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2013高考英语二轮复习精品教案:语法专题九 非谓语动词




1、非谓语动词的句法功能 语 名称 主语 不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词 √ √ 宾语 √ √ √ √ 宾语补足语 √ 表语 √ √ √ √ 定语 √ √ √ √ √ √ 状语 √ 法 功 能

2、动词不定式复心中应注意的几个问题 (1)不定式作表语与“be + to do sth.”的异同。不定式作表语说明主语的内容或性质。 His job is to guard. (说明内容) be + to do sth.(表示按计划要做的事) (2)带不定式作宾语的词语。 下列词语常不定式作宾语:afford、promise、refuse、expect、hope、learn、offer、wish、 want、fail、plan、agree、forget、like、prefer、decide、manage、try、arrange、determine、 desire 等。 下列动词后可接疑问词+不定式: teach、 decide、 wonder、 show、 learn、 forget、 ask、 find、 out、advise、discuss 等。 (3)如何理解和使用不定式作宾补。 ①动词 see、watch、notice、hear、listen to、observe、feel、taste、smell、make、let、have 等的宾补用动词原形,变被动时要加 to,此时的不定式就是主语补足语。 ②常用带不定式作宾补的几种情况: 主语 + ask / require / tell / order / force / get / want / like + sb.to do sth. ③主语 + think / judge / suppose / believe / consider /imagine/ consider / feel + sb. + to be/ to have done ④主语 + call on / upon / depend on / wait for / ask for + sb.+ to do sth.
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①下列词语后常接不定式作定语:chance、wish、right、courage、need、promise、time、 opportunity、way、the first、the second、the last、the only 等。 ②不定式作定语和所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主谓关系。 There is no one to look after her. ③不定式与被修饰的名词在逻辑上有动宾关系。 She is now looking for a room to live in. (5)不定式作状语的用法。 不定式作状语,修饰动词,在句中表示行为目的、结果、原因。only to do 表示出人意 料的结果。 We hurried to the classroom only to find none there . in order(not)to,so as(not)to 用来引导目的状语,enough,too, so… as to do, such + 名词… as to do 作结果状语,如:The girl was so kind as to help the old man off the bus. I’m not such a fool as to believe that. (6)不定式的完成时的特殊用法。 ①表示不定式中谓语动词发生的动作先于主句的谓语动词发出的动作。 The novel was said to have been published. I regret to have been with you for so many years. seem、appear、be said、be supposed、be believed、be thought、be known、be reported 等动词常用于上面句型。 此外,glad、happy、satisfied、sorry、surprised、disappointed 后也接完成时,但要注意 与一般时的区别。 I’m sorry to keep you waiting for a minute.对不起,请稍等。 (说话时还未等) I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.对不起,让你久等了。 (说话时已等了很久) ②不定式的完成时还可表示“过去本想做某事但未做”的虚拟语气。 (A)should like to / would like to / would love to + 不定式的完成时。 (B)was / were to + 不定式的完成时,表 示该做某事或想做但未实现。 expect / hope / mean / promise / suppose / think / want/ wish + (C) 不定式完成时,表示过去未曾实现的愿望。 (7)不定式的省略。 ①同一结构并列由 and 或 or 连接。
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I want to finish my homework and go home. I’m really puzzled what to think or say. 特例:To be or not to be,this is a question. He is better to laugh than to cry.(表示对比) ②不定式作表语,其前面的主语从句中含有 do 时,后面的 to 省略。 What he did was lose the game. ③句中含有动词 do 时,but、except、besides、such as 等后面 to 可省略。即“前有 do, 后省 to” 。 Don’t do anything silly, such as marry him. ④主句含有不定式,后面有 rather than, rather than 后省 to。 ⑤Why not、had better、would rather、can’t but 等词后省 to。如: He could not but walk home. (8)不定式的替代。 多用在同一句或联系紧密的对话中,为了避免重复,作宾语或主补,宾补的不定式再次 出现时,to 后的内容常承前省略(只保留 to 即可) 。但如果承前省略的不定式有助动用的 have 或 be 任何形式,后应该保留原形 be 或 have。如: Susan is not what she used to be. —You came late last night. You ought to have finished your homework. —I know I ought to have. 常见的有:I’d like / love / be happy to. 3、动名词复习中应注意的几个问题 (1)动名词作宾语。 ①下列动词后只能接动名词:suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can’t help, mind, enjoy, require, practise, miss, escape, pardon, advise, consider, imagine, keep, appreciate, eacape, permit。 ②下列动词短语接动名词:leave off, put off, give up, look forward to, feel like, have trouble / difficulty(in) doing sth. devote to, get used to, pay attention to, be fond of, be worth。 ③介词后要接动名词。what about、how about、without、be fond of、be good at 等介词 后接动名词。注意 on / upon doing sth. = as soon as 引导的从中。作此意讲时 on / upon 后也 可以接名词。如 on his arrival…。 ④动名词作宾语和动词不定式作宾语的区别:
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begin, start, continue, like, love, dislike, hate, prefer, can’t stand 例 句 解 析

1. It began to rain. It began raining. 2. It was beginning to snow. 3. I love lying (to lie)on my back. 4. I like listening to music, but today I don’t like to. 5. I don’t prefer to swim in the river now. remember, forget, regret, try 例 句 解 析 1. 意思无差别,但谓语动词用 进行时,后面只跟不定式。 2. 表示一种倾向多接动名词作 宾语,如果表示某一特定的或具体 的行动,多接不定式。

1. remember to do sth.记住要做的事 1. I remember to meet her at the station. remember doing sth.回顾过去发生的 I remember seeing her once somewhere. 事 2. I forgot giving it to you yesterday. 2. forget to do sth. 忘 记 要 做 的 事 I forgot to tell you about it. Now here it is. forget doing sth.忘记做过的事 3. I regret not having working hard. I regret to hear of your sister’s death. 4. Try knocking at the back door. 4. try to do sth.设法??,试图 We must try to get everything ready. try doing sth.试试看,试一试 5. That will mean flooding some land. 5. mean to do sth.打算做??,想要 I had meant to go on Monday. mean doing sth.意味着,就是 want, require, need 例 句 解 析 3. regret to do sth.对将要做的事抱歉 regret doing sth.对发生过的事后悔

1. need doing 需要被做 These desks need repairing. need to be done 需要被做 These desks need to be repaired. 2. want doing The patient required examined want to be done The patient required to be examined. 3. require doing

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require to be done

4、分词复习应注意的几个问题 (1)现在分词在句中作时间、原因、伴随、条件、结果等状语。 ①时间状语(分词作状语前面可加 when, while 等) Hearing the good news, he jumped with greatjoy. Not having finished her work in time, the boss fired her. ②原因状语 Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note ③伴随状语 The girls came in, following their parents. ④结果状语 The poor old man died, leaving nothing to his children. 注意:现在分词作状语的几个特性。①时间性。与谓语动词同时发生,用一般时,如发 生在谓语动作之前时则用完成式 having done。②语态性。与句子的主语之间的关系,是主 谓关系或动宾关系。遵循的规则“主动进行,被动完成” 。③人称一致性。分词的逻辑主语 就是句子的主语。 (2)分词作表语。 S. + be + 动词-ed 表示被动,主语是人;S. + be + 动词-ing 表示主动,主语是物。分词 作宾补不定式作宾补的区别:

感官动词 S.+ 使役动词 + 宾语 +

动词原形→做了某事 现在分词→正在做某事 过去分词→做了或被做

5、复习过去分词应注意的几个问题 过去分词作状语,相当于一个状语从句,有来说明原因、时间、条件等。 (1)过去分词作原因状语 Tired by the trip, he soon feel asleep. = Because he was tired by the trip, he soon fell asleep. Lost in thought, he almost ran into a car.
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=As he was lost in thought, he almost ran into a car. (2)作时间状语 Seen from the hill, the city looks like a garden. =When the city is seen from the hill, it looks like a garden. (3)作条件状语 Given more time, I would have worked out the problem. =If I have been given more time, I would have worked out the problem. (4)伴随状语 The teacher came in, followed by some students. =The teacher came in and was followed by some students. 分词短语作状语时, 通常与主句中的主语在逻辑上一致, 但有时它也可以有自己独立的 逻辑上的主语,这种结构称为独立主格结构。如: Her grandfather being ill, she had to stay at home looking after him. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. __________such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. (NMET 2001) A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D. Suffered

解析:答案为 A。本题考查分词短语作状语的用法。分词作状语,其逻辑主语必须是句 子的主语,而本句的主语看似是 it,其实它为形式主语,真正的主语为不定式,而不定式省 略了逻辑主语 for people,所以应用现在分词,又因 already,应用完成时。 2. One learns a language by making mistakes and _______ them.(2001 年春季高考) A. correct B. correcting C. corrects D. to correct

解析: 答案为 B。 本题考查动名词作介词宾语的用法。 介词 by 意为 “通过??, 凭??” , 后面常接动名词,形成“by+ v. –ing ”结构,表示通过做某事而得到某种结果。本题中只有 correcting 符合。 3. The picture _________ on the wall is painted by my nephew.(2000 年春季高考) A. having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung

解析:答案为 B。本题考查现在分词作定语的用法。根据句意“墙上挂的那幅画是我侄 子画的” ,可知空白处所填的动词形式在句中作定语,表说话时仍在进行的动作或所处的解
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题关键在于分析 picture 与 hang 之间的逻辑关系。 4.“We can’t go out in this weather,”said Bob, A. looking B. to look C. looked out of the window. D. having looked

解析: 答案为 A。 本句考非谓与动词作伴随状语。 全句合理的句意是: Bob 看着窗外说, “我们不能在这种天气出去” 。Bob 在说话的同时在看着窗外,应使用现在分词一般式,表 主动和进行。A 项正合语境。B 项不定式表主动、将来的动作。C 项表被动完成的动作(上 处不是并列谓语) 项表完成的主动动作,均不和语境。 。D 5.Reading is an experience quite different from watching TV; there are pictures your mind instead of before your eyes. A. to form B. form C. forming D. having formed in

解析: 答案为 C。 全句意为: 读书是一种与看电视相当不同的体验, 有画面在你的心中, 而不是在你的眼前形成。所以本题考非谓语动词,表主动且进行着的动作。人们看书时,读 到什么情节或场面,这样的情节或场面便(同时)在心中形成。 6. The news reporters hurried to the airport, only A. to tell B. to be told C. telling the film stars had left. D. told

解析:答案为 B。本题考查非谓语用法。only + to do 常用此结构作结果状语,tell 及物 动词,tell 之后常带双宾结构,故 tell 采用被动形式。

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