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(江苏专用)2014高考英语二轮复习 第二部分 阅读理解专题专练 专题19 词义猜测体验高考


第二部分 专题十九
Passage 1(2013·江西,A)

阅读理解 词义猜测

The light from the campfire brightened the darkness,but it could not prevent the damp cold of Dennis's Swamp(沼泽地) creep

ing into their bones.It was a strange place.Martin and Tom wished that they had not accepted Jack's dare.They liked camping,but not near this swamp. “So,” Martin asked as they sat watching the hot coals.“How did this place get its name?” “Are you sure you want to hear it? It's a scary story,” warned Jack. “Of course!” cried out Tom.“If there were anything to be scared of,you wouldn't have chosen this place!” “OK,but don't say I didn't warn you,” said Jack,and he began this tale. “Way back in time,a man called Dennis tried to start a farm here.He built that cottage over there to live in.In those days,the area looked quite different—it was covered with tall trees and the swamp was a crystal?clear river.After three hard years,Dennis had cleared several fields and planted crops.He was so proud of his success that he refused to listen to advice.” “‘You are clearing too much land,' warned one old man.‘The land is a living thing.It will hit back at you if you abuse it.'” “‘Silly fool,' said Dennis to himself.‘If I clear more land,I can grow more crops.I'll become wealthier.He's just jealous!'” “Dennis continued to chop down trees.Small animals that relied on them for food and shelter were destroyed.He was so eager to expand his farm that he did not notice the river flowing slowly towards his door.He did not notice salt seeping to the surface of the land.He did not notice swamp plants choking all the native plants.” “What happened?” Martin asked.It was growing colder.He trembled,twisting his body closer to the fire. “The land hit back—just as the old man warned ,” Jack shrugged.“Dennis disappeared.Old folks around here believe that swamp plants moved up from the river and dragged him underwater.His body was never found.” “What a stupid story,” laughed Tom.“Plants can't...” Before he had finished

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speaking,he screamed and fainted(晕倒).The other two boys jumped up with fright, staring at Tom.Suddenly,they burst out laughing.Some green swamp ivy(常春藤) had covered Tom's face.It was a while before Tom could appreciate the joke. 1.The underlined word “dare” in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to A.courage C.instruction B.assistance D.challenge .

解析 词义猜测题。通过对上下文的理解可知,他们接受了 Jack 的挑战,而来到这片沼 泽地。 答案 D 2.Why did Jack tell Tom and Martin the story? A.To frighten them. B.To satisfy their curiosity. C.To warn them of the danger of the place. D.To persuade them to camp in the swamp. 解析 细节理解题。 由第二、 四段可知, Martin 和 Tom 对沼泽地名字的由来感到很好奇。 答案 B 3.Why did Dennis ignore the warning of the old man? A.The old man envied him. B.The old man was foolish. C.He was too busy to listen to others. D.He was greedy for more crops. 解析 细节理解题。根据“If I clear more land,I can grow more crops.I'll become wealthier.He's just jealous!”可知,Dennis 认为,开垦更多的土地,就能种植更 多的庄稼,他就会变得更加富有。因此,D 项正确。 答案 D 4.Why did Tom scream and faint? A.He saw Dennis's shadow. B.He was scared by a plant. C.His friends played a joke on him. D.The weather became extremely cold. 解析 细节理解题。 根据最后一段的“Some green swamp ivy(常春藤) had covered Tom's face.”可知 B 项正确。 答案 B 5.What lesson can we learn from the story of Dennis?
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A.Grasp all,lose all. B.No sweat,no sweet. C.It is no use crying over spilt milk. D.He who makes no mistakes makes nothing. 解析 推理判断题。从 Dennis 的故事中,我们得到的教训是:贪多必失。 答案 A Passage 2(2013·山东,D) Sparrow is a fast?food chain with 200 restaurants.Some years ago,the group to which Sparrow belonged was taken over by another company.Although Sparrow showed no sign of declining,the chain was generally in an unhealthy state.With more and more fast?food concepts reaching the market,the Sparrow menu had to struggle for attention.And to make matters worse,its new owner had no plans to give it the funds it required. Sparrow failed to grow for another two years until a new CEO,Carl Pearson, decided to build up its market share.He did a survey,which showed that consumers who already used Sparrow restaurants were extremely positive about the chain,while customers of other fast?food chains were unwilling to turn away from them.Sparrow had to develop a new promotional campaign. Pearson faced a battle over the future of the Sparrow brand.The chain's owner now favored rebranding Sparrow as Marcy's restaurants.Pearson resisted,arguing for an advertising campaign designed to convince customers that visits to Sparrow restaurants were fun.Such an attempt to establish a positive relationship between a company and the general public was unusual for that time.Pearson strongly believed that numbers were the key to success,rather than customers' spending power.Finally, the owner accepted his idea. The campaign itself changed the traditional advertising style of the fast?food industry.The TV ads of Sparrow focused on entertainment and featured original songs performed by a variety of stars.Instead of showing the superiority of a specific product,the intention was to put Sparrow in the hearts of potential customers. Pearson also made other decisions which he believed would contribute to the new Sparrow image.For example,he offered to lower the rent of any restaurants which achieved a certain increase in their turnover.(营业额) These efforts paid off , and Sparrow soon became one of the most successful fast?food chains in the regions where it operated.
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【语篇解读】 本文讲述了一个快餐公司在濒临倒闭的情况下,在 Carl Pearson 的带领 下重新焕发生机的故事。 6.Which was one of the problems Sparrow faced before Pearson became CEO? A.The number of its customers was declining. B.Its customers found the food unhealthy. C.It was in need of financial support. D.Most of its restaurants were closed. 解析 细节理解题。 根据原文 “And to make matters worse, its new owner had no plans to give it the funds it required.”可知,公司急需的是资金,故 C 项正确。 答案 C 7.What does the underlined word “them” in Paragraph 2 refer to? A.Customers of Sparrow restaurants. B.Sparrow restaurants. C.Customers of other fast?food chains. D.Other fast?food chains. 解析 猜测词义题。根据原文“He did a survey, which showed that consumers who

already used Sparrow restaurants were extremely positive about the chain, while customers of other fast?food chains were unwilling to turn away from them... ” 可知,其他连锁店的顾客不愿离开他们的连锁店,此处,turn away from 表示“从?? 处走开”,所以 from 之后应该表示主语的原始位置,故选 D 项。 答案 D 8.For what purpose did Pearson start the advertising campaign? A.To build a good relationship with the public. B.To stress the unusual tradition of Sparrow. C.To learn about customers' spending power. D.To meet the challenge from Marcy's restaurants. 解析 推理判断题 。根据原文 “...Such an attempt to establish a positive

relationship between a company and the general public was unusual for that time....”可以得知“??公司想建立跟大众的友好关系。”故正确答案 A。 答案 A 9.The TV ads of Sparrow .

A.changed people's views on pop stars B.amused the public with original songs C.focused on the superiority of its products
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D.influenced the eating habits of the audience 解析 推理判断题。根据原文第四段,“Instead of showing the superiority of a

specific product”,“The TV ads of Sparrow focused on entertainment and featured original songs performed by a variety of stars.”所以得出正确答案 B;A 和 D 选 项未涉及。 答案 B 10.What was Pearson's achievement as a CEO? A.He managed to pay off Sparrow's debts. B.He made Sparrow much more competitive. C.He helped Sparrow take over a company. D.He improved the welfare of Sparrow employees. 解析 主旨大意题。 根据原文最后一段, “their efforts paid off”意为“他们的 努力得到了回报”, Sparrow 不久成为该地区最成功的快餐店之一。 所以正确答案是 B; C 选项和 D 选项未涉及。 答案 B Passage 3(2012·天津,D) You are given many opportunities in life to choose to be a victim or a creator.When you choose to be a victim , the world is a cold and difficult place.“They” did things to you which caused all of your pain and suffering.“They” are wrong and bad,and life is terrible as long as “they” are around.Or you may blame yourself for all your problems , thus internalizing( 内 化 )your

victimization.The truth is,your life is likely to stay that way as long as you feel a need to blame yourself or others. Those who choose to be creators look at life quite differently.They know there are individuals who might like to control their lives,but they don't let this get in the way.They know they have their weaknesses,yet they don't blame themselves when they fail.Whatever happens,they have choice in the matter.They believe their dance with each sacred(神圣的)moment of life is a gift and that storms are a natural part of life which can bring the rain needed for emotional and spiritual growth. Victims and creators live in the same physical world and deal with many of the same physical realities , yet their experience of life is worlds apart.Victims relish( 沉 溺 )in anger , guilt , and other emotions that cause others—and even themselves—to feel like victims, too.Creators consciously choose love, inspiration, and other qualities which inspire not only themselves,but all around them.Both
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victims and creators always have choice to determine the direction of their lives. In reality,all of us play the victim or the creator at various points in our lives.One person,on losing a job or a special relationship,may feel as if it is the end of the world and sink into terrible suffering for months,years,or even a lifetime.Another with the same experience may choose to first experience the grief, then accept the loss and soon move on to be a powerful creative force in his life. In every moment and every circumstance,you can choose to have a fuller,richer life by setting a clear intention to transform the victim within,and by inviting into your life the powerful creator that you are. 【语篇解读】 本文为议论文,题材为社会文化类。生活不是一帆风顺的,你会无数次 地面对究竟做生活的牺牲品还是创造者的抉择。生活的牺牲者沉溺于愤怒、愧疚之中,而生 活的创造者会选择截然不同的生活态度。 11.What does the word “they” in Paragraph 1 probably refer to? A.People and things around you. B.Opportunities and problems. C.Creators and their choices. D.Victims and their sufferings. 解析 猜测词义题。根据第一段第三句中...did things 及第四句的 are wrong and bad 可知此处 they 意为:周围的人和事。 答案 A 12.According to Paragraph 2,creators .

A.seem willing to experience failures in life B.possess the ability to predict future life C.handle ups and downs of life wisely D.have potential to create something new 解析 推理判断题。本段告诉我们:生活的创造者承认自己的弱点,但当失败的时候他

们不会责备自己;暴风雨是成长历程中的重要部分。由此可知,生活的创造者能够明智 地解决生活中的盛衰沉浮。 答案 C 13.What can we learn from Paragraph 3? A.Creators and victims face quite different things in life. B.Creators and victims are masters of their lives. C.Victims can influence more people than creators. D.Compared with victims,creators are more emotional.
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解析 推理判断题。 第三段告诉我们: 生活的牺牲品和生活的创造者面对同样的境况时, 他们会有截然不同的态度及做法,所以选 B:他们是自己生活的主人。 答案 B 14.The examples mentioned in Paragraph 4 show that .

A.strong attachment to sufferings in life pulls people into victims B.people need family support to deal with challenges in life C.it takes creators quite a long time to get rid of their pains D.one's experiences determine his attitude toward life 解析 推理判断题。通过讲述面对失去工作或一种特殊关系时,一些人的态度和做法,

告诉我们:沉湎于生活中的不幸能使一些人成为牺牲品,所以 A 项正确。 答案 A 15.What is the author's purpose in writing this passage? A.To define victims and creators. B.To evaluate victims against creators. C.To explain the relationship between victims and creators. D.To suggest the transformation from victims to creators. 解析 主旨大意题。全文讲述了生活的创造者和生活的牺牲品对待生活的不同态度及做

法,并告诉我们:生活的自主选择权就在我们手中,做出不同的选择就会过不同的生活。 答案 D Passage 4(2012·江西,C) Big Brothers Big Sisters is based on the simplicity and power of friendship.It is a program which provides friendship and fun by matching vulnerable young people (ages 7-17)with a volunteer adult who can be both a role model and a supportive friend. Volunteer tutors come from all walks of life—married,single,with or without children.Big Brothers and Big Sisters are not replacement parents or social workers.They are tutors:someone to trust,to have fun with,to talk and go to when needed. A Big Sister and Little Sister will generally spend between one and four hours together three or four times each month for at least twelve months.They enjoy simple activities such as a picnic at a park,cooking,playing sport or going to a football match.These activities improve the friendship and help the young person develop positive self?respect,confidence and life direction. Big Brothers Big Sisters organizations exist throughout the world.It is the
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largest and most well?known provider of tutor services internationally and has been operating for 25 years. Emily and Sarah have been matched since March 2008.Emily is a 10?year?old girl who has experienced some difficulties being accepted by her schoolmates at school. “I was pretty sure there was something wrong with me.” Emily's mum came across Big Brothers Big Sisters and thought it would be of benefit to Emily by “providing different feedback(反馈)about herself other than just relying on schoolmates to measure her self?worth.” Sarah wanted to get involved in a volunteer program.“I googled it and found out how to be a part of it.I thought it would be fun for me to get involved in making time to do something because sometimes it's all work and no play.” Big Brothers Big Sisters has been of great benefit and enjoyment to both Emily and Sarah.They love and look forward to their time together and the partnership has certainly helped Emily be more comfortable in being the wonderful,happy and unique girl she is! 【语篇解读】 本文为说明文,属于社会生活类。文章介绍了一项针对青少年心理问题 而开展的志愿者活动。 16.What is the aim of Big Brothers Big Sisters? A.To offer students public services. B.To help students improve their grades. C.To organize sport activities for young people. D.To provide partnership and fun for young people. 解析 事实细节题。根据第一段第二句“It is a program which provides friendship and fun...”可知,该活动的目的是给年轻人提供友谊和乐趣。 答案 D 17.A volunteer is usually expected to work within a year for at least A.24 hours C.48 hours B.36 hours D.72 hours .

解析 事实细节题。 根据第三段第一句“...spend between one and four hours together three or four times each month for at least twelve months.”可知,志愿者一年 内的工作时间至少为:1×3×12=36(小时)。 答案 B 18.According to Emily's mother,this program may provide Emily with A.advice from her teachers
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B.a new way to assess herself C.a new way to judge her schoolmates D.more comments from her schoolmates 解析 事实细节题。 根据第六段内容可知, Emily 的妈妈希望通过这个活动, 可以让 Emily 获得其他不同的自我评价方式,而非仅仅从同学那里获取自我评价的来源。 答案 B 19.Why did Sarah want to get involved in the program? A.She used to be a volunteer. B.She needed a part?time job. C.She felt a bit bored with her life. D.She wanted to get a challenging job. 解析 事实细节题。根据倒数第二段中“‘I googled...because sometimes it's all

work and no play.'”可知,Sarah 厌烦了平时只有工作而无娱乐的生活,想要通过参 加这一活动获得乐趣。 答案 C 20.According to the passage,“vulnerable young people” are probably those who are .

A.popular at school B.rather weak physically C.easily hurt emotionally D.confident in themselves 解析 猜测词义题。根据第五段对 Emily 的介绍可知,她很难被同学们接受,再根据全 文最后一句可知,这一活动有助于 Emily 成为一个美好、快乐、独一无二的女孩。由此 判断 vulnerable young people 在这里指那些情感脆弱的青少年。 答案 C

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