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阅读细节题


Reading comprehension

1. 细节理解 题 型 及 解 题 技 巧 2. 猜测词义 3. 推理判断 4.主旨大意 5. 观点态度 6. 篇章结构

本类试题主要考查学生对阅读材料中的 某一特定细节或文章的主要事实的理解能 力。问题包括询问人(who)、物(what)、 时间(when)、地点(where)、原因(

cause)、 结果(effect)、文中的数据(data)等。新闻、 说明文、广告信息等常常考查这些细节。 常见问题形式有: Which of the following is true/false except…? Which of the following is mentioned except… 三正一误 三误一正

1.According to the passage, who/ what/ which/ when/ Where / why / how/ how many/how much/ how long/ How soon/ how often, etc. ? 2. According to the passage, which of the following is true/ not true? 3. According to the passage, Which of the following Is not mentioned ? 4. All of the following are true EXCEPT ___. 5. In the passage the writer states that ____. 6. Choose the best order in which the people do________.

2. 定义; 3. 比较; 4. 年代与数字 5. 原因和结果 此类试题的答案一般可以在文章中直接或 间接找到,但不一定与阅读材料一模一样。 Sample I 细节比较 Hoover Dam lies ______. A. between Arizona and Nevada B. in the Black Canyon C. between New York and San Francisco D. both A and B

This huge dam is in the Black Canyon. It is possible to drive a car from one side of the river to the other on a road, which is on the top of the dam. This dam is so big that there is an elevator inside. … … This huge dam was called Boulder Dam when it was finished in 1936. Later it was renamed Hoover Dam in honor of a president of the United States. Hoover Dam, one of the highest dams in the world,is situated between the states of Arizona and Nevada.

2. 定义; 3. 比较; 4. 年代与数字 5. 原因和结果 此类试题的答案一般可以在文章中直接或 间接找到,但不可能与阅读材料一模一样。 Sample I Hoover Dam lies ______. A. between Arizona and Nevada B. in the Black Canyon C. between New York and San Francisco D. both A and B

Sample II

正误

Which of the following is NOT true? A. Luo Lin is a native of Shanghai. B. Luo Lin moved to Hong Kong with her parents. C. Luo Lin won the title of Miss Asia in 1991. D. Asia TV Station helped Luo Lin to become Miss Asia.

Miss Luo Lin, Miss Asia of 1991,… Born in Shanghai and taken to Hong Kong when she was only six years old, Luo Lin has never dreamed of being Miss Asia. Her childhood dream was to be an air hostess. Before she took part in the competition, she had been an airhostess in Cat hay Airline for seven years. However,it still took her three months to learn the art of walking on the stage dancing, singing, making-up and other proper manners, designed by the Asia TV Station.

Sample II Which of the following is NOT true? A. Luo Lin is a native of Shanghai. B. Luo Lin moved to Hong Kong with her parents. C. Luo Lin won the title of Miss Asia in 1991. D. Asia TV Station helped Luo Lin to become Miss Asia.

Sample III

原因

According to scientists ,the DIRECT cause of more and fiercer storms is . A.greenhouse gas emissions (散发) in industrialized nations B.higher surface water temperatures of the sea C.continuous global warming D.rising sea levels

… reported to the Earth Policy Institute that the nation suffered an unusaually high number of fierce storms in the past ten years . Many scientists connect higher surface water temperatures resulting from global warming to greater and more damaging storms.

Sample III

According to scientists ,the DIRECT cause of more and fiercer storms is . A.greenhouse gas emissions 散发 in industrialized nations B.higher surface water temperatures of the sea C.continuous global warming D.rising sea levels

Sample IV

数字计算

You have to pay at least ______ a year if you study at the University of Waikato. A. $5,250 C. $9,000 B. $8,000 D. $11,000

Tuition Fees (学费) Tuition fees are different from department to department, generally from $5,000 to $6,000 a year. For further information: tui @ waikato.ac.nz. Accommodation (住宿) You can have a room in a 4-bedroom flat, which will cost about $100 a month with other regular living costs of about $150 a month for one person. For further information: acc@ waikato.ac.nz

Sample IV You have to pay at least ______ a year if you study at the University of Waikato. A. $5,250 C. $9,000 B. $8,000 D. $11,000

$5000(学费)+$100(住宿费)x12(months) +$150(生活费)x12=$8000.

Question Form (1) The word “…” in Line … means/can be best replaced by … (2) As used in the passage, the phrase “…” suggests… (3) From the passage, we can infer that the word/phrase “…” is/refers to … (4) The word “…” is closest in meaning to …

技巧 1 根据解释确定词义 1. Social mobility is the movement from one class or level of living to another. 社会流动性 2. The other questioned the veracity--– the truthfulness of these reports. 真实性

技巧 2 根据对比确定词义
In the past the world seemed to run in an orderly way. Now, however, everything seems to be in a state of turmoil.

一片混乱

技巧 3 根据逻辑确定词义 If you are capable of working twelve hours a day without a rest, and if you can engage in physical exercise for hours without seeming to get tired, then you are indefatigable. 不知疲倦的

技巧 4 根据上下文情景确定词义 The underlined phrase “mopping up” in the second paragraph means___. A cleaning up B taking in C wiping out D giving out

Rainforests like the Amazon are important for mopping up CO2 from the atmosphere and helping to slow global warming. Currently the trees in the Amazon take in around 500 million tons of CO2 each year: equal to the total amount of CO2 giving off in the UK each year.

技巧 4 根据上下文情景确定词义 The underlined phrase “mopping up” in the second paragraph means___. A cleaning up C wiping out B taking in D giving out

Try to do the following exercises:

根据上下文推测各题中划线词的词义

1. The offspring of a pair of birds leave the nest when they are big enough to fly. A.children B.ancestors C.generations D.mates 2. There is a stack of papers on Mr. Green’s desk. A.piece B.balance C.mixture D.pile

3. Before a baby learns to walk, it has to crawl on the floor. A.walk on two feet B.fly C.sit in a chair D.move on the hands and knees 4. Mr. Brown is an amateur photographer.He is an engineer.But in his free time he likes to take pictures. A. as a hobby B.for money C.as a job D.as work

5. The kiwi lays the largest eggs in the world. The strange thing about the kiwi is that it cannot fly. A· kind of fish B.a kind of cat a C. a kind of rock D.a kind of bird 6. Some Africans carve beautiful human and animal figures out of wood.They sell their carvings to stores and museums. A.draw B.beat C.heat D.cut

7. Chicken pox can be very serious for a child who is not in good health.The child develops red spots,and feels hot and uncomfortable.A healthy child gets well quickly. A.a kind of animal B.a kind of food C.a kind of childhood disease D.a lack of pure water

8. Ali showed the class a picture of him, his wife,and their baby.Pierre's family has lived in the east of Canada for two hundred years.Their ancestors came from France. A. family members from a long time ago B. grandparents and their grandchildren C. parents, grandparents and greatgrandparents D.family members all living at the same time

Summary

1.正误 2. 定义; 3. 比较;4. 年 代与数字 5. 原因和结果 1.解释 2.对比 3.逻辑 4. 上下文

二、主旨判断题:
范围一般包括: 短文标题、主题(Title); 大意或段落大意(Main idea) 技巧:剔除细节或论据,找到各段的主题句 (topic sentence) ? 题干形式: ? 1)What does the writer mainly tell us? ? 2)Which of the following can summarize the main idea of this text? ? 3)Which of the following best expresses the main idea? ? 4)Which is the subject discussed in the text? ? 5)The best title for this newspaper article is ___.

3 Kleptomania is an illness of the mind that gives a person the desire to steal. Such a person is not really a thief. They are sick and cannot help themselves. All small children act naturally and as they grow up they normally learn to control their actions. People with kleptomania for certain medical reasons have failed to develop control over their desire to take things that do not belong to them. With medical help they may become normal citizens again. They things that a kleptomaniac steals are seldom of great value.
They often give away what they have stolen or collect objects without using them.

? Q:What is the topic of the text? ? ? ? ? A. Young Thieves. B. An Unusual Illness. C. Reasons for Stealing D. A Normal Child’s Actions.
Topic Sentence: Kleptomania is an illness of the mind that gives a person the desire to steal.

4

Boston---- Thieves dressed as police entered a museum early Sunday and stole 11 paintings, including major works by Rembrandt, Dagas, Manet and Vermerr, FBI (美国联邦调查局) and the museum officials said.
The first judgment placed value of at least $100 million on the works stolen from the Isabella Gardener Museum, said Boston police spokesman Jim Tordan ……William Bobinson, of Hardvard Univercity’s Foggel Museum, called the objects stolen “major works.”

? Q: What is the best headline for this newspaper article ? ? ? ? ? A. A Theft Took Place in Boston B. Artworks stolen by Thieves C. Major Works D. Investigation into the theft
Topic Sentence: Thieves dressed as police entered a museum early Sunday and stole 11 paintings

5

You dream each night, even though you may not remember your dreams. While you dream your eyes move and your heart beats faster. Even your brain-wave pattern changes. Some scientists think that dreaming is important for the sake of health.
They claim that without dream, people would go crazy.

Q: What does the passage mainly tells? A. How people stay healthy B.How sleep is necessary C. Why dreams are important D. When people remember their dreams Topic Sentence: Some scientists think that dreaming is important for the sake of health

6

Reading is the key to school success and, like any skill it takes practice. A child learns to walk by practicing until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other. A great athlete practices until he can play quickly, accurately(精确), without thinking. Tennis players call that “ being” in the zone.” Educators call it “ automaticity’ (自动).

? Q: The first paragraph tells us _______. ? ? ? ? A. what automaticity is B. how accuracy is acquired (获得) C. how a child learns to walk D. how an athlete is trained.

Topic Sentence:Educators call it “ automaticity’

7
In America we have Halloween. In Mexico they have Todos Santos, which means “ All Saints”. This is the day in which people remember family and friends who have died. They visit the cemetery instead of going out to trick-or-treat. But they do have pictures of skeletons and ghosts hanging around. They also have many candy skulls to eat.

? Q: What does the story mainly tells ?

? ? ? ?

A. What holidays are like B. What Halloween is like in Mexico C. What happens during Todos Santos D. What we do on Halloween

三、推理判断题:
? 技巧:找出作者所陈述的细节、事实以及能够表 露作者思想倾向和感情色彩的词语,进行符合逻 辑的推理。 ? 注意:不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点
? 解推断题最主要的方法是根据词义关系推断具体细节。

? ? ? ? ?

题干形式: (1) It can be inferred from the text that ______.? (2) From the text we know that ______.? (3) The story implies that ______.? (4) The paragraph following the passage will most probably be ______.? ? (5) The writers attitude toward…is ______.?

8
One day a man walked a pet shop and said to the shop assistant,“I need two small mice and about five dozen roaches(蟑螂) and two spiders(蜘 蛛).”? “What do you need these things for?” the shop assistant was very surprised.? “Well,”replied the man,“I’m moving out of my apartment and the landlord insists that I should leave the house in exactly the same condition as I found it.”

? Q: The passage suggests that when the writer moved into the apartment, it was ______.

? ? ? ?

A. very clean? B. just cleaned by the landlord? C. tidy and comfortable? D. dirty and full of insects? ?

9

Some people are never right. They never have good luck. They usually do the wrong thing and say the wrong thing. And even if what they say or do is OK, they as a rule say it or do it at the wrong time. So these people always have problems. They often break dishes. They sometimes miss buses and airplanes.? Mr Neff is different. He is always right. He is never wrong. He usually has good luck. He seldom has problems. He never breaks dishes. He never misses buses or airplanes. Even if he does miss them, it is always the fault of the buses or air planes. Mr Neff knows almost everything. He doesn’t ask questions; he answers questions. He never says,“I don’t know.” ?

? Q: Which of the following best describes the writer’s attitude(态度) towards Mr Neff? ? ? A. He finds Mr. Neff hard to understand? ? B. He thinks Mr. Neff wonderful? ? C. He feels pity for Mr. Neff? ? D. He does not like Mr. Neff?


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