（一）状语从句概述 定义 位置 状语从句用作状语，是起副词作用的句子。 状语从句可以放在主句之前，也可以放在主句之后， 时间、条件、原因和让步状语从句放在句首时需要用 逗号和主句隔开。 分类 根据其作用可以分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、 让步、方式和比较等状语从句。 作用 它可以修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、状语和整个句 子。
（二）状语从句详解 1. 时
间状语从句 引导词 when 用法 意为 “当…的时候” When 。 引导从句的谓语动词可以 是延续性动词，也可以是 瞬间动词。并且 when 有 时表示“就在那时” 示例 A liar is not believed when he speaks the truth.说谎者讲真话 时也没有人相信。
When he arrives,
I’ll call you.
When you laugh and smile, your body relaxes.
意为“在…的时候，在… 的同时” 。While 引导从句 的谓语动词必须是延续性 的，发生时间较长，并强 调主句和从句的动作同时 发生 （或者相对应） While 。 有时还可以表示对比。
While I was standing at the window, I saw several boys running along the street. While John was watching TV, his wife was cooking.
意为“一边…一边…” 。 As 引导的动作是延续性 的，发生时间较短，一般 用于主句和从句动作同时 发生；as 也可以强调一前 一后。
The writer was angry as he was travelling on a train to London because someone had invaded his “space”. He smiled as he stood up.
意为“在…之后” 。表示主 句动作发生在从句动作之 后。主句与从句的动作时 间关系与 before 引导的从 句相反。
With many hungry visitors waiting, don’t stay too long at your table after you have finished. If an early exit is necessary, you can leave after a scene is over.
意为“在…之前” 。引导的 从句不用否定形式的谓 语，并且当 before 引导的 从句位于主句之后，有时 译成“就，才” 。当主句用 将来时，从句总是用现在 时；如果 before 引导的从 句谓语用的是过去时，则 主句动词多用过去完成 时，这样以便体现动作的 先后。
You can’t watch TV before you finish your homework. Before it ended, the theatre was almost empty. My father had left for Canada just before the letter arrived.
意为“直到” 。一般情况下 可以和 until 互换。如果主 句中的谓语动词是瞬时动 词时，必须用否定形式； 如果主句中的谓语动词是
She didn’t even know that it was an earthquake till she saw a shaking ( moving from side to side) light. The fireman worked very hard
延续性动词时，用肯定和 否定形式都可以，但表达 的意思不同。 until 意为“直到” 。在强调句型 中多用 until。如果主句中 的谓语动词是瞬时动词 时，必须用否定形式；如 果主句中的谓语动词是延 续性动词时，用肯定和否 定形式都可以，但表达的 意思不同。 since 意为“自从，从…以来” 。 引导从句的谓语动词可以 是延续性的动词，也可以 是瞬时动词。 一般情况下， 从句谓语动词用一般过去 时，而主句的谓语动词用 现在完成时。但在 It is + 时 间 +since 从 句 的 句 型 中， 主句多用一般现在时。 as soon as 意为“一…就…” 。引导时 间状语从句时，如果主句 用了将来时，从句一般使 用现在时。
till the fire was out.
I’m waiting for my sister. I won’t go to see my uncle until she comes. Wait until I finish what I am doing.
I have been studying hard since I entered the high school. It is four years since my sister lived in Beijing. It is five years months since our boss was not in Beijing.
Tom will call me as soon as he gets home. I will call you as soon as I arrive.
2.地点状语从句 引导词 where 用法 意为“哪里”“where 引导 。 的地点状语从句， （there+） 示例 Where there is a will, there is a way.
主句” “哪里…哪里就…” 。 主句在从句后 面时， there 可用可不用；主句在从句的 前面时，一般都不用 there.
They were good persons. Where they went, there they were warmly welcomed. You should have put the book where you found it.
意 为 “ 无 论 何 地 ”。 anywhere/wherever 引 导 地 点 状 语 从 句 + 主 句 。 anywhere 本身是个副词， 但 是常可以引导从句，相当于 连词， 意思相当于 wherever, anywhere 引导的从句可位 于主句之前，也可以位于主 句之后。 wherever 本身就 而 是个连词，表示“在何处， 无论何处” 。 Wherever the sea is, you will find seaman. I’ll go anywhere you go.
3.条件状语从句 引导词 if 用法 连词， “假如， 意为 如果” 。 当主句是将来时的时候， 从句要用一般现在时。 示例 Don’t talk loudly at the
meeting. If you do, you will have to leave. We’ll go for a picnic if it doesn’t rain this weekend.
连词， 意为 “除非 （ =if not） 。当主句是将来时的 时候，从句要用一般现在 时。
Don’t discuss the problems with your partner unless you are asked to do so. I won’t go there unless you come with me.
4.原因状语从句 引导词 as 用法 意为 “因为” 引导原因状 。 语从句时表示附带。说明 “双方已知的原因” 语气 ， 比 since 弱，较为正式， 位置较为灵活（常放于主 句之前） 。 since 意为 “因为” 引导的原因 。 状语从句一般放于主句之 前表示已知的、显然的理 由（通常被翻译成“既 然”，较为正式，语气比 ） because 弱。 示例 As the weather is cold, I stay at home. As it is raining, you’d better take a taxi. As you are tired, you’d better rest. Since the earth looks like a ball, the sun can shine on only half of it at a time. Since the race is in April, I had to run throughout the winter, and in Boston, winters are cold. Since everybody is here. Let's begin our meeting. because 意为 “因为” 引导的原因 。 状语从句一般放于主句之 后，表述直接原因，语气 较强，最适合 why 引导的 疑问句。Because 引导的 原因状语从句有时可以与 because of 短语互换。 The woman prefers winter because she can skate. I’d like to collect stamps because they are interesting. I’m very tired these days because of studying physics. He can’t come because he is ill. = He can’t come because of his illness. for 意为 “因为” 引导的原因 。 状语从句并不说明主句行 为发生的直接原因，只提 He must be ill, for he is absent today.
供一些辅助性的补充说 明， 引导的原因状语从 for 句只能放于主句之后，并 且必须用逗号将其与主句 隔开。
He could not have seen me, for I was not there.
5.目的状语从句 引导词 so that 用法 意为“以至，以便” 。目 的状语的谓语常含有 may, might, can, could, should, would 等 情 态动 词。 in order that 意为“为了” ，相当于 so that. in order to 后面可以 跟 动 词 原形 构 成目 的状 语，不是目的状语从句。 示例 Try to speak loud enough so that people can hear you clearly. Mr. Green speaks very loudly so that all the people can hear him clearly. We shall let you know the details soon in order that you can/may make a arrangements.
6.结果状语从句 引导词 so…that 用法 意为“如此…以至于…”。 so+ adj./adv.原级+that, so 是 副词， 只能修饰形容词和副 词。 还可与表示数量的形 so 容 词 many, few, much, little(这四个形容词表示多 或少时 )连 用,形成 固 定搭 配。so+ many 或 few+复数 可数名词+that; so+ much 或 示例 This year it has rained so heavily in South China that lots of problems are caused. The ice on the lake was so thin that people couldn’t skate on it. Too often, we spend so much time thinking about the future that we fail to enjoy the
present. There are so few notebooks that I can’t give you any.
意为“如此…以至于…”。 有 三 种 结 构 ：
It’s such a wonderful song that we all like it. Simon is such dishonest
such+a(an)+adj.+ 单 数 不 可 数名词+that; such(+adj.)+不 可数名词+that; such( + adj.) +复数可数名词+that, such 是形容词， 修饰名词或名词 词组。有时可与 so…that 句 型转换。
person that no one believes him. The boy is so young that he can’t go to school.= He is such a young boy that he can’t go to school.
7.让步状语从句 引导词 though 用法 意为“虽然” 。不能和 but 连用。但是可以同 yet(still) 连 用 ， 构 成 示例 So it has lived up to now though it isn't strong at all. Though they are twin
though…yet(still). though 较 普遍，常用于非正式的口语 和 书 面 语 中 。 even 能 和 though 组合表示强调，在这 里 even though=even if(no matter if; though 即 使 … 也…)。 though 可以独立用作 副词，常放在句末，意为 all the same( 还 是 ； 仍 然 ) 或 however(可是；然而)。 although 意为“虽然” 。不能和 but
brothers, they don’t look like each other. Even if/ Even though we could afford it, we would afford it, we wouldn’t go abroad for our vacation.
Although he died several
连用。但是可以同 yet(still) 连 用 ， 构 成
remember the days we spent together and what he has taught me about love. Although we had little food with us, we decided to spend the night in the car.
although…yet(still). although 较为正式，语气比 though 重，常用以强调让步概念。 even 不能和 although 组合。
8. 比较状语从句 引导词 as…as... 用法 意为“和…一样” 。表示同 级的比较。使用时要注意 第一个 as 为副词，第二个 as 为连词。 其基本结构为： as+adj./adv.原级+as。若有 修饰成分，如 twice, three times, half, a quarter 等，则 须置于第一个 as 之前。 not as / so…as 意为 “和…不一样， 不如” 。 也表示同级比较。 She is not so (as ) outgoing as her sister. This dictionary is not as/so useful as you think. 示例 She is very good at painting. She can paint as well as here teacher. I ran out as quickly as possible.
9.方式状语从句 引导词 as/(just)as...so… 用法 意为“犹如，就像” 。引 导的方式状语从句通常 位于主句后，但在 (just)as...so…结构中位于 示例 When in Rome, do as the Romans do. As water is to fish, so air is to man.
句首，这时 as 从句带有 比喻的含义，意为“正 如…，就像” ，多用于正 式文体。 as if/ as though 意为“就像，好像” 。两 者的意义和用法相同， 引 出的状语从句谓语多用 虚拟语气， 表示与事实相 反，有时也用陈述语气， 表示所说情况是事实或 实现的可能性较大。 常译 作“仿佛…似的，好像… 似的” 。 If would never forget here smile, or the way her eyes shone as if we were the same age. It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon.
练习一 一. 单项填空 1. _______ he’s old, he can still carry this heavy bag. A. Though B. Since C. For D. So
2. ---Do you know if he _______ to play basketball with us? ---I think he will come if he ______ free tomorrow. A. comes; is B. comes; will be C. will come; is D. will come; will be
3. In the zoo if a child _____ into the water and can’t swim, the dolphins may come up ______ him. A. will fall; to help helping 4. I don’t remember ________ he worked in that city when he was young. A. what B. which C. where D. who B. falls; to help C. will fall; help D. falls;
5. We will stay at home if my aunt ________ to visit us tomorrow.
A. comes B. come
C. will come D. is coming
6. The police asked the children _______ cross the street ________ the traffic lights turned green. A. not; before B. don’t; when C. not to; until D. not; after
7. I was late for class yesterday _______ there was something wrong with my bike. A. when B. that C. until D. because
8. I’ll go swimming with you if I ________ free tomorrow. A. will be B. shall be C. am D. was
9. In the exam, the ________ you are, ______ the _______ mistakes you will make. A. careful; little more careful; less 10. You should finish your lessons _______ you go out to play. A. before B. after C. when D. while B. more careful; fewest C. more careful; fewer D.
11. I hurried _____ I wouldn’t be late for class. A. since B. so that C. as if D. unless
12. When you read the book, you’d better make a mark _______ you have any questions. A. which B. that C. where D. though
13. The teacher raised his voice _______ all the students could hear him. A. for B. so that C. because D. in order
14. He took off his coat _______ he felt hot. A. because B. as C. if D. since
15. It is ______ that we’d like to go out for a walk. A. a lovely day lovely a day 16. Mary had ______ much work to do that she stayed at her office all day. A. such B. so C. too D. very 17. _______ I felt very tired, I tried to finish the work. B. too lovely a day C. so lovely a day D. such
A. Although B. Because C. As D. As if 18. ______ the day went on, the weather got worse. A. With B. Since C. While D. As 19. ______ well you can drive, you must drive carefully. A. So long as moment 20. Write to me as soon as you ________ to Beijing. A. will get B. get C. getting D. got B. In order that C. No matter how D. The
二. 根据中文意思完成下列英语句子 1. 不管他跟我开什么玩笑，我都不生气。 I am not angry with him, _______ _______ ______ jokes he ______ on me. 2. 布鲁斯太太对学生非常亲切，以至于学生把她当做母亲。 Mrs Bruce was _______ kind to her students ______ they ______ her _____ their mother. 3. 只要我们竭尽全力，父母就会满意我们的表现。 Our parents will be pleased with our performance _____ _____ ______ we try our best. 4. 你一到上海就给我打个电话好吗？ Will you please call me ______ ______ ______ you get to Shanghai. 5. 这个七岁的女孩酷爱钢琴，以至于他已经坚持练习两年了。 The seven-year-old girl likes playing the piano ______ ______ ______ she has kept practicing for two years. 6. 虽然她很忙，他还坚持自学英语。 _______ _______ ______ _______, she kept on learning English by herself. 7. 他长大后相当一名记者。 He wants to be a journalist ______ _______ _______ _______. 8. 无论刮风下雨，我们的老师总是第一个到校。 _______ _______ windy or rainy, our teacher is always the first to get to school.
9. 如果人人为保护环境做出贡献，世界将会变得更美好。 ______ ______ ______ _____ _______ to protecting the environment, the world will become much more beautiful. 10. 李明昨天没来上学，因为他病了。 Li Ming didn’t come to school _______ _______ ______ ______. 练习二 1. The meeting didn't start___ everyone was there. A. because B. until C. why D. if 2 .The boy ___ to bed ___ his mother came in. A. went not; until B. didn't go; after C. went; until D. didn't go; until 3. I won't believe you___ I have seen it with my own eyes. A. before B. until C. after D. when 4 .He ___ home ___ she was satisfied ___ his answer yesterday. A. didn't go; until; with B. wasn't go; after; to C. doesn't go; before; with D. didn't go; until; to 5 .He ___ back until the work ___ done. A. isn't; will be B. isn't; is C. won't be; will be D. won't be; is 6 .They didn't start the work ___ their teacher came back. A. until B. while C. as soon as D. if 7. Tom will call me as soon as he ___ Shanghai. A. arrives B. will reach C. arrives in D. get to 8. I'm sure he'll come to see me before he ___ Beijing. A. will leave B. is leaving C. leave D. leaves 9. I will tell him the news as soon as he___ back. A. come B. comes C. will come D. came 10. Tom has got a watch. He ___ it for two years. It _______ by his father. A. has bought; was bought B. has got; is bought , C. was bought; has bought . D. has had; was bought "' 11. When he got to the station, the train ___. A. left B. had left C. leaves D. has left
12. The boy told his father what he ___ in the street. A. saw B. have seen C. had seen D. see 13.We ___ TV when the telephone ____. A. watched; was ringing B. were watching; rang C. watch; rings D. are watching; rang 14.By the end of last term, I___ ten books. A. had finished reading B. have finish reading C. had finish to read D. finish read 15. I ___ you for a long time. Where ___ you ___? A. didn't see; did; go B. didn't see; have; goneC. haven't seen; have; been D. haven't seen; have; gone 16. Tom___ China for 3 years. A. has been B. has been in C. has been to D. has been at 17. I won't go to see the film tonight, because I ___ my ticket. A. lost B. have lost C. will lose D. didn't lose 18.-Hello! May I speak to Bob? -Sorry, but he ___ for a month. A. had been away B. was left C. left D. has been away 19. I ___ him since I began to live in the city. A. know B. have known C. knew D. will know 20.Zhao Lan ___ already ___ in this school for two years. A. was; studying B. will; study C. has; studied D. are; studying 21.Betty didn't go to see the film yesterday ___ she was ill. A. because B. but C. until D. if 22 May I sit nearer___I can see more clearly? A. as if B. so that C. even if D. so 23. ___ you work hard, you will certainly succeed. A. Though B. If C. Because D. For 24. ___ he came to study in the university, he has made much progress in the study of English.
A. While B. When C. Since D. After 25. I'd like to go swimming _____ the water is not too cold. A. for B. unless C. if D. whether 26. There are ___ many league members in class 2 ___ in Class 4. A. both; and B. 'so; that C. either; or D. as; as 27. -Do you have a big library? -No, we don't. At least, not___yours. A. as big as B. as big than C. as bigger than D. bigger as 28. Suzhou is not ____ beautiful ____ Hangzhou. A. as; than B. so; as C. even; than D. /; than 29. Iron is more useful ___ any other metal. A. as B. than C. then D. so 30. I want to know ___ she is going to see a film. A. if B. that C. what D. which 31. You are sure to pass the exam ___ you study hard. A. if B. thoughC. that D. since 32. I'll go to see the film with you___I have time this evening. A. whether B. so C. if D. when 33. ___ you study harder, you'll never pass the final exam. A. If B. Until C. Unless D. Except 34. Although it was raining, still worked in the fields.
A. but they B. and they C. they D. and yet they 35 .___ there were only five soldiers left at the front, ___ they went on fighting. A. Because; so B. If; and C. Though; but D. Though; / 36. ___ she is very old, ___ she can still work eight hours a day. A. Because; so B. Though; but C. As; yet D. Though; yet 37. Please answer the question in a loud enough voice ___ all the class may hear. A. so, that B. or C. in order that D. and 38. Lift it up___I may see it.
B. so that
C. as D. than
39. I hurried___I wouldn't be late for class. A. so B. so that C. if D. unless
40. We should go by bus ___ we can get there earlier. A. as soon as B. where C. in order that D. as 41. The dictionary is so expensive ___ I can't buy it. A. because B. when C. that D. if
42. I got there ___ late ___ I didn't see him. A. too; to B. such; that C. so; that D. so; as 43. It is ___ hot in the room ___ we have to go out for a walk. A. such; that B. so; that C. as; as D. such; as 44 He has___ an interesting book that we want to read it. A. so B. such C. the same D. as
练习一答案 一. 1.A 2.C 3.B 4.C 5.A 11.B 12.C 13.B 14.A 15.C 6.C 7.D 8.C 9.C 10.A 16.B 17.A 18.D 19.C 20.B 3. as long as
二. 1. no matter what; plays 2.so; that; regarded; as 4. as long as 5. so much that up 8.Whether it’s ill 练习二参考答案： 1-5B D B A D 6-10 A C D B D 21-25A B B C C 26-30 D A B B A 31-35 A C C C D 36-40 D C B B C 11-15 B C B AC 9. If everyone makes a contribution 6. Though she was busy
7. when he grows
10. because he was
16-20B B D B C
41-44 C C B B
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