added to

15. I send you 10. 0 dollars today, the rest ____________ in a year. A. follows B. followed C. to follow D. being followed

16. Our teacher entered the classroom, __________. A. a book in hand B. book in hand C. book in his hand D. a book in hands

17. There ____________ nothing to talk about, everyone in the room remained silent. A. was B. had C. being D. having

18. .The factory produced many famous cars, none of ____ shipped to foreign countries. A. them B. which C. it D. what

19. .The manager was very angry, for he had sent his business partner two thousand machines yesterday, half of ___ unqualified. A. them B. what C. which D. whom

20. On Saturday evenings guests are entertained in the garden, weather ________. A. permits B. permit C. permitting D. permitted

21. _____, we decided to go for an outing. A. weather permitting C. Had weather permitted B. The weather being so fine D. If the weather is clear

22. All flights____because of the snowstorm, many passengers could do nothing but take the train. A. having been cancelled C. have been cancelled B. had been cancelled D. being cancelled

23. He was lying on the grass, his hands _______ under his head. A. crossing B. being crossed C. crossed D. to cross

“with + 复合宾语” 链接: 1. Spider was up and standing at the door, with every hair of her body ____. A. stood up B. on its end C. on end D. on the end

2. With the weather conditions ____, they flew to London immediately. A. taken account into C. taking account into B. taken into account D. taking into account

3. _______ the production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year. 第 9 页 共 10 页

A. For

B. As

C. Because

D. With

4. With too many construction projects _____ all the strength out of the economy, people of the small country complained a lot. A. sucking B. to suck C. being sucked D. being sucking

5. —Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work A. filled B. filling my mind, I almost break down. [2007. 福建卷] C. to fill D. being filled

6. With a lot of difficult problems ___, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. to settle B. settled C. setting D. being settled

第 10 页 共 10 页


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