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徐老师英语句子结构分析


英语句子成分和英语 句子结构讲解及练习

简单句的五个基本句型 ? 主语 + 不及物动词 She came.. ? 主语 + 及物动词 +宾语 She likes English. ? 主语 + 系动词 +主语补语 ? She is happy. ? 主语 + 动词 +间接宾语 +直接宾语 ? She gave John a book. ? She bought a book for me. ? 主语 + 动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补语 ? She makes her mother angry. ? The teacher asked me to read the passage. ? ( There +be There lies a book on the desk.
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1. 主语(subject):句子说明的人或事物。 The sun rises in the east (名词) He likes dancing. (代词) Twenty years is a short time in history. (数词) Seeing is believing. (动名词) To see is to believe.(不定式) What he needs is a book.(主语从句) It is very clear that the elephant is round and tall like a tree. (It形式主语,主语从句是真正主语)

(一)指出下列句中主语的中心词

① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.

谓语(predicate):是对主语加以陈述,表示主语的行 为或状态,常用动词或者动词词组担任,放在主语的 后面。 We study English. He is asleep. (二). 选出句中谓语的中心词 ① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C. go D. bus ④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon

3. 表语(predicative):系动词之后的成分, 表示主语的性质、状态和特征。 He is a teacher. (名词) You don’t look it. (代词) Five and five is ten. (数词) He is asleep. (形容词) His father is in. (副词) The picture is on the wall. (介词短语) My watch is gone / missing / lost. (形容词化的 分词) The question is whether they will come. (表语 从句)

(常见的系动词有: be, sound(听起来), look (看起来), feel(摸起来,smell(闻起来), taste(尝、吃起来), remain(保持,仍是), feel(感觉)…… It sounds a good idea. The sound sounds strange. Her voice sounds sweet. Tom looks thin. The food smells delicious. The food tastes good. The door remains open. Now I feel tired.

(三) 挑出下列句中的表语 ① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it.

4. 宾语:1)动宾表示行为的对象,常由名词

或者代词担任。放在及物动词或者介词之后。 如: I like China. (名词) He hates you. (代词) How many do you need? We need two. (数 词) I enjoy working with you. (动名词) I hope to see you again. (不定式) Did you write down what he said? (宾语从 句)

2)介词后的名词、代词和动名词-----介 宾 Are you afraid of the snake? Under the snow, there are many rocks. 3)双宾语-----间宾(指人)和直宾 (指物) He gave me a book yesterday. Give the poor man some money

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(四) 挑出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you?
his homework ② English ③ your pronunciation ④ new words ⑤ to go swimming

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5. 宾补:对宾语的补充,全称为宾语补足语。 We elected him monitor. (名词) We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. (名词) We will make them happy. (形容词) We found nobody in. ( 副词 ) Please make yourself at home. (介词短语) Don’t let him do that. (省to不定式) His father advised him to teach the lazy boy a lesson. (带to不定式) Don’t keep the lights burning. (现在分词) I’ll have my bike repaired. (过去分词)

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(五) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语 ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?
① to read newspapers and books in the reading-room ② to take the boy out of school
③ Lily ④ get on the bus ⑤ playing football on the playground

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划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语 ? ① Please tell us a story. ? ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ? ③ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term. ? ④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom. ? ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?
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6. 定语:修饰或限制名词或代词的词、词组或句子。 Yanling is a chemistry teacher.(名词) He is our friend. (代词) We belong to the third world.(数词) He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson.(形 容词) The man over there is my old friend.(副词) The woman with a baby in her arms is my sister. (介 词) The boys playing football are in Class 2. (现在分词) The trees planted last year are growing well now. (过去分词) I have an idea to do it well.(不定式) You should do everything that I do. (定语从句)

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(六) 挑出下列句中的定语 ① They use Mr., Mrs. with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.
① family ② given ③ third ④ some ⑤ downstairs

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7. 状语:用来修饰v., adj., adv., or 句子。表示时间、 地点、原因、目的、结果、程度、条件、方式和让步。 (以下例句按上述顺序排列) I will go there tomorrow. The meeting will be held in the meeting room. The meat went bad because of the hot weather. He studies hard to learn English well. He didn’t study hard so that he failed in the exam. I like some of you very much. If you study hard, you will pass the exam. He goes to school by bike. Though he is young, he can do it well.

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(七) 挑出下列句中的状语 ① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off.
① on the face ② Every night ③ when he was eleven ④ fast ⑤ off


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