定语从句 定语从句一般放在被修饰词之后，且有引导词引导。被修饰的词叫先行词。定语从句的 引导词叫关系词，其中 who，whom，which，that，whose 是关系代词，关系代词在从句中作 主语、宾语、定语或表语。 when，where，why 是关系副词，在从句中作状语。 一 that (1)That 在从句中作主语、宾语、表语，指人或物。 The book (that)
you are reading is very interesting. 你正在读的那本书很有趣。 The man that is standing there has a big farm. 站在那儿的那个人有一个大农场。 (2)只能用 that ①当主语从句为 who,which 引导的特殊疑问句时，为避免重复。 Who is the man that is sweeping the fallen leaves? 正在打扫落叶的那个人是谁？ Which is the bike that you lost? 哪辆是你丢的自行车？ ②先行词是不定代词 everything,anything,nothing,all,1ittle,something,much,none 等。 You should hand in all that you have. anything that you have to say had better be said in each other ’s presence. I like everything that you have bought. ③当先行词前面有 the only，the very（恰恰，正好） ，any，few，little，no， all 等词修饰时。 This is the very dictionary that he wants to buy. 这正是他想买的那本字典。 The only thing that we can do is to give you some money. 我们能做的唯一的事情就是给你一些钱。
④当先行词是形容词最高级或先行词的前面有形容词最高级修饰时。 It’s the best film that has ever been made on the subject of madness. 这是以精神病为题材而制作的影片中最好的一部。 The worst matter that I was afraid of happened in the end. 我所担心的最可怕的事情最后还是发生了。 ⑤当先行词是序数词或先行词前面有序数词修饰时。 This train is the last that will go to Suzhou. 这是去苏州的最后一趟火车。 The first place that they visited in London was Big Ben. 他们在伦敦参观的第一站就是大本钟。 ⑥当先行词既有人又有物时。 She took photographs of the things and people that she was interested in. 她把她所感兴趣的人和物全拍了下来。 At the party,we talked about the persons and things that we had seen in America. 聚会上，我们谈论了我们在美国所见到的人和事。 ⑦主句是 there be 结构时。 There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上有一本汤姆的书。 ⑧关系代词在定语从句中作 to be 的表语时 My hometown is no longer the place that it used to be. 我的家乡不再是过去那样了。 He is no longer the boy that he used to be. 他不再是过去的老样子了。 9 有两个定语从句时，其中一个关系代词用 which，另外一用 that： They secretly built up a small factory, which produced things that could cause pollution.
他们偷偷地建了一家小工厂，这家工厂生产能造成污染的东西。 二 which （1）Which 指物，在从句中作主语或宾语。 The vase which l broke yesterday was very expensive. 我昨天打坏的花瓶是很昂贵的。 The book which I borrowed from the library is very enjoyable. 我从图书管借的那本书很有趣。 The trees which are behind the office building were planted by the former graduates. 办公楼后面的那些树是由以前的毕业生栽的。 （2）只能用 which ①当动词短语中的介词提前时，只用 which，不用 that。 This is the village in which he was born. 这就是他出生的村子。 The library from which we borrowed books is full of people. 我们借书的图书馆里满满的都是人。 The beggar has no money with which he can buy food. 那个乞丐没钱买吃的。 ②引导非限制性丛定语从句时，只用 which 不用 that。 The sports meeting was canceled , which disappointed us. 运动会被取消了，这令我们很失望。 Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others,which made the others envy him． 海伦对最小的儿子比对其他的儿子好得多，这一点当然让他们很嫉妒他（最小的儿子） 。 ③先行词后有插入语时，关系代词用 which。 Here's the book which, I think,you have been looking for. 我想这就是你一直在找的那本书。
三 who (1)who 指人在从句中作主语或宾语。 Do you know the man who the teacher is talking to? 你认识正和老师说话的那个人吗？ This is the boy who found the wallet on the playground. 这就是那个在操场上捡到钱包的男孩。 (2) ①当先行词为 those，anyone，(the) one 等指人的不定代词在从句中作主语时。 One who doesn’t get to the Great Wall is not a true man。 不到长城非好汉。 God helps those who help themselves. 上帝帮助自助的人。 ②先行词被 the (only) one of 修饰时，谓语动词应用单数形式， He is the (only) one of the boys who knows French. 他是唯一一个懂法语的男生。 The Great Wall is the only one of the buildings on the earth that is seen from the moon. 长城是地球上唯一一个能从月球上看到的建筑物。 ?当先行词被 one of 修饰时，谓语动词应用复数形式。 This is one of the rooms that are free now. 这是目前空着的房间之一。 He is one of the. Boys who know French． 他是其中一个懂法语的男生。 注意：not the only one of...=one of... Tom isn’t the only one of the boys who have passed the exam. =Tom is one of the boys who have passed the exam.
汤姆并非是唯一通过考试的男孩。 =汤姆是通过考试的男孩中的一个。 四、whom (1)Whom 指人，在从句中作宾语． The boy whom you saved has begun to attend school. 你救的那个男孩已经开始上学了 (2)whom 在从句中作宾语可省略，也可由 who 代替。 The boy( whom) she loved died in the war.1I 她爱的那个男孩在战争中死了。 ,
The person who/whom you just met is Professor Li. 刚才你遇到的那个人是李教授。 (3)whom 在介词后不可以省略，who 不能用于介词之后。 The man to whom my father is talking is my teacher. 我父亲正在与其谈话的那个人是我的老师 五 whose (1)whose 在从句中作定语，修饰人或物。 I like those books whose topics are about history. 我喜欢那些主题是关于历史的书籍。 I have friend whose son is fond of making sculptures. 我有一个朋友，他的儿子喜欢制作雕塑。 The school shop whose customers are mainly students is closed for the holidays. 这个顾客主要是学生的学校商店因为放假而暂停营业。
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