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新人教选修6 Unit3 A healthy life-Grammar It 的用法

人教选修6 Unit3 A healthy life


The use of “it”

Discovering “It”
1. It rains heavily.
天气 2. It is 20 kilometers from Granddad'

s house to James’. 距离 3. It is November 11, 2005. 日期 4. It is 9 o’clock at night. 时间 5.It'll be lovely in the garden tonight. 环境 6. It is bad to smoke. 形式主语 7. It is likely that he will succeed. 形式主语

一、it 作人称代词
1. it的最基本用法是作代词,主要指刚提到的 事物,以避免重复: Xi’an is a beautiful city, isn’t it? 2. 也可以指动物或婴儿(未知性别的婴儿或孩 子): Is this your dog?No, it isn’t.

it有时并不指具体的东西,而泛指天气、时间、日期、 距离、价值、度量、温度、环境等,称为非人称的it: 指天气: It is a lovely day, isn’t it? It is a bit windy. 2. 指时间: It was nearly midnight when she came back. 3. 指环境: It was very quiet in the café. 4. 指距离: It is half an hour’s walk to the city centre from my home.

5. 指日期: --What's the date today? --It's May 1, 2007. 6. 指季节: It is summer now. 7. 指度量: It is about 5 kilograms. 8. 指价值: ----What's the cost of the T-shirt? ----It is 150 yuan.


替代作主语的从句、动词不定式、动名 词,而把真正作主语的从句、动词不定 式、动名词置于句尾。

1. 代作主语的动词不定式

(1)It be adj.(for sb.)to do sth. 此处adj. 通常为描述事件的形容词:easy,difficult, hard,necessary,unnecessary,possible, impossible,likely,unlikely,right,wrong, important,unimportant,legal,illegal,wellmannered,ill-mannered,polite,impolite,clear, obvious,certain,suitable,proper,fit,useful, useless,dangerous… It is illegal(for a teenager)to drive a car without a license.

(2)It be adj. of sb. to do sth. 此处adj. 通常为描述人的形容词:kind, unkind,nice,rude,cruel,considerate, thoughtful,thoughtless,careful, careless,silly,foolish,stupid,clever, wise,crazy. It's kind of you to help me with the problem.

(3) It替代作主语的动名词的常见句型 It's no good/use doing… It's(well)worth doing… It's(well)worth one's while doing/to do… It's(well)worth while doing/ to do It's no use crying over spilt milk.

2. it作形式主语替代主语从句
①It is adj. +clause It is clear ( obvious,true,possible, certain …) that ... 该句型中it 是形式主语,真正的主语是that 引导 的主语从句,常译为“清楚(显然, 真的……)” 是主语从句最常见的一种结构。例如: It is very clear that he’s round and tall like a tree.

②It is v-ed that…=sb./sth. is to do It is said (reported/ learned/believed /thought/known/told/hoped.....) that ... 该句型中的it 仍是形式主语,真正主语是that 引 导的主语从句;该结构常译为“据说(据报道, 据悉...)”。 It is said that he has come to Beijing. It is reported that another earth satellite has been put into orbit.

③ It is + noun +从句
It is a pity (a shame /an honor /a good thing/a fact /a surprise/... ) that ... 该句型中,that后的从句一般用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形),should可省去.表示出乎意料,常译为 “竟然”。没有这种意义时,则不用虚拟语气。例如: It is a pity that such a thing (should) happen in your class. 这种事竟然发生在你们班上,真是遗憾! It is a pity that he is ill. 他生病了,真遗憾!


当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式、动名词 宾语从句时,往往把宾语放在它的补足 语后面,而用it 作形式宾语,放在宾语 补足语之前。
该句型中的it 作形式宾语,常用的动词有 think, believe, make, find, consider, feel等。

I think it no use arguing with him. 我认为和他争吵没有用。 I found it very interesting to study English. 我发现学英语非常有趣。 He made it clear that he was not interested in this subject. 他非常清楚地表示他对那门学科不感兴趣。

It is/was + 被强调部分 + that/who ...

It is not until + 被强调部分 + that ...
I met Tom in the park yesterday. 1) It was I who met Tom in the park yesterday. 2) It was Tom who I met in the park yesterday. 3) It was in the park that I met Tom yesterday. 4) It was yesterday that I met Tom in the park. when It was five o’clock _________I got home. that It was at five o’clock_______ I got home.

强调句用以强调主语,宾语,介词宾语以及状语。(强调 人时用that和who /whom皆可) It was she who /that had been wrong. 是她错了。 ( 主语 ) It was the girl whom /that I met just now. 我刚才遇见的就是这个女孩。 ( 宾语 ) It was Tom to whom the teacher had talked. 老师与其谈话的那个人是汤姆。 (介词宾语) It was on Monday night that all this happened. 所有这一切就是在星期一的晚上发生的。( 状语 )

It is not until + 被强调部分 + that ... 该句型也是强调句型。主要用于强凋时间状语,译成汉语 “直到……才……”,可以说是not ... until ... 的强调形 式。例如: It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star. = Not until she took off her dark glasses did I realize she was a famous film star. = I didn’t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses.

六、It 常用的固定搭配
1.make it (1)在口语当中相当于succeed,表示:成功、 做到、说定、赶上、及时到达 例 It's hard to make it to the top in show business. (2)在口语中相当于fix the date for,表示 “约定好时间”例 —Shall we meet next week? —OK. We just make it next Saturday.

2. take it/things easy 相当于Don‘t worry or don’t hurry. 用来劝告别人, 表示“不要慌,别担心,沉住气” Take it easy! He will do it well. 3. It all depends/that all depends 在口语中,相当 于it hasn‘t been decided yet,表示“那得看情况, 还没有定下来” —Are you going to the countryside for holiday? —It/That all depends. 4. It's up to sb. 在口语中,相当于it's decided by sb. 表示“由……决 定,由……负责,取决于……” —Shall we go out for dinner? —It's up to you.

Rewrite the following sentences, using “It’s … that”.

1.I’m still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometers in an afternoon. That is amazing.

2. My father has quit smoking. That is wonderful.

It is amazing that I am still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometers in an afternoon. It is wonderful that my father has quit smoking.

3. You could suffer from bad health if you keep smoking. ( It is likely).

4. China produces one third of the world’s cigarettes. It is reported.

It is likely that you could suffer from bad health if you keep smoking. It is reported that China produces one third of the world’s cigarettes.

5.Bird flu(禽流感) hit China again. That is known to us.

6. Li Yuchun got more than one million yuan for the advertisement. People say that.

It is known to us that bird flu(禽流感) hit China again.

It is said that Li Yuchun got more than one million Yuan for the advertisement.
7. Some young people think that they look attractive when they smoke. It seems that…

It seems that some young people think they look attractive when they smoke.

1. Revise and master the use of it. 2. Pre-view the Reading: HIV/AIDS: Are you at risk?

See you next time!


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