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高考英语语法必考点与常考点归纳


2016 高考英语语法必考点与常考点归纳
一、冠词

冠词分为不定冠词(a, an) ,定冠词(the) ,和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法 1 2 3 4 指一类人或事,相当于 a kind of 第一次提及某人某物,非特指 表示“每一”相当于 every,one 表示“相同”相当于 the same A plane is a machine th

at can fly. A boy is waiting for you.有个男孩在等你。 We study eight hours a day. We are nearly of an age. — Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith? —Sorry, wrong number. There isn't______ Mr. 5 用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人 有类似性质的人或事 Smith here. A. 不填 one That boy is rather a Lei Feng.(活雷锋) 6 用于固定词组中 用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 之后 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 a couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time This room is rather a big one. She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet. success( 抽象名词 ) → a success( 具体化 ) 成功 的人或事 a failure 失败的人或事 9 用于抽象名词具体化的名词前 a shame 带来耻辱的人或事 a pity 可惜或遗憾的事 a must 必需必备的事 a good knowledge of 精通掌握某一方面的知识 II. 定冠词的用法
1

B. a

C. the

D.

7 8

In many places in China, ___ bicycle is still ___ 1 表示某一类人或物 popular means of transportation. A. a; the the 2 3 4 5 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的 人或事 用于演奏乐器 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean Would you mind opening the door? play the violin, play the guitar the reach, the living, the wounded —Could you tell me the way to ____ Johnsons, please? 6 表示“一家人”或“夫妇” (对比上文的不定冠 —Sorry, we don’t have ____ Johnson here in 词用法 5) the village. A. the; the C. /; the 7 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级 前 用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛 的名词前 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年 代 用于表示度量单位的名词前 用于方位名词,身体部位名词 B. the; a D. the; / B. /; a C. the; a D. the;

He is the taller of the two children. the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French The compass was invented in China. in the 1990’s(二十世纪九十年代) I hired the car by the hour. He patted me on the shoulder.

8 9 10 11 12

III. 不用冠词(又名零冠词)的用法 1 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名 地名等名词前 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, every 等限制 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐 前 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this? March, Sunday, National Day, spring

2

3

2

4 5

表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 表示球类,棋类等运动的名词前

Lincoln was made President of America. He likes playing football/chess. We went right round to the west coast by ______

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与 by 连用表示交通方式的名词前

sea instead of driving across ______ continent. A. the; the 不填;不填 B.不填;the C. the; 不填 D.

7 8

以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 表示泛指的复数名词前

husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night Horses are useful animals.

二、名词和主谓一致 I. 名词的种类 专有名词 国名地名人名,团体 机构名称 可数名词 个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 普通名词 不可数名词 物质名词

特别注意:名词类别的相互转换 个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换 例 句 意 义 花儿 开花 青春 年轻人 成功 名词性质 个体名词 抽象名词 抽象名词 个体名词 抽象名词

①She held some flowers in her hand. ②The trees are now in flower ①Youth is beautiful. ②He is a youth of twenty ① They have achieved remarkable success in their work. ②—How about the Christmas evening party?
3

成功的事

个体名词

—I should say it was a success. 物质名词与个体名词的相互转换 例 句 意 义 铁 熨斗 玻璃 玻璃杯 小鸡 鸡肉 名词性质 物质名词 个体名词 物质名词 个体名词 个体名词 物质名词

①Iron is a kind of metal. ②Please lend me your iron. ①He broke a piece of glass. ②He broke a glass. ①I bought a chicken this morning ② Please help yourself to some chicken

抽象名词与个体名词的转换 ① — I’d like______information about the management of your hotel,please. —Well, you could have____word with the manager. He might be 具有动作意义的抽象 helpful 名词加用与某些动词 A.some,a (如:have 等)连 ②They sent us 用,表示某一次短暂 象名词) 的动作 A.a ③Could we have (个体名词) B.an C./ D.the word of the latest happenings. 消息 (抽 B.an,some C.some,some D.an,a

word before you go to the meeting? 话

4

A.a

B.an

C./

D.the

类 例 : have a dream/a rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look take a walk/a bath make an advance( 进 步 )/make an early

start( 早点出发 )/make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫声) /give a try ① Many people agree that___knowledge of English is a must in____international trade today. A.a, the a knowledge of truth(知道实际情况) 表示知识和时间的抽 give a fuller knowledge of China(提供关于中国更为翔实的知识) 象名词转换为普通名 have a knowledge of shorthand(有速记的知识) 词时可以用来表示 ②If there were no examination, we should have______at school. 其中的一部分 A.the happiest time B.a more happier time / B.the, an C.the, the D. /,

C.much happiest time D.a much happier time ③ is money. B.A time C.Time D.Times

A.The time 抽象名词转换为普通 名词可用来表示“一 次、一阵、一种”具体 的行为、事件、现象

①Oh, John. _____you gave me! A.How a pleasant surprise C.What a pleasant surprise ②She looked up B.How pleasant surprise D. What pleasant surprise

when I shouted.

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或结果。这时名词前 往往有形容词修饰

A.in a surprise surprise

B.in the surprise C.in surprise

D.in some

其它例子:The gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some unpleasant surprise ③It is_____work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. A.so unusual D.so an unusual II. 名词的数 规则名词的复数形式: 名词的复数形式, 一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es (参看有关语法书) 。 英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,请看下表 III. 主谓一致 规 则 man-men, 1 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 goose-geese, mouse-mice 2 单复数相同 sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, 3 只有复数形式 compasses, contents 4 一些集体名词总是用作复数 people, police, cattle, staff audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, 部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体) 5 也可以作复数(成员) public, enemy, party committee, government, population, crew, team, 例 词 foot-feet, B. such unusual C.such an unusual

woman-women,

6

customs( 海 关 ), forces( 军 队 ), times( 时 代 ), spirits( 情 绪 ), drinks( 饮 料 ), sands( 沙 滩 ), 6 复数形式表示特别含义 papers(文件报纸 ), manners(礼貌 ), looks( 外表 ), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟) Americans, 加-s Swedes, Europeans 表示“某 7 国人” 以-man 或-woman 结尾的 Englishmen, Frenchwomen 改为-men,-women sons-in-law, 将主体名词变为复数 story-tellers, boy friends 8 合成名词 无主体名词时将最后一部 grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches 分变为复数 将两部分变为复数 women singers, men servants lookers-on, passers-by, 单复数同形 Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese Australians, Germans, Greeks,

规 则 语









以单数名词或代词动词不定式短语,动名 词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用 单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词 用复数形式。

His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. What he said is very important for us all.

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由 what 引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词 多数情况用单数形式,但若表语是复数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构 时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。



what I bought were three English books. What I say and do is (are) helpful for you. Lucy and Lily are twins The writer and artist has come.



由连接词 and 或 both…and 连接起来的主 语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词。但若 所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物 时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式。由 and

Every student and every teach is in the classroom. Many a boy and many a girl likes it. No boy and no girl likes it. Each of us has a new book. Is everyone here today? Somebody is speaking in class.



连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有 no, each, every 或 more than a

(an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时,其谓语动 词要用单数形式。either, neither, each, every 或 no+ 单数名词和由 some, any 则 no, every 构成的复合不定代词,都作单 数看待。.

Everything around us is matter 若 none of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的 谓语动词就要用单数。若它后面的名词是复 数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。 None of the sugar was left. None of us has (have) been to America.

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Those who want to go please write their names on the blackboard. 在定语从句里, 关系代词 that, who, which He is one of my friends who are working 等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先 hard. 行词的数一致。 He is the (only) one of my friends who is working hard. It is I who am going to the cinema tonight. 在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致 It is we who are going to the cinema tonight. The police are looking for the lost child. The cattle are eating grass in the field. His family has moved to the south .(他的一 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语 家) 动词用单数形式; 如果它指的集体的成 His family are watching TV.(他的家人) 员,其谓语动词用复数形式 Class four is on the third floor.(四班) Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.(四班的学生) 由 a lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ the rest of/the majority of+名词 构成的短语以及由分数或百分数+名词构 There are a lot of people in the classroom. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea.

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成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词的数要根 据短语中后面名词的数而定。

50 percent of the students in our class are girls. 此外, 还有 a number of +复数名词有类似的 用法(用复数) ,但 the number of +复数名 词的数就得依 number 而定(用单数) 。 A number of students have gone to the farm to help the farmer pick apples. The number of pages in this book is three hundred. There comes the bus. On the wall are many pictures.

在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主 Such is the result. 语一致 Such are the facts. Between the two hills stands a monument. 逻 Which is your bag? Which are your bags? 辑 What, who, which, any, more, all 等代词 可以是单数,也可是复数, 主要靠意思 意 来决定。 Are any of you good at English? Has any of you got a pen? All can be done has been done. All is going well. 义 All have been taken out.

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All have gone to Beijing. 一 表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的复数 Twenty pounds is too dear. 作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式,这 致 是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整 复数形式 体。 原 Forty kilos of water are used every day. The United States is smaller than China. 则 若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名等的 “The Arabian Nights” is an interesting 复数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。 story-book. 表数量的短语“one and a half”后面接复 数名词作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形 式。 一 些 学 科 名 词 是 以 -ics 结 尾 , 如 : mathematics, politics, physics 以 及 The paper works was built in 1990.这家造 news, works 等。都属于形式上是复数的 纸厂建于 1990 年。 名词, 实际意义为单数名词, I don’t think physics is easy to study. 它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形 式。 trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, My glasses are broken. The pair of shoes under the bed is his. One and a half apples is left on the table. 如强调这类词的复数意义,则谓语动词要用 Thirty minutes is enough for the work..

scissors (剪刀)等词作主语时,谓语用复 数, 但如果这些名词前有 a(the) pair of 等

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量词修饰时(clothes 被 a suit of 修饰) 谓语动词用单数。 “定冠词 the+形容词或分词” ,表示某一类 人动词用复数;若表示某一类东西时,动 词用单数。 Either the teacher or the students are our 当两个主语由 either or, neither nor, not only but also ,whether or 连接时,谓语 friends. Neither he nor they are wholly right. The old are taken good care of there. The beautiful gives pleasure to all.

动词和邻近的主语保持一致,即就近一致。 Neither they nor he is wholly right. 就 近 / 远 一 致 主 语 后 面 跟 有 with, together with, 原 except, but, like, as well as, no less 则 than, rather than, more than, besides, Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the along with, including, in addition to 等引 playground. 起的短语, 谓语动词要跟主语一致,即 She, like you and Tom, is very tall. 就远一致。 The girls as well as the boy have learned to A woman with a baby was on the bus. children, has come to China. there be 句型中 be 动词的单复数取决 于其后的主语。如果其后是由 and 连接 的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保持 一致,即就近一致。 Mr. Green, together with his wife and Is neither he nor they wholly right? There are two chairs and a desk in the room. There is a desk and two chairs in the room.

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speak Japanese. No one except my teachers knows

anything about it.

三、代词 I. 代词可以分为以下八大类 主格 宾格 人称代 1 词 主代词 名词性物主 mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs 代词 myself, 2 反身代词 yourselves, themselves
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I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them

形容词性物 my, your, his, her, its, our, their

yourself,

himself,

herself,

itself,

ourselves,

3

指示代词

this, that, these, those, such, some who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever,

4

疑问代词 whatever

5

关系代词/连接代词

that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/

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不定代词

little/ a few/ a little other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either

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相互代词

each other,one another

II. 不定代词用法注意点 类 别 区 别 例 句 ①We’ve been looking at the houses but haven’t found ___ we like yet. A.one one, one 可 以 泛 指 人 或 者 事 some, (东西) ,其复数为 ones any 和 it phones do. A.one D.those B.ones C.it fact far more serious _______ than mobile ②Cars do cause us some health problems — in B.ones C.it D.them

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some 可用于疑问句中, 表示盼望得到肯定的答 复,或者表示建议,请求 等

—Your

coffee

smells

great!

—It’s

from

Mexico.Would you like ________? A.it D.1ittle ① I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any. B.some C.this

some 和 any 修饰可数名 词单数时,some 表示某 个,any 表示任何一个

②—Which of the three ways shall I take to the village? —________way as you please. A.Each D.Either B.Every C.Any

one 指同类中的一个, it 指代同一种类的东西。此 外 it 还可以作形式主语、 形式宾语和用于强调句型 中。

—There is still a copy of the book in the library. Will you go and borrow —No, I’d rather buy A.it;one D.it;it ① There’s ________cooking oil in the house. Would you go to the corner store and get ? in the bookstore. B.one;one C.one;it

some 多用于肯定句,any ________. 多用于疑问句和否定句 A.1ittle,some little,some B.1ittle,any D.a little,any C.a

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② We had three sets of garden tools and we seemed to have no use for ________. A.none D.each ③ He doesn’t have _________ furniture in his room --just an old desk. A. any D. much each 强调个别, 代表的数 可以是两个或两个以上, each 和 而 every 强调整体,所指 every 的数必须是三个或三个以 上 no 等于 not any, 作定语。 ①There is no water in the bottle. none 作主语或宾语, 代替 none 和 不可数名词, 谓语用单数, no 代替可数名词,谓语单复 difficulties. 数皆可以 ③ None of the students are (is) afraid of ②How much water is there in the bottle? None. ②Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points. a dictionary. ①Each student has a pocket dictionary. Each (of us) has a dictionary. = We each have B. many C. some B.either C.any

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other 泛指“另外的,别的” 常与其他 ① Both sides have accused 词连用, 如: the other day, breaking the contract. every other A. another week, reason, way, others passed the exam. other 和 another the other 特指两者中的另 外一个, 复数为 the others ①We had a picnic last term and it was a lot of another 指“又一个,另一 个”无所指, 复数形式是 others,泛指 “别的人或 事” fun,so let’s have ______ one this month. A . the other D.other ② The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others. ③Some like football, while others like basketball. ①—Do you want tea or coffee? — 前者意思为:两者都(两 either 和 者中任何一方都) ; 后 neither 者意思为:两者都 all ②It was hard for him to learn English in a family, A. none B. neither C. either D. really don't mind. ______, I B . some C . another someother each no other ②Two students in our class failed, but all the B. the other C. neither D. of

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in which _____ of the parents spoke the language. A. none each
四、形容词和副词

B. neither

C. both

D.

I. 形容词 1.形容词的位置:形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况下后置 修饰 some, any, every, no 和 body, thing, one 1 等构成的复合不定代词时 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 2 only 修饰的名词之后 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等作定语时 3 后置 4 5 6 和空间、时间、单位连用时 成对的形容词可以后置 形容词短语一般后置 a bridge 50 meters long a huge room simple and beautiful a man difficult to get on with ______to take his adventure course will certainly enough 修饰名词时可以前置也可以后置,但修 7 饰形容词或副词时要后置 A.Brave enough students B.Enough breave students C.Students brave enough
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nobody absent, everything possible

the best book available, the only solution possible

the only person awake

learn

a

lot

of

useful

skills.(NMET2000)

D.Students enough brave 注意:多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序 熟记口诀就可以顺利解题:限定描绘大长高,形状年龄和新老,颜色国籍跟材料,作用类别 往后靠。 规则:限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词 + size(小)+ shape(形状)+ age(年 龄、时间)+ color(颜色)+ origin(国籍、来源)+ material(材料)+ purpose (目的)+ 名词。 ▲This ________ girl is Linda’s cousin. (05 北京卷) A. pretty little Spanish pretty Spanish 2.复合形容词的构成 1 2 3 形容词+名词+ed 形容词+形容词 形容词+现在分词 kind-hearted dark-blue ordinary-lookin 8 g 4 5 副词+现在分词 副词+过去分词 hard-working newly-built 9 10 数词+名词+ed 数词+名词 three-egged twenty-year 6 7 名词+形容词 名词+现在分词 名词+过去分词 world-famous peace-loving snow-covered B. Spanish little pretty C. Spanish pretty little D. little

3.形容词(短语)作伴随状语 As he looked at the goat, it rolled over, dead. 当他看着山羊的时候, 山羊翻了个身, 死了。 Afraid of difficulties, they prefer to take the easy road.由于害怕困难,他们宁愿走好走的 路。

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II.副词的分类: 时 间 1 副词 地 点 2 副词 方 式 3 副词 程 度 4 副词 fairly, quite, rather excitedly, really almost, nearly, very, 8 关系副词 when, where, why upwards, above hard, well, fast, slowly, 7 连接副词 whether, however, meanwhile how, when, where, why, once, recently here, nearby, outside, 6 疑问副词 how, where, when, why soon, now, early, finally, 5 频度副词 seldom, never always, often, frequently,

III. 形容词和副词的比较等级 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级, 比较级和最高级。 比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容 词和副词后加-er 和-est,多音节和一些双音节词前加 more 和 most。 项 目 例 句 She is as tall as her mother. I am not as/ so good a player as you are. This picture is more beautiful than that one. I have never seen such a more interesting film (than this one).

同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及 not so(as)…as… 双方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用 “比较级 (+ than)” 的结构表示。要注意题干中将比较的另 一方阴藏起来的情况。 表示一方不及另一方时, 用“less + 原级 + than”的结构表示

This room is less beautiful than that one.

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表 示 一 方 随 另 一 方 变 化 时 用 “ the more…the more…”句型

The harder you work, the more progress you will make I have never spent a more worrying day.

用比较级来表达最高级的意思

我从来没有度过这样令人烦恼的一天。 (意为:我度过了最为令人烦恼的一天。 ) 表 达 法 一 : A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B. The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one. 这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)/这座新楼比 那座旧楼大(高)三倍。 表达法二:A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲是欧洲的四倍大/亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 表 达 法 三 : A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours. 你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。 用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double.

倍数的表达

注意: 1. 可以修饰比较级的词有: much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal; 2. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect,superior,junior 等。 五、动词和短语动词 知识网络 行为动词(实义动词) 动词的分类 ①及物动词(带宾语) :study, develop; ②不及物动词(不带宾语)work, swim, go, come

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③状态动词(相对静止)contain, exist, own, prefer, belong ④动作动词: 延续性 (work, stay) ; 非延续性 (marry, go, come) 连系动词(汉语中没有这种词类) 助动词(与动词原形或分词构成复合谓语) be(am,is,are),do(does,did);have(has);will,would,shall

情态动词 can(could),may(might),must,shall(should)

动词+副词所构成的短语动词分及物的和不及物的两类 Please turn every light in the house off. 请把房子里的每一盏 灯都关掉。 (及物) Harry turned up after the party when everyone had left. 晚会后,人们都已离去,哈里出现了。 (不及物) 短语动词常见的构成方式及 注意: 其注意点 ①如果宾语较长,就应避免把副词同动词分开 She turned off all the lights which had been left on. 她关掉 了所有还在亮着的灯。 ②如果宾语是人称代词,只能放在动词和副词之间 She gave them away.她送掉了它们。 ③同一动词和不同副词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异 ring back 回电话
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ring off 挂断电话

ring up 打电话

put away 放好 举起。

put on 穿,上演

put up 挂起,

④不同动词和同一副词搭配时,在意义上有很大的差异 break out 发生,爆炸 go out 熄灭 let out 放出 sell out 卖完 take out 取出 动词+介词(及物) I'm looking for my glasses. 我在找我的眼镜。 注意:①当它跟宾语时,不能把介词放在宾语后面。 ②同一动词和不同介词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异。 look after 照料,look at 看,look for 寻找 动词+副词+介词 I look forward to seeing you soon. 我盼望不久就见到你。 注:“动词+介词”、“动词+名词+副词”、“动词+副词+介词”,这 三种搭配都是及物的, 如变成被动语态, 不可漏掉介词。 In this way both grain and vegetable can be well looked after. (不能 漏掉 after) 这样一来,粮食和蔬菜都能兼顾了。 考点聚焦及解题点拨 (单个动词)同义词近义词辨 从三个方面考虑:词的恰切含义、搭配(与介词、名词或非谓 carry out 进行,开展 hand out 分发 look out 当心 set out 出发, work out 算出

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语动词的搭配)和用法(是及物动词还是不及物动词) 状态系动词 be 持续系动词 keep,remain,stay,continue,lie,stand,rest 表象系动词 seem,appear 感官/感觉系动词 look,smell,taste,sound,feel

系动词的用法

变化系动词 become,grow,get,turn,fall,go,come 终止系动词 prove,turn out 解答这类试题的关键首先是弄清题意,然后是分析句子结构, 由此可判断出该动词是否用作系动词,最后确定所要填入的答 案。特别关注:go hungry,come true,turn writer give sb. sth=give sth.to sb buy sb. sth.=buy sth. for sb

接双宾语的动词

但 是 我们 只能 说: suggest sth. to sb. read sth. to sb.

explain sth.to sb.

短语动词的辨析

熟记常考的短语动词的意义 sell, write, wash, wear 等词的主动形式后跟副词表示被动意义

容易被我们忽视的知识点

happen, occur,take place, break out, come out, belong to 等无被动 形式

六、动词的时态和语态 1. 常用常考的动词时态和用法: (以 do 为例) 名称 构成
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用法

1.一般现在时表示经常发生、习惯性动作、客观真理、 科学事实、格言,目前的特征、状态、能力等。 2.主句是一般将来时,时间、 条件状语从句中用一般现在 时表示将来。 I’ll go there after I finish my work. do/does,( 连系动 一般现在时 词 is/am/are ) 3.在以 here,there 开头的句子里, go,come 等少数动词 的一般在时表示正在发生的动作。 There goes the bell.铃响了。 There comes the bus.汽车来了。 Here she comes.她来了。 did,( 连系动词 一般过去时 was/were) 去某一时间内经常发生或反复发生的动作或行为。 1.表示正在进行的动作。 2.表示按计划安排即将发生的动作。 She is leaving for Beijing.她要去北京。 He is working as a teacher tomorrow. 现在进行时 is/am/are doing 从明天起他要做老师。 My father is coming to see me this Saturday. 这个星期六我爸爸要来看我。 3.代替一般现在时,描绘更加生动。 表达特定的过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状况, 或过 If it rains tomorrow,I won’t go there.

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The Changjiang River is flowing into the east. 长江江水滚滚向东流。 The sun is rising in the east.太阳从东方冉冉升起。

1.表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作 (这一过去时间须用时间状语表示) He was preparing his lecture all day yesterday. 2.表示动作在另一过去动作发生时进行 过去进行时 was/were doing They were still working when I left. 3.用在两个过去进行时动作同时发生 I was writing while he was watching TV. 4.表示过去将来动作 He said she was arriving the next day.

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1.表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果,说话 时已 完成的动作。 I have finished the report./ She has cleand the room. 2.表示从过去开始,待续到现在的动作或状态,往往 和“for...”, “since...”表述的一段时间状语连用。 He has learned English for six years. They have worked here since they left college. 3.表示“曾经到过某地(人已回来)”用“have/has been 现在完成时 has/have done to”,表示“到某地去了(还未回来)”用“have/has gone to”。 —Where is Li Hua? -He has gone to the reading-room. —She knows a lot about Shanghai. -She has been there. 4.短暂动词(即瞬间动词) , join,lose,buy,borrow,leave,go,come,arrive,die,marry, finish,complete,begin,start,break out 等,在完成时态 中,其肯定式不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。不能 说:He has joined the army for three years.

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要翻译“他已参军已经三年了。”可采用 ①“ago 法” He joined the army three years ago. ②“延续法” He has been in the army for three years. ③“since 法” It is/has been three years since he joined the army.

1.表示在过去某一时间以前已经完成的动作。 He had shut the door before the dog came up. Everything had been all right up till this morning. 2.表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到 另一个过去时刻才完成,甚至还要继续下去。 过去完成时 had done At the age of ten,he had learned 500 English words. He had been ill for a week when we learned about it. 3.常用 hope,expect,think,intend,want,suppose 等动词 的 过去完成时来表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。
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We had expected that you would be able to win the match.

用来表示在将来某个时刻(前)将完成的动作。常和 by 短 will/shall have 将来完成时 done We will have finished senior Book 2 by the end of this term. 用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在 (还要继 现在完成进 行时 has/have been doing 续下 去)的动作。He has been doing the maths problems since 8:00. 过去完成进 had been doing 行时 will/shall do is/am/are going to 一般将来时表示将来要发生的动作和存在的状况 一般将来时 do (详见下面 2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较) is/am/are(about) to do 过去将来时 would/should do 1.相对于过去某一时刻而言即将发生的动作或存在的
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语,when,before 引起的时间状语连用。

表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到另一 个过去时刻才完成,还将继续下去。

was/were going to do

状态 He told me he would go to Beijing.他告诉我他将去北

was/were(about) 京。 to do I was told that he was going to return home. 有人告诉我他准备回家。 2. would do(表示过去的习惯)总是,总会,常常 He would sit silent for hours. 他常常接连好几个小时默默地坐着。 2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较 将来时 用 法 例 句

He is moving to the be + doing 进行时 1 表将来 可用进行时表示按计划即将发生的动作 Are they leaving for go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等词 south.

Europe? I was about to leave be about to + 动 2 词原形 作,后面一般不跟时间状语 The meeting is about to close. We’re to meet at the 3 be to + 动词原形 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见 school gate at noon. 表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动 when the bell rang.

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The meeting starts at five 时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情, 4 一般现在时表将来 可用一般现在时表示将来 The plane leaves at ten this evening. o’clock.

3.容易混淆的时态比较 项 目 区 别 例 句

We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. What do you suppose _______ to her? A. was happening 现在完成时强调过 D. happened 去动作对现在产生 说明:说话者强调 Jane 目前的状况. 的影响或造成的结 一般过去时与现在完成时 的比较 works (只说明他过去当过木匠不涉及到现在) Hello, I ____ you were in London. How long _________ 一般过去时只表达 过去的动作或状态 here? A. don’t know; were you B. hadn’t known; are you 果 Mr. Lee, who ________ as a carpenter for over 10 years, is now a very famous statesman in this country. A. has worked B. had worked C. worked D. B. happens C. has happened

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C. haven’t known; are D. didn’t know; have you been 说明:didn’t know 强调见面前不知道 I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现 在是否记住) 着重表示动作的结 I have read that book.我读过那本书了。 (知道那本书的内 果时,用现在完成 容) 时 现在完成时与现在完成进 着重表示动作一直 行时的比较 在进行,即动作的 A. painted 延续性时,则用现 C. have been painting 在完成进行时 说明:强调动作从过去到现在的延续 I don’t really work here. I ____ until the new secretary _______. 现在进行时表示现 在某个时候或某段 时间正在进行的动 作 现在进行时与过去进行时 的比较 A. just help out; comes B. have just helped out; will come C. am just helping out; comes D. will just help out; has come 说明:指目前一段时间正在发生的动作, until 引导的是时间 状语从句,动词需用一般现在时。 — Hey, look where you are going! 过去进行时表示某 个时候或某段时间 正在进行的动作 — Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _______. A. I’m not noticing. C. I haven’t noticed. 做的事情. B. I wasn’t noticing. D. I don’t notice. D. have painted B. had painted —I am tired. I _______ the living room all day. —Hi, Tracy, you look tired.

说明: 对话的后者显然是在解释刚才不小心冒犯对方时正在

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Tom________ into the house when no one ___________. A. slipped; was noticing 一般过去时只表达 过去的动作或状态 C. slipped; had noticed B. had slipped; noticed D. was slipping; noticed

说明:slip 和 notice 为同时发生的动作,因此 B、C 为错误 选项, slipped 指过去有结果的动作 (他溜进去了) , when no one was noticing 指他溜进去的一刹那发生的情况(没有人 注意) 。 .He ______ a book about China last year, but I don’t know if he ______ it. A.wrote; has finished B. was writing; has finished C. was writing; had finished D. wrote; will finish 说明:正确选项为 B. 从 I don’t know if he has finished it. 推断,他去年一直在写。

一般过去时与过去进行时 的比较 过去进行时表示某 个时候或某段时间 正在进行的动作

II. 动词的被动语态 常用被动语 态 1 2 3 4 5 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 现在进行时 构 成 6 7 8 9 10 常用被动语 态 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时 含有情态动 词的 构 成

am/is/are done was/were done shall/will be done should/would be done am/is/are being done

was/were being done have/has been done had been done will/would have been done can/must/may be done

被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not, 短语动词的被动态不可漏掉 其中介副词。固定结构 be going to, used to,have to, had better 变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 Trees should not be planted in summer. The boy was made fun of by his classmates. Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示: It is believed that… It is generally considered that… It is said that… It is well known that… It must be pointed out that… It is supposed that… It is reported that… It must be admitted that… It is hoped that…

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注 意 事 项

被动语态的句型 1.常见句式是:主语(受动者)+be+过去分词+(by+施动者) :He was scolded by the English teacher. 2.主语+get+过去分词+其它成分: The boy got drowned last summer./ She got fired because of her faults. 使用这种结构不能带有“by+施动者” 3.带有双宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语)的主动句变为动句,其主语可以是直接宾语,也 可以是间接宾语。 She lent me a bike.?被动:①I was lent a bike(by her). ②A bike was lent to me(by her). 4.情态动词+be+过去分词:This problem must be worked out in half an hour. 5.双重被动式:主语+被动式谓语+不定式的被动式+其它成分 These magazines are not allowed to be taken out of the reading-room. The murderer was ordered to be shot. 下面主动形式常表示被动意义 1. 不 及 物 动 词 与 状 语 连 用 , 用 以 表 示 主 语 的 品 质 和 状 态 。 常 见 动 词 是 : cut,sell,read,write,fill,cook,lock,wash 等。 This knife cuts well.这把刀好切。 These books sell well.这些书好卖。 The pen writes smoothly.这支笔写起来流畅。 Meat won’t keep long in such hot weather.肉在这样热的天气里放不长久。 The cloth washes well.这种布好洗。 2.一些连系动词的主动式+形容词。 常见动词有 look,smell,taste,sound,feel,prove,turn out 等。 The apples taste good. The flower smells wonderful. The news proved/turned out true. Cotton feels soft. 不可变为被动语态的几种情况 1.I teach myself French.不可变为 Myself is taught French.因为反身代词不可作主语。 2.We help each other/one another.不可变为 Each other/One another is helped by us. 因为相互代词不可作主语。 3.He lost heart.不可变为 Heart was lost by him. 因为象 lose heart,make a face,keep silence,lose in thought 这类动宾结构的固定短 语只能用于主动式,不能用被动式。 4.She took part in the sports meet.不能变为 The sports meet was taken part in by her. 因为象 take part in,belong to ,own,have,hate,fail,contain 等表状态动词没有被动语 态。 含有短语动词在被动语态中介词不能丢 Much attention must be paid to your handwriting. 特别注意以下句子的结构:Every minute must be made full use of to study Englsih.

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下面词或短语没有被动态: leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等 七、非谓语动词
非谓语动词的语法功能 所能充当的成分 现在分词 V-ing 形式 动名词 不定式(to do) 过去分词(done) △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ 主语 表语 △ 宾语 宾语补足 语 △ 定语 △ 状语 △

注:现在分词、不定式、过去分词都可以作独立成分 generally speaking 一 般 说 来 ; frankly speaking 坦 白 地 说 ; judging from/by... 根 据 …… 来 判 断 ; considering.../taking...into consideration 考虑到……; to tell you the truth 说实话;seeing...考虑到……;supposing 假设,如果;providing 如果;given 考虑到, 鉴于;provided that 如果 非谓语动词的形式变化 构成 非谓语 形式 时态 一般式 进行式 不定式 完成式 完成 进行式 一般式 语态 主动 to do to have done to be doing to have been doing doing 被动 to be done to have been done / / being done sb.或 sb’s doing 作主语要用 sb’s doing for sb. to do sth. 或 of sb. to do sth. 复合结构 否定式

在“to”前加 not 或 never

动名词

完成式

having done

having been done

在前加 not 特别注意复合结构的否定 式: sb’s not doing sb’s not having done

现在分 词

与动名词变化形式相同

在前加 not

常见的非谓语动词形式 1.To do 表示将要发生的动作 2.To be done 表示将要发上的被动动作 3.To have done 表示已经完成的动作 4.To have been done 表示已经完成的被动动作 35

5.To be doing 表示正在发生的动作 6.Doing 表主动进行 7.Being done 表示正在发生的被动动作 8.Having done 表示 done 这个分词的动作发生在主句谓语动词之前 9.Having been done 表示 been done 这个被动动作发生在主句谓语动词之前 10.V-ed 过去分词表被动完成 在解非谓语习题时同学们遇到最大的困难有两个:一是如何判别是谓语动词还是非谓语动词;二是如何 选用哪一种非谓语动词及其恰当的形式。 一、谓语与非谓语的比较 非谓语动词是汉语中没有的语言现象。汉语中几个谓语动词连用而动词不用作任何形式的变化。如:他 明天来拜访你。翻译成英语不是 He will come visit you,而是 He will come to visit you.这里就用了不定式 to visit。因此同学们要特别注意弄清句子的结构。 例:Tom sat under a tree and seeing his friend, up in no time. A. to stand B. standing C. stood D. would stand 分析:stood 是与 sat 并列的谓语。 非谓语语法功能的比较 常用动词 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage, agree, afford, determine, promise, happen mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue (接不定式多指具体的动作,接动名词多指一般 或习惯行为) 意义基本 相同 need, want, require(主语与动名词之间存在逻辑上的动宾关系,接动名词主动形式表示被动 意义,若接不定式则应用被动形式) stop to do 停止手中所做的事,去做另一件事 remember/forget/regret to do(指动作尚未 发生) remember/forget/regret doing(指动作已经 发生) 意义不同 try to do(设法,努力去做,尽力) try doing(试试去做,看有何结果) can’t help (to) do(不能帮忙做) can’t help doing(忍不住要做) stop doing 停止正在做的事 go on to do(接着做另外一件事) go on doing(接着做同一件事)

做宾语的非谓语动词比较
情况 只接不定式 做宾语的动词

只接动名词 做宾语的动词或 短语

两 者 都 可 以

意义相反

mean to do(打算做,企图做) mean doing (意思是,意味着) be considered to have done 被认为已经做了 consider…to be 认为是 consider doing 考虑做某事

非谓语动词做宾语补足语的区别
分 类 常见动词 ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, want, wish, encourage 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概念 主谓关系, 强调动作将发生或已 经完成 36 例 句

不定式

I asked to be sent to the countryside.

have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make 现在分 词 过去分 词 notice, see, watch, hear, find, keep, have, feel

I heard him call me several times. 主谓关系,强调动作正在进行, I found her listening to the radio. 尚未完成 动宾关系,动作已经完成,多强 调状态 We found the village greatly changed.

IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别 分 类 区 别 例 句 与被修饰词往往有动宾关系,一般式表示将 来,进行式表示与谓语动作同时发生,完成式 表示在谓语动词之前发生 通常指被修饰词的用途, 无逻辑上的主谓关系 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系, 表示动作与谓语 动作同时发生 与被修饰词之间是被动关系, 表示动作发生在 谓语动作之前,现已经完成或只表示状态 I have a lot of papers to type. I have a lot of papers to be typed. I haven’t decided which hotel to stay at.(介 词 at 不能丢) Shall we go to the swimming pool? the boiling water / the boiled water the developing country/the developed country the falling leaves/the fallen leaves

不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词

注意: the bridge to be built 将建造的桥, the bridge being built 正在建造的桥,the bridge built 已 经建好的桥 八、情态动词和虚拟语气 情态动词
I.情态动词基本用法 情态动 用 法 否定式 词 能力(体力,智力,技能) can not / cannot can 允 许 或 许 可 ( 口 语 中 常 /can’t do 用) could 可能性(表猜测,用于否 couldn’t do 定句或疑问句中) may might must have to ought to shall should will would 可以(问句中表示请求) 可能,或许(表推测) 祝愿(用于倒装句中) may not do might not do 疑问式 简答式 Yes,…can. No,…can’t. Yes,…may. No,…mustn’t/can’t. Yes,…might No,…might not. Yes,…must. No,…needn’t/don’t have to Yes,…do. No,…don’t. Yes,…ought. No,…oughtn’t. Yes,…shall. No,…shan’t.

Can…do…? May…do…? Might…do…? Must…do…? to. Do…have do…? Ought…to do…? Shall…do…? Should…do…? Will/Would…do …?

必须, 应该 (表主观要求) 肯定,想必(肯定句中表 must not/mustn’t do 推测) 只好,不得不(客观的必 须,有时态和人称的变 化) 应当(表示义务责任,口 语中多用 should) 用于一三人称征求对方 意见 用于二三人称表示许诺、 命令、警告、威胁等 应当, 应该 (表义务责任) 本该(含有责备意味) don’t have to do Ought not to/oughtn’t to do shall not/shan’t do

should not/shouldn’t do 意愿,决心,请求,建议, will not/won’t do 用在问句中 would 比较委 would not/wouldn’t
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Yes,…will. No,…won’t.

婉 dare need used to 敢(常用于否定句和疑问 句中) 需要,必须 (常用于否定句 和疑问句中) 过去常常(现在已不再)

do dare not/daren’t do need not/needn’t do usednot/usedn’t/us en’t to do didn’t use to do Dare…do…? Need…do…? Used…to do…? Did…use to do…? Yes,…dare. No,…daren’t. Yes,…must. No,…needn’t. Yes,…used. No,…use(d)n’t. Yes,…did. No,…didn’t.

II.情态动词的重点知识 表示能力的情态动词用 can/could A computer_____think for itself; it must be told what to do. A.can’t B.mustn’t C.may not D.might not ① —Could I call you by your first name? —Yes, you______ A.will B.could C.may D.might ② Johnny, you_____play with the knife, you_____hurt yourself. A.won’t/can’t B.mustn’t/may C.shouldn’t/must D.can’t/shouldn’t The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone_____get out. A.had to B.would C.could D.was able to Peter______come with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure yet. A.must B.may C.can D.will 而 can 表示的是逻辑上的可能性: Mary is in poor health. She can be ill at any times. Michael______be a policeman, for he’s much too short. A.needn’t B.can’t C.should D.may He may be very busy now. Can he be very busy now? He must be very busy now. Can he be very busy now?

表 示 “能力、 许可” 的 can 和 may

表示许可时用 may/might ,can/could 都可以,但在问句中用 could…?或 might…? 以使口气委婉客气,其回 答一定要用 can 或 may, 以使回答口 气 明 确 ( must 表 示 一 定 , 必 须 , mustn’t 表示禁止,不许可) 。 在肯定句中 could 不可以用来表示过 去某一特定场合的能力,而要用 was/were able to。

表 示 “推断、 判断” 的 can may,m ust

在肯定句中都可以用来表示可能。在 含义上 must 语气最肯定,may 表示的 是事实上的可能性。 在否定句中只能用 can 和 may。 所以 can’t 时用以代替 mustn’t,语气比 may 更肯定。中文可以翻译为不可 能。 在疑问句只能用 can, 不能用 may 和 must。

need

need 作为情态动词只有一种形式, 只用于否定句和疑问句。 If he dare come,I will kick him out. dare 作为情态动词用时有两种形式: I don’t know whether he dare say. dare 和 dared 两个词形, 除了可以用 注意:He doesn’t dare(to)answer the question.(否 于否定句和疑问句外,还可以用于条 定句) 件从句或表示怀疑的句子中。 Does she dare(to)enter the dark room?(疑问句) 用于第一人称:征求对方的意见。 What shall we do this evening?

dare

shall

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用于第二、三人称:警告、命令、允 诺、威胁等。 should 劝告、建议、命令、应该做、道义上 的责任。

You shall fail if you don’t work harder. 警告 He shall have the book when I finish reading.允诺 He shall be punished.威胁 You should(ought to) go to class right away. I should(ought to) help him because he is in trouble. I will never do that again. They asked us if we would do that again During the vacation he would visit me every week The wound would not heal.(伤口老是不能愈合) It would be about ten when he left home. What would she be doing there? You could have done better, but you didn’t try your best. He cannot have been to that town. Can he have got the book? He may not have finished the work. If we had taken the other road, we might have arrived earlier. You must have seen the film. You cannot have seen the film. You needn’t have watered the flowers,for it is going to rain. 注意:didn’t need to(have to)do: 没有必要做而实际上也没有做 I didn’t need to clean the windows.My sister did it 2 hours ago. You should have started earlier, but you didn’t. She shouldn’t have taken away my measuring tape, for I worked to use it. 注意:He should have finished the work by now. (表推测)

请求、建议,would 比 will 委婉客气。 Would you pass me the book? 表示意志、愿望和决心。 will/wo uld would 可表示过去反复发生的动作或 某种倾向。 would 表示估计或猜想。 could+have done:本可以做而实际 上未能做。 cannot+ have done:表示对现在或 过去行为的否定推测。 can+主语+ have done:表示对过去 行为的怀疑或不肯定(用在疑问句 中) 。 might(may)+ have done:对过去发 生的行为不太肯定的推测。 情态动 词 +have done 的用法 must+ have done:对过去发生的行 为肯定的推测。 其否定式为:cannot have done。

needn’t+ have done:本来不必要做 的而实际上又做了。

should(ought to)+ have done:本来 应该做而实际上又没有做。其否定形 式表示某中行为不该发生却发生了。

虚拟语气 类 别 If 引导 的 条件从 句 与现在事 实相反 与过去事 实相反 用 法 : 例 句

从句动词:过去式(be 用 were) 主 句 动 词 should/would/could/might+do

If he were here, he would help us. If I had been free,I would have visited you.

从句动词:had+done 主 句 动 词 : should/would/could/might+have+done

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与将来事 实相反

从句动词:过去式 /should+ 动词原形 /were+to do 主句动词:should/would/could/might+ 动词原形

If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping. ①Should he come ,tell him to ring me up. ②Were I you,I would not do it. ③ Had I been free,I would have visited you. ①If he had listened to me, he would not be in trouble now. ② If he had told me yesterday,I should know what to do now. ③If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party. ① He could have passed the exam,but he wasn’t careful enough. ②You should have come earlier.The bus left a moment ago. ---But for your timely warning,we ______ into great trouble. ---You know we’re friends. A. would get B. must have got C. would have got D. can’t have got Without the air to hold some of the sun's heat, the earth at night would be freezing cold.

省略 if 的虚拟 条件句

将虚拟条件从句中的 were, had,should 放到主语之 前,构成主谓倒装

不同时间的虚拟:各遵守各的规则 混合虚 拟条件 句 虚拟与陈述的混合:各遵守各的规则

but for+名词表示虚拟条 件

without+名词表示虚拟条 件 含蓄虚 拟 条件句 动词不定式表示虚拟条件

现在分词表示虚拟条件

It would be only partly right to follow 句子或主句中的谓语 in this way. 动词的形式视具体情 如果用这种方式,仅仅对了一半。 况而定。这是考查考生 Having known in time ,we might 应变能力的最佳试题。 have prevented the accident.要是及 时得知的话,我们也许能阻止这场事 故。 Given more attention, the tree could have grown better. 如果多留心的话,这树本来可以长的 更好。 I was too busy at that time.Otherwise,I would have called you.我当时太忙,否则我就给你打电 话了。

过去分词表示虚拟条件

副词 otherwise 表示虚拟 条件

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连词 but 连接的句子表示 虚拟条件 as if/as though 引导的状语从句中动词用 did 或 had +done 或 would/could/might+do。 注意:as if/as though 引导的状语从句中也可以用 陈述语气: 当说话者认为所述的是真实的或极有可能发生或存 在的事实时: It sounds as if it is raining.听起来像是在下雨。 He talks as if he is drunk.从他谈话的样子来看他 是醉了。 in order that/so that 引 导的状语从句中动词用 can/could/may/ might/ would 等+do 宾语从 句 demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从句中动词 为 should+do wish 后的从句中分别用过去式,过去完成式和 should/would+do 表示与现在,过去和将来情况相 反 在 It is necessary / important / strange that… It is suggested / demanded/ ordered / requested that…等从句中, 谓语动词用 should+do It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+do 其它 句型中 would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去 完成式 If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式,表 示强烈的愿望

He _____fatter but he eats too little . A. would become B. would have become C. must become D. must have become ①与现在事实相反 He talks as if he knew where she was. ②与过去事实相反 He talks about Rome as if he had been there before. ③与将来事实相反 He opened his mouth as if he would say something. Turn on the light so that we can see it clearly. He suggested that we not change our mind. I wish I could be a pop singer. I wish I would have gone to Shanghai last month. It is strange that such a person should be our friends. It’s high time that we left/should leave. I would rather you stayed at home now. If only our dream had come true!

其它 状语从 句

主语从 句

九、句子的种类 按用途分 种 类 陈述 句 疑问 句 类 型 例 句

肯定句 否定句

We love our motherland. 我们热爱祖国。 They don’t go to work on Sundays. 他们星期日 不上班。 Are you a worker? 你是个工人吗? Haven’t you seen the film? 你没看过这部电影 吗?

一般疑问句

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Who is the man? 这人是谁? 特殊疑问句 When do you watch TV? 你什么时间看电视? What are they doing now? 他们现在正在干什 么? Do you want tea or coffee? Either will do. 你要茶 选择疑问句 水还是要咖啡?哪种都行。 Does he learn Japanese or French? He learns French. 他学日语还是学法语?他学法语。 They are going to the airport, aren’t they? 他们 反意疑问句 要去机场,是吗? You haven’t finished your homework, have you? 你没做完作业,是吗? 祈使 句 肯定句 否定句 Be sure to get there at eight. 务必八点钟到那儿。 Don’t worry. I’ll help you out. 别担心, 我会帮助你 的。 What great changes we have had these years! what + 名词 感叹 句 这几年我们有了多么大的变化啊! What a fine day it is! 多好的天气呀! how + 形容词或副词 how +句子 How + adj. + a (an) + n.=What a(an)+adj.+n 按结构分 种 类 类型 主+谓 主+谓+宾 简 单 句 主+谓+间宾+直 接宾 主+谓+宾+宾补 例句 They disappeared. 他们消失了。 He likes swimming.他喜欢游泳。 We help each other. 我们互相帮助。 I told my friend the good news. 我把好消息告诉了我的朋友。 They sent us a telegram. 他们给我们拍了电报。 They named the boy Jack. 他们给孩子起名叫杰克。 I want everything ready by eight o’clock. 我要求一切都要在八点 前准备好。 主+系+表 She is a university student. 她是一名大学生。 He has become a pilot. 他已成为一名飞行员。
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How brave he is! 他多么勇敢呀! How hard they are working! 他们工作多努力呀! How time flies! 时间过得多么快呀! How nice a boy (he is) !=What a nice boy (he is)! 多好的孩子啊!

并列关系 and, not only…but also, neither …nor, both…and, not…but, 转 并 列 句 管) nevertheless( 然 而;不过) 选择关系 or, otherwise or else, either…or 因果关系 for, so, thus, therefore, and so 由一个主句和一 个或一个以上的 复 合 句 从句构成的句子 叫复合句。 在复合 句中主句是全句 的主体, 从句是全 句的一个成分, 不 能独立。 折 关 系 but,while(而,尽

Either you do it, or I ask for somebody else to do it. 要么你来做, 要么我请其他人来做。 Neither Tom nor Jack has finished the homework. 汤姆和杰克都 没有完成作业。 Not couldn’t they complete the task, but the task was too tough. 不是他们完不成任务,而是任务太重了。

John likes playing basketball, but he didn’t play it yesterday. 翰喜欢打篮球,但他昨天没打。



We must hurry, or we’ll miss the train. 我们必须快点,否则会赶 不上火车。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 或者你到我这儿 来,或者我到你那去。 We had better stay at home, for it was raining. 我们最好呆在家 里,因为天正在下雨。 He didn’t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 他学习不努力,因此这次考试不及格。

从句有:名词性从句(主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句和同位语从 句) 状语从句 定语从句 (详细请看以下各节罗列的内容)

十、名词性从句 例 句 说 明 That he will come and help you is that 在引导主语从句时不可省去 主 that certain. 他来帮助你是确实无疑的。 连 语 词 Whether there is life on the moon is an 主语从句中只能用 whether 不可用 whether interesting question. if。 从 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。 who What he wants to tell us is not clear. 句 连 主语从句放在句首,句子常显得笨 接 what 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。
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种类

关联词

宾 语 从 句

表 语 从 句

代 which Who will win the match is still unknown. 重,因此一般 词 whatever 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。 It is known to us how he became a 把它移到句子后面,前面用引导词 连 when writer. “it”来作形式主语。 接 where 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。 副 why Where the English evening will be held 词 how has not yet been announced. 英语晚会 将在哪里举行,还没有宣布。 I believe(that) he is honest. 我相信他是 that 在句中不担任任何成分,在口 忠诚的。 语或非正式的文体中常被省去,但 陈 We must never think(that) we are good 如从句是并列句时 , 第二个分句前 述 that in everything while others are good in 的 that 不可省。 意 nothing. 义 我们决不能认为自己什么都好, 别人什么 都不好。 I wonder whether he will come or not. whether 常与 or not 连用,不能用 我想知道他来还是不来。 if 代替。 Everything depends on whether we 作介词宾语要用 whether 不能用 if。 疑 have enough money. 从句是否定句时一般用 if 引导。 问 if 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。 意 whether I don’t know if(whether) it is interesting. 义 我不知道它是否有意思。 He doesn’t care if it isn’t a fine day.他不 在乎天气是否好。 who, Please tell me what you want.请告诉我 whom, 你需要什么? which,w She always thinks of how she can hose, work well. 特 what, 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。 殊 when, She will give whoever needs help a 疑 where, warm support. 宾语从句作及物动词宾语也可做介 问 why, 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支 词的宾语。 意 how,who 持。 义 ever, whatever , whichev er We must make it clear that 如果宾语从句后面有宾语补足语,则用 it anyone who breaks the law will be 注1 作形式宾语,将从句后置。 punished. 我们必须认清无论谁违反了法律都 要受到惩罚。 think,believe,imagine,suppose 等动词引 We don’t think you are right. 我们 出的宾语从句,要将从句中的否定形式,认为你不对。 注2 移到主句中。 I don’t believe he will do so. 我相 信他不会这样做的。 The problem is(that) they can’t get here 在非正式的文体中 that 可以省去 that 连 early enough. whether 词 问题是他们不能很早到达这里。 as if It looks as if it’s going to rain.看起来天要
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下雨。 表语从句位于主句系动词之后 That’s just what I want. 这正是我想要 的。 The question is who(which of you) will be the next speaker. 问题是谁(你们哪一位)接着发言。 This is where our problem lies. 连 when 这就是我们的问题所在。 接 where That is why he didn’t come to the 副 why meeting. 词 how 那就是他为什么不到会的原因。 The news that he had landed on the 同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具 moon spread all over the world.他曾在 体内容, 常用的名词如: fact, news, 月球上登陆这个消息传遍世界。 idea, hope, thought,question, I have no idea when he will come back order, fear, doubt, word, proof, 由连词 that 引 home. belief, story 等。 导,不担任成 我不知道他什么时候回来。 分,也可有 The thought came to him that Mary had when, how, probably fallen ill. where 等引 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 导。 He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意此事这样一个问 题。 连 接 代 词 who what which

同 位 语 从 句

特别注意 what 的双重功能: ①What was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality. (what 为“所……的事”,相当于“the thing that…;all that…;everything that…”) ②After ________ seemed a very long time, I opened my eye and found myself in bed. (M ET'93) A.what B.when C.that D.which (what 相当于“the time that”,表示“……时间”) ③He is not what he was a few years ago. Who is it that has made Fred what he is now? (what 表示“……的人”,相当于“the person that…”) ④What is now the North Sahara Desert was once a civilized world. (what 表示“……的地方”,相当于“the place that…”) ⑤Our income is now double what it was ten years ago (what 表示“……的数目”,相当于“the amount /number that…”)

十一、状语从句 种 类
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从属连词









When I came into the room, he was when 指的是“某一具体的 writing a letter.当我进屋时,他正在写 时间” When 信。 whenever We shall go there whenever we are 时间” free.我们什么时间有空, 我们就去那里。 I was walking along the street when when 意为“这时”或“在那 suddenly someone patted me on the 个时候”,可以看作是并列 when shoulder from behind. 我 正 在 街 上 走 句,这种用法的 when 分 着,这时忽然有人从后面拍我的肩膀。 句一般位于句末。 时 While it was raining, they went out.天 while 指“在某一段时间 间 下雨的时候,他们出去了。 状 从 时候我在。 He hurried home, looking behind as he as 引导持续性动作, 强调 as went. 主句和从句的动作同 时 while I stayed while he was away.他不在的 的动作必须是持续性的 里” , “在…期间” , while 引导 whenever 指的是“在任何

他赶快回家, 不时地一边走一边向后看。 发生 Be a pupil before you become a before teacher.先做学生,再做先生。 He arrived after the game started.比赛 after 开始后,他到了。 till We waited till (until)he came back .我 如主句动词是持续性 动

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们一直等到他回来。

作, 常用肯定式, 表示“直 到…为止”

She didn’t stop working until eleven 如主句动词是瞬间动词, o’clock .她到 11 点钟才停止工作。 until 常用否定式,表示“直…

Until he had passed out of sight, she 才” “ 在…以前不” , 从句放 stood there. 在句首表示强调,一般用

她站在那里看着, 直到看不见他的身影。 until Great changes have taken place in 状语从句在主句之前 时 China since 1978. since 自从 1978 年以来中国发生了巨大的变 如从句在主句之后则 不 化。 as soon as As soon as I arrive in Shanghai, I’ll write to you.我一到上海就给你写信。 I had hardly got home when it began hardly … when 和 no to rain. sooner … than 的意义相 必用标点符号。 一般用逗号与主句分开,

我刚一到家,就下雨了。=Hardly had I 当于 as soon as,但只表 hardly…when got home when it began to rain. 示过去发生的事情,主句

No sooner had we got to the station 为过去完成时,从句为过 no sooner…than than the train left. 我们刚到车站,火车就走了。 去时,如 hardly 或 no sooner 位于句首时语气

Hardly had we begun when we were 强,而且主句的谓语要用

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told to stop.我们刚开始就被叫停。

部分倒装

Every time I travelled by boat, I got 在时间状语从句中,不能 seasick.我每次乘船都晕船。 用将来时或过去将来时,

The moment I heard the song, I felt 而要用现在时或过去 时 every time, by the cheerful. time, the moment 等 我一听到这首歌,就感到很愉快。 Next time you come ,you’ll see him.下 次你来的时候,就会见到他。 Where there is a will, there is a way.有 where 与 wherever 意义 志者,事竟成。 地 where 点 状 wherever 从 你可以随意到你喜欢的任何地方去。 Wherever you go, you must obey the law.无论你去哪都要遵守法律。 I came back late yesterday because I because 用来回答 why 原 because 因 值班。 状 Since everyone is here, let’s begin our since 表示既然或全已知 从 since meeting.既然大家都到了,我们开始开 的理由,稍加分析即可表明 was on duty.昨天我回来晚了,因为我 的问题,语气最强 有水,哪里就有生命。 You are free to go wherever you like. 基本相同,但后者语气较 代替将来时

Where there is water there is life.哪里 强,多用于书面语

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会。

的原因,多放句首

As he didn’t know much English, he 从句常放在句首,说明原 looked up the word in the dictionary . 因,主句说明结果,常用 as 由于他英语懂得不多,他在字典中查阅 于口语中。 这个单词。 Now (that) the weather has cleared seeing (that), now that up, we can start our journey. 和 since, as 意义相似,

鉴于天气已经晴朗,我们可以启程了。 他们都有“鉴于某个事实” now that, seeing that Seeing (that) he was badly ill, we sent 的意思,that 可以省去 for the doctor. 鉴于他病情严重,我们派人去请医生去 了。 I shall write down your telephone 目的状语从句中常用 情 number that I may not forget. 态动词 may (might) can 我要把你的电话号码记下来, 以免忘记。 (could) ,should 等 放 在 that 目 的 状 从 in order that lest = for fear that so that We’ll tell you the truth so that you can 动词之前,从句往往放在 judge for yourself. 判断。 They worked harder than usual in order that they could finish the work ahead of time .他们比往常更加努力工 作,为了能提前完成工作。 Put on more clothes lest (= for fear that ) you should catch cold.多穿点衣 服,以免感冒。 结 果 状 so…that so that We turned up the radio, so that so that 前有逗号为结果 everyone heard the news. 状语从句 我们把收音机的音量放大,大家都听到 so…that 的 so 后面跟形 了新闻。 容词或副词
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主句之后,主从句之间不

我把真实情况告诉你,使你能自己作出 用任何标点符号



He was so excited that he couldn’t say a word.他十分激动,以致一句话都说不 出来。 He gave such important reasons that such…that 的 such 后面 he was excused. 跟名词,如果名词是单数 他说出了这么重要的理由,得到大家的 就要用 such a /an…that 谅解。 还可以转换用 so…that, It is such an interesting novel that all of 语气较强 us want to read it. It is so interesting a novel that all of us want to read it. 这是一本十分有趣的书,大家都想看。 Difficulties are nothing if we are not unless 从句的谓语只能 afraid of them. 用肯定式。unless 和 if… 如果我们不怕困难,困难就算不了什么 not 同义,unless 是书面 了。 语,if…not 是口语,通常 We shall go there tomorrow unless it 二者可以换用 rains.除非下雨,我们明天就去那里。 条件状语从句中的谓 语 = We shall go there tomorrow if it 动词的时态一般要用 现 doesn’t rain. 在时或过去时代替一 般 So/As long as you work hard, you will 将来时或过去将来时 succeed.只要你努力工作,你就一定能 成功。 In case I forget, please remind me about it .万一我忘了,请提醒我一下。 So far as I know, the book will be published next month. 据我所知,那本书下月出版。 Draw a cat as I taught you .按照我教你 此处 as 译为:按照或正 的画一只猫。 如 Do as you are told.按照人家告诉你做 as if 或 as though 的意义 的去做。 和用法基本一样。从句中 She looks as if she is ill.看上去她好象 可以用现在时表示可 能 是生病了。 符合事实,也可以用虚拟 He acted as if (though) nothing had 语气 happened.他的行动就好象什么也没有 发生。 They treat the black boy as if (though) he were an animal. 他们对待这黑孩子仿佛他是一头牲口。 Although (Though) he was over sixty, 在句子中一般用了“虽然” (yet) he began to learn French. 就不能再用“但是” (but) 虽然他六十多岁了,但仍开始学习法 但可以与 yet 或 still 连用。 语 。 though / although 意义相
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such…that

if unless 条 件 状 从 as/so long as in case so far as

as as if…

方 式 状 从

as though

让 步 状

although though



We were not tired though (although) 同,用法基本一样,前者 we had worked all day. 通俗,口语化,后者正式 虽然我们干了一天活,但并不累。 多放主句的前面 I’ll go even if (though) it rains even if 和 even though tomorrow.即使明天下雨,我也要去。 的意思为“即使” “ 纵使”有 even if,even though 退一步设想的意味,多用 于书面语中 Child as he is , he knows a lot .虽然他 as 引出的状语从句多用 是一个孩子,但他懂得很多。 于书面语,它比用 Cold as it is, (= Though it is cold,)the though 或 although 引导 children play outdoors. 的从句,语气强,更有表 虽然天气冷,但孩子们仍在户外玩。 现力,从句常放在句首, 语序部分倒装。

as

Do it no matter what others say.不管别 no matter … … 与 人怎么说,尽管干。 who-ever 引导的让步状 No matter how busy he was, he 语从句意义基本一 样, no matter (who, studied English every day. no matter ……引导的从 what when, where 不管他多忙,他都每天坚持学习英语。 句可是以位于主句前 或 which, how…) No matter who takes up the matter for 主句后 me ,I shall be very grateful. 不管谁为我处理这件事,我都将非常感 激。 Whatever happens / may happen , we wh+ever (whatever shall not lose heart. whoever ,whenever 无论发生什么,我们都不要失去信心。 whichever ,however) Whoever comes, he will be welcome. 无论谁来,都会受到欢迎。 Mary is as old as my sister.玛利和我姐 连词表示同程度级的 比 姐一样大。 较,肯定句用 as…as 否 He doesn’t run so (as) fast as Jack 定句可用 not as…as 或 (does).他不如杰克跑得那样快。 not so…as His book is the same as mine.他的书 和我的一样。 Henry is not such a good worker as Peter .享利这个工人不如彼得那样好。 She has made greater progress this year than she did last year. 她今年比去年进步更大。 He bought fewer books than I (did).他 买的书比我买的少。 The more you read, the better you the more…the more 意 understand.你看的书越多, 你懂得的就 思为越…越…,通常的语 越多。 序为从句在前主句在后, The more tickets you sell, the more 这两个 the 都是表示程度 money you will get. 的副词,用在比较级的形
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比 较 状 从

as…as , not so/as…as the same…as such…as

…than…

the more …the more…

你卖的票越多,你的收入也越多。 容词或副词前面 The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 你工作越努力,你取得的进步就越大。 The sooner, the better.越快越好。The warmer, the better.越暖和越好。 十二、定语从句 I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引 导定语从句的词叫关系词, 他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用, 二是在 从句中担当一个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。 关系词 先行 词 人 从句成 分 主语 例 句 备 注

who

Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with

whom



宾语

whom I am working The boy (whom) she loved died in the war.. I like those books whose topics whom, which 和 that 在从句中做宾语时, 常可以省略,但介词 提前时后面关系代词 不能省略,也不可以 用 that

whose 关 系 代 词 that

人或 物

定语

are about history. The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate.

人或 物

主语, 宾语

A plane is a machine that can fly. She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much. The book (which) I gave you was

which



主语, 宾语

worth $10. The picture which was about the accident was terrible. He is such a person as is

as

人或 物

主语, 宾语

respected by all of us. This is the same pen as I lost yesterday.
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as 做宾语一般不省 略

关 系 副 词

when

时间

时间状 语 地点状 语 原因状 语

I will never forget the day when we met there. This is the house where I was born. I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer.

可用 on which

where

地点

可用 in which

why

原因

可用 for which

II. that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别 情 况 用法说明 1. 先 行 词 为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much, 等不定代词时 2.先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few 等 只用 that 的 情况 修饰时 3.先行词有形容词最高级和序数 词修饰时 4.先行词既指人又指物时 5.先行词被 the only, the very 修 饰时 3.This is the best film that I have ever read. 4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 5.He is the only man that I want to see. 6.Who is the man that is making a 2.All the books that you offered has been given out. 例 句

1.He told me everything that he knows.

6.句中已经有 who 或 which 时, speech? 为了避免重复时 1.在非限制性定语从句中,只能 用 which 指代物,用 who/whom 指人 只用 which, 2.在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定 who, whom 语从句中,只能用 which 指物, 的情况 whom 指人。 3.先行词本身是 that 时,关系词 用 which, 先行词为 those, one,
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1.He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study.

2.I like the person to whom the teacher is talking.

3.Those who respect others are usually

he 时多用 who。

respected by others.

III. as、which 和 that 的区别 从句 区 别 例 句

名词前有 such 和 the same 修 限制性 饰时,关系代词用 as, 不能用 定语从句中 which as 和 which 都可以指代前面整 个主句。如果有“正如,象”的含 非限制性 定语从句中 义,并可以放在主句前,也可以 放在后面, 那么用 as; 而 which 引导的从句只能放主句后, 并无 “正如”的意思。 the same... as 和 the same ...that the same... as 指同类事物 the same ...that 指原物

He is not such a fool as he looks. Don’t read such books as you can’t understand. They won the game, as we had expected. They won the game, which we hadn’t expected. As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s. That’s the same tool as I used last week.(同类工具,不是同一把) That’s the same tool that I used last week.那就是我上周用过的工具。

注意:the way 做先行词时,定语从句可由 that, in which 引导或不用引导词。

IV.定语从句与其它从句(句型)的区别

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类 别









①Mr Li has three daughters,none of _____ is 定语从句与并列句的主要区 an engineer. 定语从 句 与 并列句 别在于:并列句有像 and, ②Mr Li has three daughters,but none of _____ but, so 等并列连词或两个句 is a dancer. 子用分号连接,这时就不能 从结构上看,①小题是定语从句,故填 whom; 再用引导定语从句的关系词 ②小题有并列连词 but ,是并列句,故填代词 了。 them。 This is the place where we used to live a few years ago. 定语从句的前面有名词作先 行词,而状语从句没有先行 定语从 句 与 状语从 定语从句修饰、限制、说明 句 名词,只能放在先行词的后 It was already five o’clock when the class was 面,而状语从句说明动作发 over. 生的情况,并且可以放在主 =When the class was over, it was already five 句的前面。 o’clock. 你知道下课的时间吗?(定语从句) 词。 这是几年前我们居住的地方。 (定语从句,先行词 为 the place) Let’s go where we can find a better job. 我们到能找到更好的工作的地方去吧。 (地点状语 从句) Do you know the time when the class is over?

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当下课时己经是 5 点了。 (时间状语从句) This is the factory in which (where) his father When, where 和 why 在引导 定语 从句时可 以用 “介词+ which”的结构来替换, 在引导 状语从句时却不行。 once worked. 这就是他的父亲曾经工作过的那个工厂。 (定语从 句) Put back the book where it was. 把书放回原处。 (状语从句) It is such an interesting book as we all like. 它是 定语从句中的关系词在从句 我们大家都喜欢的如此有趣的书。 中充当某种句子成分,因此 (as 用作动词 like 的宾语, 它引导的是定语从句) 去掉它则从句成分不完整; It is such an interesting book that we all like it. 而结果状语从句中的连接词 它是一本如此有趣的书,我们大家都喜欢它。 在从句中不作任何成分,去 (that 不充当句子成分,故它引导的是结果状语 掉后从句的成分仍然完整。 从句) 定语从句在复合句中相当于 定语从 句 与 同位语 从句 形容词,对先行词起修饰、 描述或限制的作用,与先行 词之间有从属关系。同位语 的作用相当于名词,对前面 的名词给予补充说明或进一 步解释,是前面名词的具体 The news that she had passed the exam made her parents very happy. 她考试及格的消息使她父母亲很高兴。 (同位语从 句) 此句中的同位语从句 The news that she had passed the exam 可 以 改 写 成 表 语 从 句 : The news is that he

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内容,与先行词之间是同位关 系。

passed the exam. The news that he told us interested all of us. 他告诉我们的消息使大家都感兴趣。 (定语从句) The news that he told us 是定语从句,此句不能 改写为:The news is that he told us.

强调句的结构为“ It is / was +被强调部分+that+从句” 。 ①It is on the morning of May 1st _____ I met 被强调部分可以是除谓语以 定语从 外的任何成分,当被强调部 句 分是人时,还可用 who 代替 与 that。这一句型中,一定不能 强调句 因为被强调部分是表时间或 地 点 的 词 就 用 when 或 where 代替 that。 高考英语语法贯穿在高考英语选择题、改错题、高考英语作文中,在进行阅读理解和完 形填空时也用得到。可以说单词是英语学习的基础、语法是英语学习的架构。高考英语语法 不难, 总结起来也就十几点, 在听课和做题中不断揣摩其中的规律, 再反过来通过题目精炼。 ②小题则是定语从句,用上述方法转换便知 the factory 前差个介词 in,故填 where。 ①小题是强调句,故填 that。 从结构上看: ②It is the factory _____ Mr Wang works. Liang Wei at the airport.

十三、强调句 强调的类别 说 明 例 句

为了强调句子的 It is (was) +被强 调部分+that(who)…

原始句:Last night I saw a film in the Youth 强调主语:It was I that (or: who) saw a film in the Youth Palace last night. 强调宾语:It was a fiml that I saw in the
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某一成分(通常是主 Palace. 语、宾语或状语),常 用强调结构: It is (was) +被强

调部分+that(who)… 表示强调的 it 在 这种结构的 句子中作主句的 主语。

Youth Palace last night. 强调地点状语:It was in the Youth Palace that I saw a film last night. 强调时间状语:It was last night that I saw a film in the Youth Palace. 一般讲,原句的谓语动词如果是现在或将 来各种时态,用 It is…that (who)…;如果原句 谓语动词是过去各种时态,则用 It was… that(who)…。 ①在强调主语时, that 后的谓语动词要与被 强调者保持人称和数的 It is I who am a teacher. ②即使被强调的主语是复数,主句中的谓 语动词也用单数 It is they who often help me with my lessons. ③在强调时间、地点、原因、或方式状语 时,不要用 when,where,why 或 how ,而用 that It was because her mother was ill that she didn't go with us. ④在强调 not … until 结构中由 until 短语 (或从句)表示的时间状语时,

注意点

要用固定的强调句型 It is(was) not until ...that...。that 从句中的谓 语动词用肯定式。 My father didn't come home until 12 o'clock last night. It was not until 12 o'clock last night that my father came home. ⑤在强调一般疑问句中的某一成分时,主 句要用一般疑问句的语序: 把 is/ was 提到 it 前面。 Did this happen in Beijing? Was it in Beijing that this happened? ⑥特殊疑问句中只有疑问词可以强调,其
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强调结构是“被强调部分(通 常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/was + it + that/ who + 其它部分?" Where were you born? Where was it that you were born? ⑦not …until…句型的强调句句型为:It is/ was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分 原始句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back. 强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed. 此句型只用 until,不用 till。但如果不是强 调句型,till, until 可通 用;因为句型中 It is/ was not … 已经是否 定句了,that 后面的从句 要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。

Do sit down. 务必请坐。 It is/ was … that …结 谓语动词的强调 构不能强调谓语, 如果 需要强调谓语时, 用助 动词 do/ does 或 did。 He did write to you last week.上周他确实给 你写了信。 Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊! 此种强调只用 do/does 和 did , 没有别的形 式;过去时用 did,后面的谓语动词用原形。

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十四、省略句 类别 词 具体内容 名词所有格后修饰的名词在以下情 况可以省略 ①如果名词所有格修饰的名词在前 文已出现,则可以省略。 ②名词所有格后修饰的名词如果是 指商店、住宅等地点时,这些名词 也常常省略。 冠词的省略 ①为了避免重复 ②在副词的最高级前面的定冠词常 可以省略。 ③在某些独立主格结构中。 ④在 as 引导的让步状语从句中, 当作表语的单数名词提前时,不定 冠词要省略。 介词的省略 ①both 后常跟 of 短语,其后可以 接名词复数形式,也可以接代词宾
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例句 These are John's books and those are Mary's (books). 这些是约翰的书,那些是玛丽的书。 at the doctor's 在 诊 所 at Mr. Green's 在格林先生家 to my uncle's 到 我 叔 叔 家 at the barber's 在理发店 ① The lightning flashed and thunder crashed.电闪雷鸣。 (thunder 前省略了定冠词 the) ②She sings best in the class.她在班上唱 歌唱得最好。 ③Our teacher came in, book in hand. (=Our teacher came in, with a book in his hand.) 我们的老师手里拿着一本书进来了。 ④Child as he is, he knows a lot. 虽然他还是一个孩子,却懂得很多 ①Both (of) the films were interesting. 这 两部电影都很有趣。 She invited both of us to her birthday



格复数形式。接复数名词时,介词 of 可以省略,但接代词宾格时,of 不能省略。 ②在现在完成时表持续和重复的句 型中,一段时间前的介词 for 可以 省略。 ③和一些动词搭配构成的短语中的 介词,consider... (as)..., prevent / stop... (from)doing..., have trouble / difficulty... (in) doing...,spend... (in / on) doing... 等中的介词可以省略。

①有些动词, believe, find, think, feel, consider, imagine, prove 等 后作宾补的结构。 to be + n. / adj.中的 to be 可以省 略。 ②感官动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice 等以及使役动词 let, make, have 后作宾补的动词不定式, 其中的不定式符号 to 要省略, 但变 为被动结构时,to 必须保留。 ③在 can not but, can not choose but, can not help but 之后的动词 不定式一般不带 to;but 之前有实 义动词 do 的某个形式 do, does, did, done 时, 也不带 to, 否则要带 to。 ④在并列结构中为了避免重复。

party. 她邀请我们俩去参加她的生日派对。 ②These shoes are worn out. They have lasted (for) a long time. 这双鞋穿破了,已经穿了很长一段时间 了。 ③ Trees can prevent the earth (from) being washed away. 树能阻止泥土被冲走。 Can you stop him (from) going swimming in the river? 你能阻止他下河洗澡吗? I have some difficulty (in) answering the question. 回答这个问题我有点困难。 ①I consider him (to be) lazy.我认为他懒。 His mother found him (to be) a clever boy. 他母亲发觉他是一个很聪明的孩子。 ②They made the boy go to bed early.他 们强迫这个男孩早睡。 The boy was made to go to bed early. 这个男孩被迫早睡。 注:help 后作宾补的动词不定式中的 to 可以省略也可保留。 ③We have nothing to do now but wait. 我们现在除了等没有别的事可做。 I can not but admire his courage. 我不 能不钦佩他的勇敢。 He has no choice but to accept the fact. 除了接受这个事实他别无选择。 ④I'm really puzzled what to think or say. 我真不知道该怎么想,怎么说才好。 但两个不定式有对照或对比的意义时, 则后一个 to 不能省。 I came not to scold but to praise you. 我来不是责备你,而是赞美你。 ⑤Why talk so much about it?为什么大谈 这个事呢? Why not try it again? 为什么不再试一 试呢? ⑥They may go if they wish to(go). 如果他们想去,他们就可以去。 Don't go till I tell you to.直到我告诉你 去,你才可以去。 在 一 些 动 词 afford, agree, expect, forget, mean, pretend, remember, want, refuse, hope, wish, would like (love), try 等后跟动词不定式作宾语,不 定式中的 to 可以承前(后)省略。

⑤在 why, why not 引导的特殊问 句中后跟省略 to 的动词不定式。 ⑥动词不定式中动词原形部分是否 省略,主要看句子前面是否已出现 过同样的动词。如果句子前面出现 过同样的动词,为了避免重复,句 子后面的不定式常省略动词原形, 而保留不定式符号 to。

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—Will you go to the cinema with me? 你愿和我一起去看电影吗? —Well, I'd like to (go with you). 我愿 意。 I would do it for you, but I don't know how to (do it for you). 我想为你做这事,但我又不知如何做。 在 某 些 形 容 词 , afraid, glad, willing, happy, eager 等后承前省 略动词原形,只保留不定式符号 to。 —Will you join us in the game? 你愿和我们一起做这个游戏吗? —Sure, I'll be glad to(join you in the game). 当然,我愿意。 有些动词,tell, ask, allow, expect, force, invite, permit, persuade, order, warn, wish, would like,forbid 等后跟动词不定式 作宾语补足语、主语补足语时,不定式承 前省略动词原形, 保留动词不定式符号 to。 He didn't come, though we had invited him to (come). 尽管我们邀请他来,他却没来。 注:承前省略的动词不定式如果有助动词 have 或 be,则要保留 be 或 have。 —Are you a teacher? 你是老师吗? —No, but I used to be (a teacher).不,我 以前是。

①What a hot day (it is)!多热的天啊! 简单句中的省略 How wonderful!多妙啊! ①感叹句中常省略主语和谓语。 ②— (Will you) Have a smoke?你抽烟吗? ②在一些口语中可以省略某些句子 —No.Thanks.不,谢谢了。 成分。 (Is there) Anything else to say?还有别 的要说吗? 句 并列句中的省略 ①John must have been playing football

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①如果主语不同,而谓语动词中的 一部分相同,则省略谓语动词中相 法 同的那部分。 ②主语相同,谓语动词也相同,则

and Mary (must have been) doing her homework. 约翰一定在踢球,而玛丽一定在做作业。

②His suggestions made John happy, but 二者都可以省略。 (his suggestions made) Mary angry. ③主语相同,而谓语不同,则可以 他的建议使约翰高兴,却使玛丽很生气。 省略主语。 ④在并列复合句中,如果 that 从句 上 从属于第二个并列句且它的谓语动 词和宾语等其它一些成分与第一个 并列句相同时,这个 that 从句通常 可以省略这些相同的部分。 ③Old McDonald gave up smoking for a while, but (he) soon returned to his old ways. 老麦克唐纳戒了一阵子烟,可很快又抽上 了。

④Jack will sing at the party, but I know John won't (sing at the party). 杰克将在晚会上唱歌,但我知道约翰不会 的 在晚会上唱歌。

复合句中的省略 ▲名词性从句中的省略 ①作宾语的 what 从句中的谓语动
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复合句中的省略 ▲名词性从句中的省略 ①Someone has used my bike, but I don't



词与主句的相同,则 what 从句可 以省略谓语,甚至主语

know who (has used it). 有人用了我的自行车,但我不知道是谁。 He has gone, but no one knows where

②有时候也可以根据说话的情景来 (he has gone). 省略主句中的一些成分。 他走了,但没人知道他去哪儿了。 ③在某些表虚拟语气的主语从句、 ②(I'm)Sorry I've kept you waiting so 宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句 long. 中,从句谓语动词中的助动词 略 should 可以省略。 ③It's important that we (should) speak to ▲定语从句中的省略 the old politely. ①在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的 我们对老人说话要有礼貌,这很重要。 关系代词 that, which, who (whom) 常可以省略。 ▲定语从句中的省略 ②关系副词 when, where, why 以 及 that 在 the time(day, morning, afternoon, evening, night, week, month, year 等 ) when, the ① The man(who/whom)I saw is called Smith. 我见到的那个人名叫史密斯。 Where is the book (which) I bought this morning? 今天上午我买的那本书在哪儿? ②I shall never forget the day (when) we first met. 对不起,让你久等了。

place(desk, table, room, spot, house, town, country, school

等 )where, the reason why, the way that 结构中引导限制性定语从

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句时,在非正式场合下,可以省略

我永远也不会忘记我们第一次见面的那一

关系副词 when, where, why, that。 天。 ▲状语从句中的省略 当状语从句中的主语和主句的主语 一致,或状语从句中的主语是 it, 并且又含有 be 动词时,常可以省 略从句中的主语和 be 动词。 ①在 as, before, till, once, when, while 等引导的时间状语从句中。 ②在 though, although,等引导的让 步状语从句中。 ③在 if, unless(=if... not)等引导的 条件状语从句中。 ④在 as, as if, as though 引导的让 步状语从句中。 ⑤在 as(so)... as..., than 引导的比 较状语从句中。 ▲状语从句中的省略 ①While(I was)waiting, I was reading some magazines.我一边看杂志,一边等。 ②Though (they were) tired, they went on working. 虽然他们累了,但他们仍继续工 作。 ③You shouldn't come to his party unless (you were) invited. 除非你被邀请,否则你不应该来参加他的 宴会。 ④He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被 告知的那样去做了。 The reason (why) he came so early is his own affair. 他来这么早是他自己的事。 The way (that) you answered the

questions was admirable. 你回答这些问题的方式令人钦佩。

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He paused as if (he was) expecting her to speak. 他停下来,好像是在期待她说话。 ⑤He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被 告知的那样去做了。 He paused as if (he was) expecting her to speak. 他停下来,好像是在期待她说话。 I know you can do better than he (can do). 我知道你能比他做得更好。 This car doesn't run as fast as that one (does). 这辆小车不及那辆跑得快。

十五、倒装句 类 型 部分倒装 (部分倒 装是把 be 动词、情 态动词、 助动词放 到主语之 前。如果 句子中没 有这些词 , only+状语放在句首,要部分倒装
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Not a word did I say to him. 句首状语为否定词或半否定词的句子。 这 类 词或 短语 主要 有 never, neither, nor, little,seldom,rarely,hardly,scarcely,no sooner, not only,in no way,at no time,few, not,no 等 Never have I found him so happy. Little does he care about what I said. I can’t swim. Neither can he. No sooner had he gone to bed than he fell asleep. Hardly/Scarcely had he gone to bed when he fell asleep. Only by this means is it possible to explain it. (介词短语)

要在主语 之前加助 动 词 do/does /did 等,而 把原来的 谓语动词 变成原形 放在主语 之后。 ) so 或 so 引导的短语放在句首,要部分倒 装

Only then did I realize the importance of math. (副词) Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happily back to work. (从句) 注意:如果 only 后面不是状语,则不用 倒装。 OnlyWang Ling knows this. I saw the film, so did she. So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him. Not only does John love Chinese, he is “Not only+分句 ,but also+分句”句型中 的前一分句要部分倒装“Not only + 分 句,but also + 分句”句型中的前一分句 要部分倒装 also good at speaking it. 但 not only...but also...连接主语时,不 倒装。 Not only the mother but also the children are sick. Not until last week did they find the Not until 放在句首,从句不倒装,主句倒 装 lost bike. (简单句) Not until my son had entered the university did he realize the importance of time. (复合句) Proud as these nobles are, he’s afraid to see me. Tired as he was, he kept on running. Tired though he was, he kept on as/though 引导的让步状语从句 running. =Though he was tired,he kept on running Child as he is,he knows a lot.(注意: child 前没有冠词 a) 在以 often, well, many a time, now and again 等方式或频度副词(短语)开头的句子中, 要用部分倒装结构 Many a time has John given me good advice. Often have we made that test. Had I time (= If I had time), I would 在虚拟结构中,条件从句的谓语含有 were,had 和 should 这三个词是,可 省去 if,将这些词移至主语之前。 go and help you. Were I you (= If I were you), I would go abroad. Should he come (=If he should come), tell him to ring me up.
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用于某些表示祝愿的句子里 There be 结构。 另外,在此结构中可以用 来代替 be 动词的动词有:exist, seem, happen, appear,live, rise, stand 等

May you succeed! There stood a dog before him. There exist different opinions on this question. Here comes the old lady! Then came the hour we had been looking forward to.

“Here,There, Now, Then + come (或 be 等) + 主语” 结构 说明:本句型中 there 是副词,应重读,强 调地点。而前一句型中的 there 是引导 词,本身没意义

There comes the bus. Now comes your turn. 除了 then 引导的句子用过去式以外, 其余的均用一般现在时,表示一种生 动的描述。其次,如果主语是人称代 词,就不用倒装。 Here you are. There she comes. In came Mr White. Up went the arrow into the air. Away went the boy. On the top of the hill stands a pine tree. In front of the classroom is a playground. They arrived at a house, in front of which sat an old man. Present at the meeting was Mr. Green, a headmaster. (形容词短语) Such was the story he told me.(代词) East of the city lies a new railway. (副词短语) First to be completed was the seven-storey teaching building. (不 定式短语) Gone are the days when my heart was young and gay. (过去分词) Lying on the floor was a boy aged 15. (现在分词短语) Long live the People’s Republic of China!

表示方向的副词 out, in, up, down 等置 于句首,要用全部倒装。 表示地点的介词短语 (如 on the wall, under the tree, in front of the house,in 完全倒装 the middle of the room 等)放在句首时, 要全部倒装

其它形式的完全倒装

用于某些表示祝愿的句子里

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