专题五 必修五 Unit 1-2 知识点复习及达标检测
Part One 知识点复习 Unit 1 Great Scientists 1. put forward: 提出（计划、建议等）；将…提前；把钟表拨快 e.g. He put forward a good plan for this project. 他为这项工程提出了一个好的方案。 The match has
been put forward to 1:30. 比赛已经提前到一点半举行。 Put the clock forward by ten minutes. 把钟表拨快十分钟。 【词语联想】 ? put away: 收起来；贮存，储蓄 ? put down: 放下；写下，记下 ? put off: 推迟；延期 ? put up: 张贴；撑开（帐篷）e.g. put up a poster put up a tent: 搭起帐篷 ? put on: 穿上；增加；上演（戏剧）e.g. put on weight: 增加了体重 put on a new play: 上演新戏剧 2. conclude: v. 作结论，断定（conclusion: n. 结论） e.g. The jury concluded that he was guilty. 陪审团认定他有罪。 【习惯用语】★ draw a conclusion 作出结论 ★come to/reach/arrive at a conclusion 得出结论 ★ in conclusion 最后 3. defeat vt.打败, 击败, 战胜； 使(希望, 计划等)失败, 挫败; 阻挠, 使无效 e.g. He finally conceded defeat. 他最终承认了失败。 ◆ 区别: defeat, conquer, overcome ? defeat 指“赢得胜利”, 尤其指“军事上的胜利”,e.g. defeat the enemy 打败敌人。 ? conquer指“征服”、”战胜”,特别指“获得对人、物或感情的控制”, e.g. conquer nature 征服自然 ? overcome指“战胜”、“压倒”、“克服”尤指“感情”而言, e.g. overcome difficulties 克服困难 4. attend vt. &vi 参加，注意，照料 ① be present at 参加 attend a ceremony / lecture / a meeting ② attend to (on): to look after, care for, serve 伺候, 照顾，看护 e.g. The queen had a good doctor attending （on ）her. 女皇有个好医生照顾她。 e.g. Dr. Smith attended her in hospital. 史密斯医生在医院照顾她。 e.g. Mother had to attend to her sick son. 妈妈不得不照顾她生病的儿子。 ③ attend to 处理，注意倾听 e.g. Can you attend to the matter immediately? 你能及时处理这件事吗？ e.g. I may be late – I have got one or two things to attend. 我可能会迟到。——我有些事要处理。 5. expose ①暴露 ? expose sb./sth. to sth. ? He exposes his skin to the sun. 他把皮肤暴露在阳光下。 ②揭露 ? He exposed their plot. 他揭穿了他们的阴谋。? The crime of the corrupt officials must be exposed without any reserve. 对贪官污吏的罪行一定要毫无保留地予以揭发。 6. blame v. 责备；谴责；把??归咎于 n. 过失；责备;(过失、过错等)责任 ①blame sb. for sth. / doing sth.为某事责备某人 / 责备某人做了某事 They blamed the secretary for the delay of the plan. ② blame sth. on sb. / sth. 把某事归咎于某人;因某事而指责某人 The police blamed the traffic accident on jack’s careless driving. ③ be to blame for(doing)sth． 因(做)某事某人应该受到谴责； 注意:be to blame应受责备 （主动表被动） ； 应负责任 The driver was not to blame for the traffic accident. ④ accept / bear / take the blame for sth. 对某事负责任 He is ready to take the blame for what had happened. ⑤ put / lay the blame for sth. on sb. 将某事归咎于某人 7. in addition: 除此之外，另外, 意思相当于 besides, what’s more e.g. I paid 100 Yuan in addition. 我额外付了100元。 e.g. In addition to English, he has to study a second language. 除了英语，他不得不学第二语言。
◆ 区别: in addition to, except, besides, beside, apart from ? in addition to：除…之外，还有…，表示递进关系。 e.g. The company provided the workers with free lunch in addition to paid holidays. 这家公司为员工们提 供带薪假期，还有免费午餐。 ? except: 除…之外，表示在整体中排除， e.g. Everyone except me got an invitation. 除了我以外, 所有人都收到了请柬. ? besides 表示“除了……以外，还有……”，与in addition to 同义， e.g. Besides Mr Wang, we also went to see the film.王先生也去了。 We all agreed besides him.我们都同意, 他也同意。 ? beside : 在…旁边。表示方位。 e.g. Lily sits beside me in class. 莉莉在班上做我旁边。 ? apart from 有两种含义： 1）相当于 besides.意为“除??以外（还包括） ” e.g. Apart from my mother tongue, I speak several foreign languages as well. 除了母语外，我还会讲好几种外语。 2）相当于 except.意为“除??以外（不包括） ” e.g. I like all the subjects apart from English.除了英语外，我喜欢所有学科。 ★ 同义句转换 1）He speaks French as well as English. = He speaks French in addition to/besides English. 2) Apart from the salary, it’s not a bad job. = In addition to/Except the salary, it’s not a bad job. 8. absorb vt. ★专注，聚精会神 e.g. be absorbed in＝put one’s heart into 集中精力做某事 e.g. I was absorbed in a book and didn’t hear your call. 我正专心看书，没听到你的电话。 e.g. Absorbed in his work，Tom simply forgot food and sleep.汤姆专心工作，几乎忘记了吃饭和睡觉。 ★ 吸收，把……吸收入（absorb...into...） e.g. Black cloth absorbs light.黑布吸收光线。 e.g. The big company has gradually absorbed these small companies into its own organization.这家大公司逐 渐将这些小公司吞并了。 e.g. The clever boy absorbed all the knowledge his teacher could give him.那个聪明的男孩把他老师所能 教他的所有知识都理解了。 9. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. 对于它的起因和治疗方法人们都不清楚。 ★ neither...nor...既不……也不，连接句中两个相同成分。 ①I neither knew nor cared what had happened to him.我既不知道也不关心他出了什么事。 ②Neither France nor Britain will attend the meeting next week.法国和英国都将不会参加下星期的会议。 ③Neither Jim nor his parents have seen the film. ＝Neither his parents nor Jim has seen the film.吉姆和她的父母都没有看过这部电影。 ★ cure vt. 治疗,治愈,改正 n. 治疗,治愈,治疗法 ①cure sb（of sth）治好了某人（的...,...) e.g. The only way to cure backache is to rest. 治疗背痛的唯一办法是休息。 e.g. When I left the hospital I was completely cured. e.g. That nasty shock cured him of his inquisitiveness for ever.那一沉重教训根除了他凡事爱打听的毛病。 e.g. This illness cannot be cured easily. 这种病不好治. ②a cure for sth.治疗…的方法;解决问题，改善困境 e.g. Is there a certain cure for cancer yet? 癌症迄今有无有效的治疗方法? e.g. The prices are going up every day, but there is no cure for rising prices. 10. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak.人们既不知道它的病 因，也不懂如何治疗。每次爆发霍乱时就有成千上万惊恐的人病死。 (1)本句为复合句，“So many thousands of terrified people died” 为主句，every time 引导时间状语从句，
意思是“每当……”。 (2)有些名词短语或副词可以起连词的作用，引导时间状语从句。例如：every time，each time，the last time，next time，the moment，the minute，immediately，instantly 等。 ①Every time/Each time I express an opinion，she argues back.每当我发表意见时，她总是反驳。 ②I found myself in an entirely new world the moment/the minute/immediately I arrived here.我一到这里就 感到耳目一新。 ③The last time I saw him，he was quite well.我最后一次看到他时，他还相当健康。 ④Give your father my best regards next time you see him.下次你见到你父亲时，请代我向他致以最好的 问候。 [拓展延伸] (1)for the first time 是介词短语，常用作时间状语，而 the first time 是连词，引导时间状语从句。 (2)It is the first time that...如果前面用 is，从句动词用现在完成时；如果前面用 was，则从句动词用过去 完成时. (3)It’s (high) time that...从句动词用过去时或 should＋动词原形。 e.g. It’s high time we took immediate action to prevent pollution.该到我们立即采取措施阻止污染的时候 了。 11. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus.利用这个额外证据，约翰· 斯诺就可以很有把握地宣布污染水携带病菌。 ★ announce vt. (1)宣布，宣告(决定、计划等) ? announce sth.(to sb.)(向某人)宣布、 通告某事 ? announce that...宣布……； 通知…… ? It is announced that...据宣布… e.g. Please announce to your class that there will be no school tomorrow.请通知你们班明天不上学。 e.g. It has been officially announced that he will pay a second visit to China soon.据官方消息称，他不久将 再次来中国访问。 (2) (事情)显示……；预告 e.g. The bright flowers announced that spring was here.鲜艳的花朵显示春天已经来到。 [拓展延伸] announcement n．宣布；口头通知 announcer n.播音员 make an announcement 下通知 Unit 2 The United Kingdom ◆ 重点词组： 1. keep your eyes open 睁大你的眼睛 2. consist of 由…组成 3. leave out 省去 不考虑 遗漏 4. divide into 分成 5. prepare to 准备 6. compare A with B 与…比 7. compare A to B 把 A 比作 B 8. asked the boss on the phone 通过电话 9. work out 做出 解决 设计出 计算出 锻炼开采完 发展 进行 work on 对..起作用；企图影响或说服， 忙于 work in 在…工作 work off 渐渐消除 处理 排除 卖掉 发泄 10. a furnished house with all modern conveniences 一个带家具的房子有所有的现代方便的设施 11. familiar with 熟悉 12. worried about the time available 担心时间不够 13. make a list of 列出关于…的清单 14. on special occasions 在特殊的场合 15. the four-hundred-year-old uniform 有四百年历史的制服 16. set the world time 设置世界时间 17. on either side of the line 在线的两端 18. fall asleep 入睡 with delight 十分喜悦的 ◆词句精讲 1. consist vi.由...组成, 在于, 一致 ★ consist of=be made up of 由?组成;由?构成 [典例] 1) Substances consist of small particles called molecules. 物质是由叫做分子的微粒组成的。 2) True charity doesn't consist in almsgiving. 真正的慈善不在于施舍。 [练习] 翻译: 1) 这支球队由 12 人组成。 2) 这位艺术家的风格上的美在于它的简朴。 Keys: 1) the team consists of 12 players. 2)The beauty of the artist's style consists in its simplicity.
2. 区别: ? separate ... from (把联合在一起或靠近的人或物分离出来）? divide...into 把…分开 （把 整体分为若干部分） e.g. The teacher divided the class into two groups. e.g. The Taiwan Strait separates Taiwan from Fujian. 3. debate about sth. e.g. They debate about the proposal for three days. ★ debate/argue/discuss/quarrel 辩论,争论 【解释】debate 就已经确定或统一的问题,各述己见,公开,正式的争论.含交锋的意思；argue 指提出理 由或事实， 试图在争辩中说服对方， 或促使他人拥护自己倡导的理由或观点； discuss 指一般讨论,谈论； quarrel 常指因琐事而感到气愤,进行争吵 【练习】选择 debate/argue/discuss/quarrel 或 puzzle 并用其适当的形式填空 1）The couple are always __________quarreling about the past. 2）Have you _________ the problem with anyone? 3）I _________ with her all day about the situation. Keys: 1）quarreling 2）discussed 3）argued 4. clarify: vt./vi. (cause sth. to )become clear or easier to understand 澄清；阐明;清楚；明了 e.g. I hope what I say will clarify the situation. e.g. Can you clarify the question? 5. be linked to = be connected to /be joined to 连接 【习惯用语】★ link A to B 将A和B连接起来 6. refer to 1)提及，指的是…… e.g. When he said “some students”, do you think he was referring to us? 2) 参考；查阅；询问 e.g. If you don't understand a word you may refer to your dictionaries. e.g. Please refer to the last page of the book for answers. 3) 关系到；关乎 e.g. What I have to say refers to all of you. e.g. This rule refers to everyone. ★ reference: n. 参考 e.g. reference books 参考书 7. to one's surprise (prep) “to one’s + 名 词 ” 表 “ 令 某 人 ……” ， 常 见 的 名 词 有 “delight, disappointment, enjoyment, astonishment 等 e.g. I discovered, to my horror, that the goods were entirely unfit for sale. To John's great relief they reached the house at last. 8. ... found themselves united peacefully “find +宾语＋宾补( adj; adv; v-ing; pp; 介词短语；不定式）” e.g. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found smoking in the kitchen. e.g. You’ll find him easy to get along with. e.g. They found themselves trapped by the bush fire. e.g. When I woke up, I found myself in hospital. e.g. I called on him yesterday, but I found him out. 9. leave out 省去,遗漏 [典例] 1) You have left out the most important word in this sentence． 你在这一句中遗漏了最重要的一个单词。 2) Don't leave me out when you invite people to your party． 当你邀请人们去参加晚会时，别把我漏掉了。 [重点用法] leave for 动身到(某处) leave alone 不管;撇下?一个人 leave aside 搁置 leave behind 遗忘;遗留 [练习] 请填人适当的介词或副词： 1) They were left ______ in the wilderness. 2) He was asked to make up the information left ______ by the leader. Keys: 1) alone 2) out
10. break down 损坏，跨，压倒，分解 [典例] 1) The bridge broke down．桥塌了。 2) The engine broke down．发动机坏了。 3) He has broken down from overwork．他因工作过度而累垮了。 4) Water can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen．水可以分解为氢和氧。 5) The plan to build another chemical work has broken down because it will cause serious pollution．再建一个化工厂的计划失败了，因为这将引起严重的污染。 [词汇激活] break away from 摆脱，脱离 break in 闯入；插话 break into 闯入；破门而人；打断(谈话) break off 中止；折断；打折 break out 爆发；突然发生 break through 突破；冲垮 break up 分解；(使)结束;分开,分离 [练习] 请填人适当的介词或副词： 1)To understand the grammar of the sentence, you must break it ___________ into pieces. 2) The elevator broke _______. 3) Fighting broke_______ in the prison cells. 4)Fire broke _______during the night. 5) On the way to the prison house, the prisoners suddenly broke _______ from the policeman. Keys: 1) down 2) down 3) out 4) out 5) away 11. take the place of 代替,取代 [典例] 1) In the future, natural gas will take the place of petrol as the major fuel. 将来天然气会代替汽油成为主要的能源。 2) I’ll take the place of Mr．Lin next week．=I’ll take Mr．Lin's place next week． 下周我将代替林老师。 [重点用法] take place 发生；举行 take one's place 就位；代替某人 in place of (= instead of)代替 in place 在适当的位置 out of place 不得其所，不适当地 in the first place 首先 from place to place 到处；各处 [练习] 选择以上短语填空 1) A sudden accident _______ in the street last evening. 2)She likes everything _______ before she starts to work．She hates a mess． Keys: 1)took place 2)in place 12. influence 1) v. 对…产生影响 e.g. What influence you to choose a career in teaching? 2)可数n. 产生影响的人或事 e.g. He is one of the good influences in the school. 3) (不可数n.) 影响 e.g. A teacher has great influence over his pupils. 13. There is no need to debate any more about why different words are used to describe the four countries. 没有必要去争论为什么要用不同的词去描述这四个国家。 [解释] There is no need to do 没有必要做某事 There is no doubt that ??是毫无疑问的 [练习] 翻译 1) 我们有必要再去那一趟吗? 2) 没必要给他写封信告知这个消息. Keys: 1) Is there any need for us to go there again? 2) There is no need to write to him and inform him the news. 14. It seemed strange that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London. 这似乎是一件怪事:这位发展了共产主义的人竟然在伦敦生活过，而且在伦敦去世. [解释] It is/seems/?that ?从句用虚拟语气，由“should+v.原形”构成 [典例] 1) It is strange that my mother should agree with me.真奇怪我妈妈竟然答应了我。 2) It was strange that my mother should have agreed with me. 真奇怪我妈妈竟然答应了我。 [练习] 翻译 1）真奇怪,他竟然考试不及格.
2）似乎很奇怪，他能够通过触摸判断花的种类。 Key: 1) It’s strange that he should fail the exam. 2) It seemed strange that he could tell the different kinds of flower by touching. Part Two 达标检测 Section One Words & Phrases Unit 1 Great Scientists 一、单词拼写 1. This new e _______________for the car works well. 2. She has a strong c_________________. 3. The farmers in this area had a good harvest last year thanks to the s______________farming. 4. The doctor had my eyes e_____________for weakening. 5. The meeting c________________at eight o’clock. 6. They were d _______________ in their attempt(企图)to reach the top of the mountain. 7. The little brave girl e _________________ the crime(罪行)of the criminal(罪犯). 8. He was a____________________in the book. 9. He b ____________________ me for my negligence(疏忽大意). 10. I think you are too s_________________ on the boy. 11. He finished his work in a__________________(积极的) way. 12. We must try to _________________(分析)the causes of the strike. 13. He became____________________(狂热的) about classical music. 14. He has______________________(完成)the whole job already. 15. In the factory the workers______________(纺成线)wool into thread. 16. Be c_________________when you cross the street. 17. You should not r_________________the invitation from your old friend. 18. What is your v__________________on Chinese education? 19. The police are watching the man’s m_________________secretly. 20. The class needs a s__________________teacher. 21. Kindness is one of the prime minister's __________________(特征). 22. Britain_________________(议定) a trade agreement with China. 23. Don't ________________(暴露) your skin to the sun or you will be burned. 24. The ________________(贵重的) culture relics will be on show in Guangzhou Art Museum in October. 25. The famous Korean play actor got an________(热情的) reception in Hong Kong. 26. The most important thing is not to admit ________________(失败)27. Water and salt are _____________(吸收) into our blood stream everyday. 28. If a doctor or a medical treatment c__________someone’s illness, they make the people well again. 29. A v_________________is a kind of germ that can cause disease. 30. If you a_____________something, you consider it carefully or use some methods in order to fully understand it. 二、短语翻译 1．蒸汽机_____________________ 2．提出 _____________________ 3．得出结论____________________ 4．也，另外___________________ 5．将……和……连接起来______________________ 6．对……严格的________________________ 7．有意义_________________________ 8．通向，导致_________________________ 9．态度，观点________________________ 10．继续工作__________________________ 三、完成句子 1. 除了这些理由以外，他无话可说了 _________ ________these reasons, he said nothing. 2. 我们的英语老师对我们要求严格。 Our English teacher_________ _______ ________us. 3. 让我们一起去听来自北京大学的李教授的演讲 Let's ________the lecture by professor Li from Beijing University.
4. 他的粗心大意的驾驶导致了这起严重的交通事故。 His careless driving _______ ______the serious traffic accident. 5. 他捐赠食物和衣服给红十字会。 He _____________food and clothing __________the Red Cross. Keys: 一、 1. engine 2. character 3. scientific 4. examined 5. concluded 6. defended 7. exposed 8. absorbed 9. blamed 10. severe 11. positive 12. analyse 13. enthusiastic 14. completed 15. spin 16. cautious17. reject 18. view 19. movement 20. strict 21. characteristics 22.concluded 23. expose 24. valuable 25. enthusiastic 26.defeat 27. absorbed 28. cures 29. virus 30.analyse 二、1. steam engine 2. put forward 3. draw a conclusion 4. in addiction 5. link…to 6. be strict with 7.make sense 8. lead to 9. point of view 10. work on 三、1. Apart from 2. is strict with 3. attend 4. led to 5. contributed to Unit 2 The United Kingdom 一、单词拼写 1. The common interests u_________________the two countries. 2. The class ___________________of (组成)56 members. 3. Our class is d_______________into two groups during the discussion. 4. What he said in the meeting p______________________all of us. 5. The bad ______________(影响)of the flood is that no people are dared to swim in that river. 6. The c_______________of transportation in this area brings hope to this mountain village. 7. Her beautiful singing drew the a_____________of the professor. 8. The film “Hero” has much a________________for the youth. 9. The habit of c____________________stamps benefit him a lot. 10. The___________(工业) area of this area made more pollution to the air compared with agricultural area. 11. If something is done for your c_____________, it is done in a way that is suitable or useful for you. 12. An a_________is something that people can go for interest or enjoyment, for example a famous building. 13. A p_________is a question, game or toy which you have to think about carefully in order to answer it correctly. 14. U_________is a particular type of clothing worn by all the members of a group or organization such as the police, the army, etc. 15. Most advertisements work through________________(暗示). 16. We are_____________(感到激动) to hear a wonderful piece of news that the people lived in the mainland can go to visit Taiwan in the near future. 17. The second Children's Palace of Guangzhou sits in _________(极好的)location by the side of Pearl River. 18. The government is__________(辩论) the new adjustment of Guangzhou's district. 19. Some parents considered that some of their children's friends to be a bad________________(影响) to their children. 20. There are plans to______________(建造) a new road bridge across the river to ease the traffic problems in this area. 二、短语翻译 1．将……分成_____________________ 2．英国国旗_________________________ 3．省去；漏掉_______________________ 4．令人吃惊的是____________________ 5．脱离_________________________ 三、完成句子 1. Why you debate this wonderful opportunity so carefully is a ______(困惑) to me. 2. The ________ _______ ________tigers (老虎保护工程)will be launched after the meeting. 3. She is good at ____________flowers(插花). 4. If you continue working like that, your body will________ _________(垮下来). 5. Their____________(婚礼) will__________ _____________(举行) in May.
6．这道数学题把小明给难住了，无论他怎么努力也无法计算出正确的答案. This maths problem ___________Xiao Ming. No matter how hard he tried, he couldn't _________ ___________ the right answer. 7．世界上最著名的教堂之一西敏寺是英国的旅游胜地。 Westminster Abbey, ________is one of the most famous churches in the world, is the ___________ ______________ of Britain, 8．陈水扁想把台湾从中国分裂出去的企图永远不可能得逞。 Chen Shuibian’s attempt to __________Taiwan ________ ___________China could not be achieved forever. 9．未来，地铁将会逐步取代公共汽车成为人们的主要交通工具。 The underground will_______ _______ _______ _______the bus to become the main vehicle for the people in the future. 10．国际社会正在讨论关于如何惩治伊拉克前总统萨达姆(Saddam)。 The international society ______ ______ _____ the punishment for the former Iraqi president Saddam. 11．初升的朝阳看起来很美但是西下的夕阳看起来更美。 The_________sun looks beautiful and the sun________ in the west looks even more beautiful. 12．十年以后他们第二次来广州，发现广州变化很大。 Ten years later they came to Guangzhou ______ _____ _____ _____ and found Guangzhou greatly changed. 13．小李环顾四周，发现有一个人正把手插入一个乘客的口袋里。 Xiao Li _________ _________and caught a man _________ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. 14．在我四周的范围内，除了沙漠以外没有任何的东西，只能看见一棵树。 For miles around me, there was nothing but a desert, with a single tree ______ _________. 15．在我们搬近新房子以前，我们准备(请人)安装电话。 Before we______ _______ the new house, we are going to get our telephone __________.. 16. 我们没有必要再浪费时间讨论去哪儿度假了，因为计划已取消了. There is ______ __________ that we'll waste time discussing where to go for our holiday, for the plan has been ____________. 17. 绍兴被人称作中国的威尼斯。 Shaoxing is __________ _____________ as China’s “Venice”. 18. 很使我感到高兴的是，父亲给我买了一台电脑作为生日礼物。 __________ to my joy, Father bought me a computer _______ a birthday gift 19. 托尼踢足球时，他的腿受伤了。 Tonny ________one of his legs _______when playing football. 20. 今天下午教室里竟然一个人也没有，真是奇怪。 _______ _______ __________that there shouldn’t have been any student in the classroom. Keys: 一、1. united 2. consists 3. divided 4. puzzled 5. influence 6. convenience 7. attention 8. attraction 9. collecting 10. industrial 11. convenience 12. attraction 13. puzzle 14. uniform 15. suggestion 16. thrilled17. splendid 18. debating 19.influence 20. construct 二、1. divide?into 2. The Union Jack 3. leave out 4. to one’s surprise 5. break away from 三、1. puzzle 2. project of protecting 3. arranging 4. break down 5. wedding; take place 6. puzzle; work out 7. which; tourist attraction 8. break away from 9. take the place of 10. are debating about 11. rising; setting 12. for the second time 13. looked around; putting 14. in sight 15. moved to; installed 16. no need; cancelled 17. referred to 18. Much; as 19. had hurt 20. It was strange Section Two Grammar 一、过去分词做定语和表语 1. 过去分词作定语 1)语法功能 过去分词或过去分词短语作定语时，其功能相当于一个定语从句。被修饰的词是分词所表示的行为的
承受者；在逻辑上，它们是动宾关系。 The stolen bike belongs to Jack. The bike which was stolen belongs to Jack. The lecture given by Professor Zhang is about environment protection. The lecture which was given by Professor Zhang is about the environment protection. a.单个的过去分词作定语时，位于它所修饰的名词或代词前面 the affected people 受感染的人 a broken heart 一颗破碎的心 a lost dog 丧家之犬 a broken glass 被打破的玻璃杯 Attention： 过去分词修饰 something, everything, anything, nothing, somebody, nobody， those 等不定代词 时，要放在这些词后面。 Is there anything unsolved? There is noting changed here since I left this town. b. 过去分词短语作定语：通常后置，其作用相当于定语从句。 people exposed to cholera= people who was exposed to cholera the book recommended by Jack= the book which was recommended by Jack the machines produced last year= the machines which were produced last year c. 不及物动词的过去分词作定语时不表被动，只表完成。 a risen sun 已升起的太阳 the gone days 逝去的时光 fallen leaves 落叶 2）现在分词与过去分词作定语的区别： 现在分词作定语，表示正在进行的动作；过去分词作定语，所表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之 前发生，(或者没有一定的时间性)。 The letter posted yesterday will soon reach him. Have you read the book recommended by your teacher?这是你老师推荐的书吗？ 对比：①the changing world（正在变化的）the changed world（变化了的）②boiling water（正在沸腾的） boiled water（已经沸腾过的）③fading flowers(正在凋谢的) faded flowers（已经凋谢的）④a developing country(发展中的) a developed country（发达的）⑤a drowning man 快要淹死的人 a drowned man 已经 淹死的人 ⑥falling leaves 正在飘落的树叶 fallen leaves 落叶 ⑦a retired worker 退休工人 an escaped prisoner 逃犯 3）及物动词的过去分词(done)与现在分词的被动式 (being done)都可以表示“被动”，但前者多表示一个完成了的动作，而后者则表示一个正在进行的动作. 如：the problem discussed yesterday the problem being discussed 2. 过去分词做表语 1) 过去分词 （短语） 作表语时， 其作用相当于 adj.,说明的是主语的状态。 ①All the windows are broken. 如： ②All hope is gone. ③He looked worried after reading the letter. 常见作表语的过去分词有： disappointed, drunk, amused, frightened, married, excited, experienced, interested, confused, pleased, puzzled, satisfied, tired, worried,gone, dressed, lost 等。 注意: 过去分词作表语时和动词的被动语态结构相似，但两者表达的意思明显不同，前者说明主语的 特点及所处的状态，而后者强调被动的动作。如：①My glasses are broken.我的眼镜碎了。(状态) ② My glasses were broken by my son.我的眼镜被我儿子摔碎了。 （动作） 3. 巩固练习： 1). The disc, digitally ______ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded 2). Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, ____ as 3M. A. knowing B. known C. being known D. to be known 3). Most of the artists _____ to the party were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited 4). As soon as she entered the room, the girl caught sight of the flowers ____ by her mother. A. buying B. being bought C. were bought D. bought 5). Don’t use words, expressions or phrases _____ only to people with specific knowledge.
A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known 6). The computer center, _____ last year, is very popular among the students in this school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened 7). Cleaning women in big cities get _____ by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 8). As we joined the big crowd I got _____ from my friends. A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed 9). The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain ___ as the plane was making a landing. A. seat B. seating C. seated D. to be seating 10). Sarah, hurry up. I’m afraid you can’t have time to _____ before the party. A. get changed B. get change C. get changing D. get to change 11). Prices of daily goods ____ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 12). With a lot of different problems ____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 13). The rooms are ____, so you can’t move in. A. painted B. painting C. being painted D. to be painted 14). As soon as he entered the city, he ____. A. was losing B. got losing C. grew lost D. got lost 15). What he has done is really ____.Now his parents are _____ him. A. disappointing; disappointed at B. disappointed; disappointed about C. disappointing; disappointed with D. disappointed; disappointing by 16). I don’t know the girl ______ in the snow storm. A. to catch B. caught C. catching D. to be catching 17). The girl _______ down by a car was dying. A. knock B. knocking C. knocked D. to knock 18). The foreign guests， ________ by an interpreter, came out of the hall. A. following B. to follow C. followed D. to be followed 19). There was an _________ look on his face when the actress appeared. A. excited B. excite C. exciting D. excitement “激动的表情”用“ excited look ”表示。对一些短语中用作定语的过去分词要弄清其含义，要分别 加以记忆，如： worried look （忧虑的表情） a puzzled girl （迷惑的女孩） ， 20). The children __________ at the hospital yesterday were seriously ill. A. to examine B. examined C. examine D. examining Keys: ABADD DCACA BCCDC BCCAB 二、过去分词做宾补 英语中，过去分词可以用作宾语补足语。能用作宾语补足语的过去分词一般都是及物动词，表示被 动意义或完成意义，有时候两者兼而有之。作宾语补足语的过去分词与宾语有逻辑上的动宾关系，即 宾语是过去分词动作的对象。 如： She found the door broken in when she came back.? ? 她回来时发现有 人破门而入。(此句中过去分词作宾语补足语，与宾语 door 之间具有被动关系，表示一种状态。)? 为了使同学们对过去分词作宾语补足语的用法有一个系统而又具体的认识，本文对以下几种用法进 行分析并加以概括，以利于大家掌握。 解释 例子 过去分词用在表示 ①They kept the door locked for a long time.?他们把门锁了好长一段时间。 状态的动词 keep， ②Don’t leave the windows broken like this all the time.?不要让窗户一直像这样 leave 等的后面。 破着。 “have+宾语+过去分 ①表示“让某人做某事”。如:? I have had my bike repaired.? 我让人修了修我的自 词”可以表示两种含 行车。The villagers had many trees planted just then.?就在那时，村民们叫人种了 义。 许多树。?
②表示“遭遇到某种不幸； 受到打击”。 如:? My elder sister had her wallet stolen on a bus last month.?上个月，我姐姐的钱包在汽车上被偷了。The old man had his wrist broken in the accident. 这位老人在事故中腕部摔坏了。 在 “make+ 宾 语 + 过 ①I raised my voice to make myself heard. 我提高了嗓门以便被人家听到。? 去 分 词 ” 这 种 结 构 ②They managed to make themselves understood using very simple English. 中， 过去分词的动词 他们用了很浅易的英语来设法使自己被理解。 必须表示结果。 过去分词常用在感 ①When we got to school， saw the door locked.?当我们到学校时， we 我们看见门 官 动 词 watch ， 锁着。? notice，see，hear， ②We can hear the windows beaten by the heavy rain drops.?我们可以听到大雨点 listen to，feel，find 敲打窗户的声音。 等的后面。 过 去 分 词 用 在 ①The teacher wouldn’t like the problem discussed at the moment.?老师不想此刻 want，wish，like， 讨论这个问题。? expect， order 等表示 ②I want the suit made to his own measure. 我想要这套衣服照他自己的尺寸做。 ? “希望，愿望，命令” ③My parents expected me to be well-prepared for the entrance examination. 我父母 这一类动词的后面 希望我好好准备入学考试。 作宾语补足语。 过 去 分 词 用 在 ①The thief was brought in with his hands tied behind his back.?小偷被带进来了， “with+ 宾 语 + 宾 补 ” 双手被反绑在后面。? 这一结构中， 过去分 ②With many brightly-colored flowers planted around the building，his house looks 词与宾语之间是动 like a beautiful garden.? 宾关系。 周围种了许多色彩鲜艳的花，他的房子看上去就像一座漂亮的花园 巩固练习: 1). ___ poor at English, I'm afraid I can’t make myself ___. A. To be; understand B. I’m; to understand C. Being; understanding D. Being; understood 2). I have had my bike ___, and I’m going to have somebody ___ my radio tomorrow. A. repair; to repair B. repairing; to be repaired C. repaired; repair D. to repair; repairing 3). You must get the work ___ before Friday. A. do B. to do C. doing D. done 4). ___ the room, the nurse found the tape-recorder ___. A. Entering; stealing B. Entering; gone C. To have entered; being stolen D. Having entered; to be stolen 5). We are pleased to see the problem ___ so quickly. A. settled B. having been settled C. be settled D. settling 6). Mrs. Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had had ____ went wrong again. A. it B. it repaired C. repaired D. to be repaired 7). It is wise to have some money ___ for old age. (put away 放好, 储存...备用, 处理掉, 放弃, 抛弃) A. put away B. keep up C. give away D. laid up 8). I don’t want the children ___ out in such weather. A. take B. to take C. taken D. taking 9). The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied (表动作完成） 10). We found her greatly ___. A. improving B. changed C. to help D. having disturbed 11). Jane got her bad tooth ___ at the dentist's. A. to put in B. pulled out C. pushed out D. drawing out 12). When ____ ,the museum will be open to the public next year. A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed 13). ____ her friend was badly hurt, she burst into tears.
A. Hearing B. Having heard C. To hear D. Heard 14).The research is so designed that once ___ nothing can be done to change it. A. begins B. having begun C.beginning D. begun 15). ___ , they went home,___. A. Their work had been finished; singing and laughing B. They had finished their work; sang and laughed C. Their work to be finished; singing and laughing D. After their work finished; singing and laughing 16). Every great culture in the past had its own ideas of beauty ___ in art and literature. A. expressed B. to express C. being expressed D. to be expressed 17). ____ more attention, the trees could have grown better. A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given 18). ___ from space, the earth with water ___70％ of its surface looks like a "blue blanket". A. Seen ; covered B. Being seen; covers C. Seeing; covering D. Seen; covering 19). ____, the experiment will be successful. A. If carefully doing B. If it done carefully C. If carefully done D. If doing carefully 20). With a lot of difficulties ___ , they went to the seashore and had a good rest. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled Keys: DCDBA CACDB BAADD AADCA Section Three 拓展练习 一、完形填空 I used to be ashamed of my grandma. I know that's a 36 thing to say, but it was true until today, so I have to 37 it. The 38 started when my friend Katy found Grandma's false teeth floating in a glass on the bathroom sink. I was so used to seeing them that I 39 took notice of them. But Katy shouted, laughing and 40 to talk to them. I had to get down on my knees and 41 her to shut up so my grandma wouldn't 42 and get hurt. After that happened, I 43 there were a million things about Grandma that were embarrassing（令 人窘迫）. Once she took Jill and me out to Burger King. 44 ordering our hamburgers well-done, she told the person behind the counter, "They'll have two Whoppers (巨无霸) well-to-do. " Jill burst out laughing, but I almost 45 . After a while, I started wishing I could 46 Grandma in a closet. I even complained to my parents. Both my parents said I had to be careful not to make Grandma feel 47 in our home. Then last Wednesday, something happened that 48 everything completely. My teacher told us to help find interesting old people and 49 them about their 50 for a big Oral History project. I was trying to think of someone when Angie pushed me gently. "Volunteer your grandmother," she whispered. "She's 51 and rich in experience." That was the last thing I ever thought Angie would say about my grandma. This is how I ended up on 52 today interviewing my own grandmother before the whole school assembly (集合). All my friends and teachers were listening to her 53 she was a great heroine. I was 54 of my grandma and hoped she would 55 know that I had been ashamed of her. 36. A. funny B. common C. terrible D. clear 37. A. admit B. receive C. refuse D. show 38. A. quarrel B. accident C. trouble D. adventure 39. A. already B. always C. simply D. hardly 40. A. enjoying B. pretending C. imagining D. continuing 41. A. warn B. demand C. advise D. beg 42. A. mind B. hear C. see D. fall 43. A. expected B. declared C. realized D. doubted 44. A. Because of B. Except for C. Such as D. Instead of
45. A. died B. cheered C. disappeared D. suffered 46. A. meet B. avoid C. arrange D. hide 47. A. independent B. inconvenient C. unwelcome D. unfamiliar 48. A. changed B. finished C. stopped D. Prepared 49. A. interview B. report C. tell D. write 50. A. news B. lives C. advantages D. achievements 51. A. free B. popular C. interesting D. embarrassing 52. A. show B. stage C. duty D. time 53. A. and then B. even if C. so that D. as if 54. A. sure B. proud C. ashamed D. afraid 55. A. never B. even C. still D. once Keys：36【答案】C【解析】根据第一句I used to be ashamed of my grandma 以及后文可知，作者过去 对奶奶错误的看法或态度是一件羞于启齿的事情。funny滑稽可笑的 ；common常见的；clear清晰的。 37【答案】A【解析】虽然这种事情说出来不好，但却是一个事实，作者不得不承认。38【答案】C 【解析】后文所列举的例子，是作者认为由奶奶引起的麻烦事。另外后文没有出现作者与Katy争吵， 故排除A；accident事故；adventure冒险。39【答案】D 【解析】根据句意可知此处应为否定的语气。 40【答案】B【解析】根据动词的用法可排除A、C；再根据后文作者担心奶奶会听见受到伤害可以推 断出Katy只是假装要宣扬这件事。41【答案】D【解析】此处作者应为恳求的语气。42【答案】B【解 析】根据上下文及词意可知。43【答案】C【解析】联系上下文可知，作者意识到奶奶会引起很多不 愉快的事情。expect盼望；期望；declare 宣告；宣称；doubt怀疑。44【答案】D【解析】根据常识可 知，买汉堡包应该买已经做好的，而奶奶却让他们做一个“巨无霸”汉堡包。45【答案】A【解析】根 据前文but 可知， 作者的态度应与弟弟的态度相反， 再结合作者对奶奶的态度可排除B项， disappear 消 失，不符语意， suffer受苦，遭受；此处用die表示作者十分生气失望的心情。46【答案】D【解析】 作者希望把奶奶藏起来，不让奶奶出来引起麻烦。47【答案】C【解析】inconvenient 不便利的，不方 便的，主语不能为人，故排除；结合语意可知父母不希望让奶奶感到在家里不受欢迎。48【答案】A 【解析】此处为本文的转折点，根据下文可知，作者对奶奶的看法发生了根本性的改变。finish结束； stop停止； prepare准备。49【答案】A 【解析】根据52个空后面的interview 可知答案。50【答案】B 【解析】根据下文51个空后面的rich in experience 可知此处lives 为生活、经历。51【答案】C【解析】 根据49个空前面My teacher told us to help find interesting old people… 的可知此处应选C。52【答案】B 【解析】 作者在全体师生面前采访奶奶， 让她讲述自己的经历应在舞台上。 show在展览， duty 在 on on 上班，on time按时。53【答案】D【解析】as if好象。54【答案】B【解析】联系上文可知，作者对奶 奶的看法已经转变。be proud of 对……感到自豪, be sure of 确信，be afraid of 害怕……。55【答案】 A【解析】作者希望奶奶永远不会知道自己原来对她的看法，不让她因此受到伤害。 二、阅读理解 In the early part of the twentieth century, racism was widespread in the United States. Many African Americans were not given equal opportunities in education or employment. Marian Anderson (1897-1993) was an African American woman who gained fame as a concert singer in this climate of racism. She was born in Philadelphia and sang in church choirs during her childhood. When she applied for admission to a local music school in 1917, she was turned down because she was black. Unable to attend music school, she began her career as a singer for church gatherings. In 1929, she went to Europe to study voice and spent several years performing there. Her voice was widely praised throughout Europe. Then she returned to the US in 1935 and became a top concert singer after performing at Town Hall in New York City. Racism again affected Anderson in 1939. When it was arranged for her to sing at Constitution Hall in Washington, DC, the Daughters of the American Revolution opposed it because of her color. She sang instead at the Lincoln Memorial for over 75 000 people. In 1955, Anderson became the first black soloist to sing win the Metropolitan Opera of New York City. The famous conductor Toscanini praised her voice as “heard only once in a hundred years”. She was a US delegate to the United Nations in 1958 and won the UN peace prize in 1977. Anderson eventually triumphed over racism. 1. According to this passage, what did Marian Anderson do between 1917 and 1929? A. She studied at a music school. B. She sang for religious activities.
C. She sang at Town Hall in New York. D. She studied voice in Europe. 2. Toscanini thought that Marian Anderson . A. had a very rare voice B. sang occasionally in public C. sang only once in many years D. was seldom heard by people 3. Anderson’s beautiful voice was first recognized . A. at the Lincoln Memorial B. in Washington, DC. C. in Europe D. at the United Nations 4. This passage shows that Anderson finally defeated racism in the US by . A. protesting to the government B. appealing to the United Nations C. demonstrating in the streets D. working hard to perfect her art 答案解析：1-4：BACD 文章难度：中等。本文介绍了美国黑人歌唱家玛丽安·安德生如何凭着自身实 力和勤奋战胜了种族歧视，获得了事业上的成功。 1、B 根据第一段 “Unable to attend music School, she began her career as a singer for church gatherings.”可知在 1917 年到 1929 年之间 Anderson 为宗教活动唱歌。 A 由原文 2、 “heard only once in a hundred years” 可知。 C 由原文 3、 “she went to Europe to study voice and spent several years performing there. Her voice was widely praised throughout Europe”可知。4、D 由文章主旨可知，Anderson 凭着 认真工作以使得她的艺术完美，借此击败种族歧视。 重难点单词和词组：①racism 种族主义，种族歧视 ②Philadelphia 费诚 ③choir 唱诗班圣乐团 ④ admission 进入权，入场券 ⑤soloist 独唱者 ⑥delegate 代表 ⑦triumph 胜利，巨大成功 ⑧apply for 申 请 ⑨turn down 拒绝 三、短文改错:（共 10 处） I ever worked as a tour guide. One day I saw advertisement in the newspaper. I rang up the company, but I was given the job immediate. They asked me to take a tour around the city next morning. The manager just told me to say anything that I could think about the city. My first tour is terrible. The old bus was not air-conditioned, because it was the middle of summer. It was uncomfortable inside the bus. The tourist soon became very hot and angry. I owned a very hard time. I stayed there for a few weeks, and then left and joined in a better company. Keys: 1. saw 后加 an 2. but---and 3. immediate→immediately 4. next morning----the next morning 5. think 后加 of 6. is→was 7. because→and 8. tourist→tourists 9. owned→had 10. 去掉 in 四、书面表达 当前，“酒后驾车”（drinking and driving）成了人们热议的话题。请你根据以下提示对“酒后驾 车”谈谈个人看法：1．“酒后驾车”的危害。如：引发交通事故，造成交通阻塞，构成生命危险， 造成财产损失等。2．你的建议。 注意：1．词数 120 词左右； 2．开头已为你写好，不计入总词数。 One Possible Version: Nowadays, drinking and driving is becoming a heated topic among people in China. Here, I’d like to air my views about it. As is known to us all, drinking and driving is a sort of terrible behavior that will threaten the safety of people, including the driver himself. Many of the traffic accidents caused by drinking and driving have brought about traffic jams, injuries and even death. Besides, a great deal of money has to be spent treating the injured and repairing the broken cars, which means a waste of money. I strongly suggest effective measures be taken before things get worse. Laws and regulations should be strengthened to punish those performing drinking and driving. Meanwhile, the public, especially drivers, should be more aware of public safety. I hope by doing so, drinking and driving can be things of past.
copyright ©right 2010-2020。