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英语一就表达


英语

一 …就 …
的 表达

as soon as:
? as

soon as 是最常见的表达方式,前一个as是 副词,后一个as是连词,引导时间状语从句。 注意: (1) as soon as所指的动作发生在另一分句所 指的动作之前。 如:He made a phone call to me

as soon as he came back.他一回来就给我打了个电 话(回家在前,打电话在之后)。

? (2)

as soon as引导的从句可以放在主句之前,也可放在 主句之后。 如:As soon as he came back, he paid a visit to me. = He paid a visit to me as soon as he came back.他 一回来就来看我。 (3) as soon as 引导的从句动词用一般现在时、一般过去 时或完成时,不能用进行时;主句的动词用现在时、过去 时或将来时。 例如:We will go outing as soon as he returns. 他一回 来,我们就去郊游。 He started as soon as he received the news. 他一得 到消息就出发了。 As soon as I had got on the bus, my grandma said “goodbye” to me. 我一上车,外婆就向我说再见。

when,whenever和just when:
? 在一般人眼里,when这个词就是“…时候”,

“在…时候”的意思,其实不然,它也有“每 当…之时;一…就…”之意,作连词,常与 just连用。When单独使用时,以及用 whenever,对主从句谓语动作之间的时间差 较宽泛,可长可短;而与just连用时两者时间 间隔就要较之更短暂紧迫。比如:

? (1)

He looked aside when I spoke to him. 我对他说的时候,他向旁边看。(一对他说话, 他就向旁边看) ? (2) He had just drifted off to sleep when the phone rang.他刚睡着电话铃就响了。 ? (3) I had just finished the magazine when supper was served. 一读完杂志,饭就端上 来。 ? (4) I’ll visit him whenever I get the chance. 一有机会我就会去看望他。 Whenever I think about this, I smile.每当 我想起这些,我都会笑。

? 注意:

如果把just放到句首,其句型结构、用法就和 hardly/scarcely/barely… when一样,just引导的句 子要部分(had)倒装,后面的句子用正常语序,一 般为过去时态。比如: ? Just had Dick left home when it began to rain. 狄 克一离开家,天就开始下雨了。 Just had he gone to bed when the telephone rang. 他一上床睡觉,电话铃就响了。

once:
? once作副词讲是“一次”,“曾经”等意思,

但作连词讲就作“一旦”,“一…就…”讲, 相当于“as soon as, from the moment that”。例如: (1) The water is fine once you’re in! 你一下 水,就会觉得水里挺舒服! (2) Once Mr. Wang arrives we can start. 王先生一到我们就可以动身。

?

注意: (1) once引导时间状语从句,常常隐含条件(,隐 含“一旦”义,表达某个时段的将来的“一… 就…”)。请看2001春季高考第14题: --Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her? --Yes. I gave it to her ______I saw her. A. while B. the moment C. suddenly D. once 答案:B

? 分析:不少学生误选D,但“once”隐含条件,

意为“一旦……就……”,将该句理解成“我 一旦见到他就把钱给了他”显然不符合上下文 的语境,故排除D。“the moment”看似名 词词组,但实际上用作连词,引导时间状语从 句,故应选B。

? (2)

once后面的从句中常可采用省略结构。 Once seeing it (=Once you see it ),you can never forget it. Once seen ( = Once it is seen ),it can never be forgotten. 一(旦)见到了就永远不会忘记。

at+名词或动名词:
? at+名词或动名词结构在表达“一…就…”含

义时,其介词词组表示的动作在先,主句谓语 表示的动作在后。一先一后之间的时间间隔并 非如其它的表达方式那么紧密。往往无需将 “一…就…”译出,只是隐含而已。如: They rejoiced at the news of her safe return.他们为她的安全返回而欣喜。

? (1)

at后的名词或动名词,一般是sight, thought, sound, hearing, idea或者see, hear, think of ,smell, touch 等情感、感观 动词, 组成结构为:at the sight/smell/touch/hearing/sound /(bare) thought /idea of,或者at seeing/hearing/thinking of 等,翻译为:一 看到/闻到/触及到/听到/想到…就…。句中的 谓语动词用一般过去时。

? 如:

At hearing the news, he rushed out. 一听到 这个消息,他就冲出去了。 At the hearing of the news, he became happy.听到这个消息他很高兴。 At the sight of the police officers they ran off.一看见那些警官,他们便逃跑了。 He was filled astonishment at seeing the dead body.他看见尸体时惊恐万状。

? On

the other hand, my stomach will turn at the thought of frying food in animal fat. 另一方面,我一想到动物油炸食品就会反胃。 I was shuddered at thinking of it.我一想到 它就发抖。 I was so miserable at the idea of you in trouble.一想到你有麻烦,我就很痛苦。 At the bare thought of her lost baby, she would burst into tears.一想到丢失的孩子, 她就会泪流满面。

? He

was frightened at the sound of gun.他 听到枪声吓坏了。 She wrinkled her nose in disgust at the smell of urine.她闻到了一股尿骚味,恶心地 皱起了鼻子。 “At the touch of love, everyone becomes a poet.” By Plato. 柏拉图说过,“一经爱的 触摸,人人皆为诗人。”

?

(2) 还可以用at the (mere)/(very) mention of 当 说到…;一提到…就…,at the first opportunity (chance) 一有机会就…等,例如: I feel sick at the mere mention of blood. 一提 到血,我就恶心。 I’d like to pay a visit to her at the first opportunity.我一有机会就去看望她。 We decided to run at the first chance because we knew it would be a death march in weather like this.我们决定一有机会就逃,因为 我们知道在这种天气里,走下去是非死不可的。

?

(3) 以及还可以用at the news of/about/that…, 一听到…(的消息)就…: They rejoiced at the news of her safe return.他 们为(/一听到)她平安返回的消息而(/就)感到 欣喜。 People became wild with joy at the news that the 2008 Olympic Games would be held in Beijing.(一)听到2008年在北京举办奥运会的消 息时,人们(就)欣喜若狂。 I was surprised at the new about his death. (一听到)他去世的消息令我震惊。

?

(4) at+名词或动名词多位于句首,而直接加名词 结构常置于后。比如: At seeing her mother,the girl burst into tears. 一见到母亲,那女孩就放声大哭起来。 He was in tears at the news that his grandpa died yesterday. 他一听到他爷爷昨天过逝的消息 就哭了。 They threatened to call the police. At hearing this, the police pointed out ironically that this would hardly be necessary as the men were already under arrest. 他们威胁说要去叫警察。警 察一听到就讥讽地说,这大可不必,因为他俩已被 逮捕了。

on/upon+名词或动名词:
? on/upon为介词,后接名词或动名词作宾语,

表示它所表达的动作刚一发生或完成,句子谓 语所表示的动作就接着发生,所接动词基本是 短暂动作,如:arrive, reach, hear, see, receive, enter, get, step, leave等。它相当 于as soon as 引导的时间状语从句,意为 immediately after, at the time of。例如:

? On

his arrival at the school, he was warmly welcome by all the teachers and students. 他一到达学校就受到全体师生的热 烈欢迎。 On arriving home I found they had gone. 我一到家就发现他们已经离开了。 There was a letter waiting for him on his return.他一回来就有一封信在等着他看。 On seeing this, she burst into tears. 一看到 这种情景,她就哭了。

directly/immediately/instantly (mainly British English as conjunction):
?

(1) directly作副词讲意思是:1、直接地,笔直地2、 正好,恰好;截然。例如: She drove directly to school.她开车直接去学校。 His political views are directly opposed to mine.他的政治观点与我的截然相反。 directly也可作连词用(British English,old fashioned),常用于非正式文体或口语中,相当 于as soon as。比如: I went home directly I had finished work. 我一 干完活就回家了。 He came directly I called.我打了电话他就来了。

? (2)

immediately作副词用是:立刻/即;紧接, 接近等意思。但作连词讲是一…就…,相当于 as soon as,(主要用于英式英语中)。比如: Return immediately you are done.事情一 做完就回来。 Immediately she’d gone, I remembered her name. 她刚走开我就想起了她的名字。 They phoned immediately they reached home.他们一到家就打电话。 He did all sorts of mischief immediately my back was turned.我一转身,他就作出各种恶 作剧。

? (3)

instantly作副词讲意为:立即,马上。例如: The police came to my help instantly.警方立刻来 帮助我。 作连词时(英国英语较常见),和immediately的意 思和用法一样,如: I came instantly I saw the need.一发觉有必要走 一趟我就来了。 I telegraphed instantly I arrived there.一到那里我 就发电报。 I recognized her instantly I saw her. 我一看见她就 把她认出来了。

immediately/instantly/directly +after:
? 在第6个用法点中,我们看到,directly/

immediately/instantly这三个词的用法基本相 似,但是如果在他们后面加上after,不仅可以 接从句,还可以接名词、代词,相当于“as soon as”,意为“一……就……”,习惯上 将其放在句子尾部,主句的谓语动词通常用过 去时。例如:

?I

came immediately after breakfast. 我一吃完早饭 就来了。 I made contact with him immediately after I received the letter. 我一接到信就和他联系了。 The machine will start instantly after you press the button.你一按电钮机器就会开动。 They had a meeting to sum up our experience immediately after finishing the work.工作一结束, 他们立即开会总结经验。 You must go to bed directly after tea.你喝完茶必须 立刻就上床。 Directly after he heard the news, he went to sea them.一听到这消息他便去找他们。

Hardly…when/before…, scarcely…when/before…, barely…when/before… 和 no sooner…than…:
? 这四个短语,结构和用法类似,只是前三者常

和when匹配,而no sooner和than搭配; 意义 相同,等于as soon as; hardly/scarcely/barely和no sooner作状语 修饰主句谓语,放在引导从句的连词when或 than之前。例如:

? The

race had hardly/scarcely/barely begun when/before it started raining. 比赛 刚一开始就下起雨来了。 The race had no sooner begun than it started raining.比赛刚一开始就下起雨来了。 注意: hardly/scarcely/barely和no sooner否定词 位于句首时,句中的主语和谓语必须部分倒装, 而“when/than”从句部分语序不倒装;倒装 语句含义不变,但英语语句强调前置部分,故 其语气较不倒装强烈。

? hardly/scarcely/barely和no

sooner引导的 是主句,表示它的动作发生在从句之前,故常 用过去完成时, 而when和than引导的从句只 能与一般过去时连用。例如: Hardly/Scarcely/Barely had the race begun when it started raining. No sooner had the race begun than it started raining. Hardly had we started our journey when the car got a flat tire.

? 另外,前三者除了和when搭配外,还可以与

before配用。比如: Hardly/scarcely/barely had we sat down at the table when the phone rang.= Hardly/scarcely/barely had we sat down at the table before the phone rang.我刚在 桌子旁坐下电话铃就响了。

?

再者,该句型含“惊奇”之意。如: Mr. Wang had no sooner left the room than the students began to chat about her.王老师 刚离开房间,学生就议论起她来了。 Scarcely/Hardly/Barely had she begun to speak when we sensed that she was in trouble. 她刚一开口,我们就感到他遇到麻烦了。 No sooner had we set out than a thunderstorm broke.我们一动身就遇上了大雷雨。 They had hardly started their journey when the car got a flat tire. 他们刚出发,车胎就漏气 了。

as/so soon as,no sooner…than,和 hardly/scarcely… when/ before
? 这三个惯用短语都表示“一…就…,刚…就…”,

但在用法上各有不同,应避免混淆而用错。

? 连词as

soon as: As soon as的意思相当于“B as soon as A;A 事情发生以后,就做B这件事;亦即B事件近乎 与A事件同时发生,而实际上B事件的发生稍晚 于A事件的发生”。As soon as 是最常见的表 达方式,前一个as是副词(可用so替换,old fashioned and literary),后一个as是连词。 它的特点是,在句子中的位置比较灵活,而且 可以用于各种时态。主句和从句多数场合都可 用一般过去时。当主句用一般将来时,从句则 须用现在时表示将来时。从句放在主句前后都 行,从句中不可用进行时。

? 例如:

He got married as soon as he left university.他一离开大学就结婚了。 I’ll tell him the information as soon as I see him.我一见到他,就把这消息告诉他。但强调从 句动作和主句动作先后对比时。从句中也可用 过去完成时。例如:

?

As soon as the savages had gone, Crusoe returned home for two guns.野人一走,克鲁索就回家拿了两支枪。 注意: ⑴as soon as引导的从句所指的动作发生在主句所指的动 作之前。 如:He made a phone call to me as soon as he came back.他一回来就给我打了个电话(回家在前,打 电话在之后)。 ⑵as soon as引导的从句可以放在主句之前,也可放在主 句之后。 如:As soon as he came back, he paid a visit to me. = He paid a visit to me as soon as he came back.他一 回来就来看我。

? ⑶as

soon as 可用于一般现在时、一般过去时 或完成时,主句的动词用现在时、过去时或将 来时。 例如:We will go outing as soon as he returns. 他一回来,我们就去郊游。 He started as soon as he received the news. 他一得到消息就出发了。 As soon as I had got on the bus, my grandma said “goodbye” to me我一上车, 外婆就向我说再见。

? 连词no

sooner… than: 它的意思相当于“no sooner A than B;刚做 完A这件事,就做B这件事”。例如: He had no sooner returned than he bought a house. 他一回来就买了一套房子。 有一点要注意,no sooner…than 一般用来描 述做过的事情,它不能用于表示将来的事。主 句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。

? no

sooner位于句首时,前面一个分句要用倒装 语序, 即No sooner +助动词had +主语+过去 分词……。例如: I had no sooner (or: No sooner had I) reached home than it began to rain.我刚 到家,天就下雨了。 请比较下列两组同义句: She opened the door as soon as she heard the knock. She had no sooner heard the knock than she opened the door. 她一听到敲门,就把门开了。

?

连词hardly/scarcely… when (before): 它的意思是“hardly/scarcely A when B;几乎未 来得及做完A这件事,紧接着就开始B这件事。” 使用这个短语时,一般用于过去完成时;并且 when有时可改用before。例如: He had hardly finished the article when the light went out. 他刚写完文,灯就熄了。 He had hardly had time to settle down when he sold the house. 他还未安顿下来,就卖掉了那所房子。 另外,如果把hardly放于句首,主句要用倒装结构 即谓语动词要提前。如: Hardly had I finished eating when he came in. 我刚吃完他就进来了。

? Hardly

had she gone out when a student came to visit her. 她还没走出家门,就有一个学生来看望她。 主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。hardly (scarcely) 置于句首时,主句应用倒装语序,即: Hardly (Scarcely) +助动词had+主语+过去分 词……例如: I had hardly/scarcely closed my eyes when the telephone rang.我刚闭上眼, 电话 铃就响了。 Hardly had we gathered in the wheat when it began to rain.我们刚把小麦收完,雨 就下起来了。

? 连词hardly/scarcely…

when (before): 它的意思是“hardly/scarcely A when B; 几乎未来得及做完A这件事,紧接着就开始B 这件事。” 使用这个短语时,一般用于过去完成时;并 且when有时可改用before。例如: He had hardly finished the article when the light went out. 他刚写完文,灯就熄了。 He had hardly had time to settle down when he sold the house. 他还未安顿下来,就卖掉了那所房子。

? 另外,如果把hardly放于句首,主句要用倒装

结构即谓语动词要提前。如: Hardly had I finished eating when he came in. 我刚吃完他就进来了。 Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.

?

她还没走出家门,就有一个学生来看望她。 主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。hardly (scarcely) 置于句首时,主句应用倒装语序,即: Hardly (Scarcely) +助动词had+主语+过去分 词……例如: I had hardly/scarcely closed my eyes when the telephone rang.我刚闭上眼, 电话铃就响 了。 Hardly had we gathered in the wheat when it began to rain.我们刚把小麦收完,雨就下起来 了。 注意: 现在有些英、美人受as soon as的影响,在no sooner…than和hardly (scarcely)…when(before) 中也不愿用两种时态, 而一律改为过去时了。例如:He was no sooner left alone than he began to feel angry.一把他 独自留下,他就生起气来。
?

?

the moment, the minute, the instant, the second: 在这些结构中,the moment, the minute, the instant, the second看似名词词组,但实际上用作 连词,引导时间状语从句,相当于as soon as。例 如: I recognized her the instant I saw her我一看到 她,就认出她来了。 We recognized the star the moment we saw him.我们一看到那个明星就认出他来了。

? The

minute I saw him I knew he was angry. 我一见到他就知道他生气了。 The second they arrived in Hohhot, the soldiers joined the herdsmen(牧民)in the work.士兵们一到呼和浩特就和牧民一起劳动。 另外,这几个词后面可以加that,含义不变, 比如: I want to see him the minute/ instant/second/moment that he arrives. 他 一到我就要见他。

?

soon/right/just + after 这是几个用得很普遍的单词,他们的意思类似just when,一…(马上/即刻)就…,但是短语结构却和 directly/ immediately/instantly + after一样,后 面可以接名词、动名词和句子。例如: John arrived soon after two. 两点刚过约翰便到 了。 The turtles return to the sea soon after they have laid their eggs.海龟一产完卵就返回大海。

?

Just after putting the baby onto bed, his wife suddenly caught sight of the doll panda.刚好 把孩子放到床上,他妻子就看到玩具熊猫了。 The representatives recommend that for 60 to 120 minutes each evening, right after the early evening news, all television broadcasting in the United States be prohibited by law.代表们建议每天晚上一播完晚 间新闻,美国所有的电视节目都依法停播60至120 分钟。


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