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状语是用来修饰动词,形容词,副词和句子的一 种句子成分。它可以表示时间、地点、 原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、比较、方式等。 当充当状语的部分是一个句子时,也就是状语从 句,来说明一件事情发生的时间,地点,原因,条件, 结果等。

? ? ? ?

We must settle

this by argument not by fighting. 条件 As a human, one can hardly do without a friend. He was sentenced to death. 结果 Despite the lack of experience, he has finished the task given by his leader in time. 让步 ? There is no consensus of opinion among people as to how to view opportunity. 关于 ? AIDS is no longer one of the top 10 American killers, but the same can’t be said for many countries. 对于


? When a Scottish research team startled the world by revealing 3 months ago that it had cloned an adult sheep, President Clinton moved swiftly. (1999-4-1) ? 方式 ? For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence.(1997-2-2) ? 时间地点 ? By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research.(2001-1-1) ? 方式

? No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of life beyond comprehension for its ugliness.(2000-2-3) ? 原因 ? 无疑,我们将记住20世纪的一种因为丑陋而让人无法理 解的生活方式。 ? The growth of specialization in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science.(2001-1-2) ? 伴随 ? 19世纪的专业化的发展,由于随之而来的更长期和更复 杂的培训要求,对业余人员参与科学界意味着更大的困 难。

? Studying at home, you are free from the distractions which come from other students around you. ? 时间 ? Having been given such a good chance, how could I let it slip away? ? 原因 ? In order to get the best score in their examination, students compete fiercely, thus impelling them to learn more. ? 结果 ? Having been asked to stay, I couldn’t very well leave. ? 让步

? Having only book knowledge, you cannot work well in the future.
? 条件,现在分词作条件状语时,主句多半用情态动词 can和will ? Standing on the top of the mountain, he gazed far away。 ? 方式 ? Seeing that Nie Haisheng came out of the space-capsule, many citizens went out and marched through the streets, singing and dancing. ? 伴随

? Hallucinogens have their primary effect on perception, distorting and altering it in a variety of ways including producing hallucinations.(1997-3-3) ? 幻觉剂主要作用于知觉,以包括产生幻觉的多种途径扭 曲和改变知觉。 ? His colleagues, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied reengineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long term profitability.(1998-2-5) ? 他的同事麦克.彼尔说,太多的公司以机械的形式实施 重组,降低成本,而未对长远的赢利给予充分的考虑。

? In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to “push” information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers.(19992-3)
? 然而,软件公司在去年开发出一些工具软件,它们能让 公司直接地将信息“推送”到消费者,将营销信息直接 送达目标消费者。 ? Feeling threatened, companies responded by writing ever-longer warning labels, trying to anticipate every possible accident.(1999-1-1)

? When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale.(2000-1-1)

? Born in a different age, the older generation experienced all sorts of hardships. ? 原因 ? He got home at last, listless and exhausted. ? 结果 ? The terrorists fled into mountains pursued by the army. ? 伴随 ? No one can sail the ocean of life single-handed. ? 方式

? The grand mediocrity of today-everyone being the same in survival and number of offspring-means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in upper-middle-class India compared to the tribes.(2000-2-2) ? 现今普遍的现象----所有人在生存机会以及后代数量方 面一致----意味着与部落相比,自然选择在印度的中上 阶层中已失去80%的效力。 ? Shielded by third-party payers from the cost of our care, we demand everything that can possibly be done for us, even if it’s useless. (2003-4-2)
? 由于有医疗费用于第三方支付的保障,我们常常要求用 尽所有的医疗手段,即使它不会有任何作用。

? From now on I will concentrate all my energy on my studies so as to qualify myself as a talent in the 21st century. ? 目的 ? To absorb foreign funds, we must improve our investment climate. ? 目的 ? He made a long speech, only to show his ignorance of the subject. ? 结果 ? 在only, enough, so…as, never, too…之后,某些不及物 动词之后

? I am very happy to work together with you. ? 原因状语,在形容词之后,或由hear,learn 等构成的 不定式短语 ? You’ll be kind enough to let me know. ? 条件状语,跟will, should, could情态动词连用 ? Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty.(2002-2-1)

? Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high doses of morphine to control terminally ill patients' pain, even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the patient.(2002-4-3)

? George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, maintains that, __________a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal ________the patient uses the drug to hasten death. "It's like surgery," he says. "We don't call those deaths homicides _______ the doctors didn't intend to kill their patients, ______ they risked their death. ___ you're a physician, you can risk your patient's suicide ________ you don't intend their suicide."(2002年TEXT4) as long as, even if, because, if, although, when, so that

? George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, maintains that, __________a as long as doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal ________the patient even if uses the drug to hasten death. "It's like surgery," he says. "We don't call those deaths homicides _______ because the doctors didn't intend to kill their patients, ______ although they risked their death. ___ If you're a physician, you as long as you don't can risk your patient's suicide ________ intend their suicide."(2002年TEXT4)
波士顿大学健康法律系主任乔治· 安纳斯则声称,只要医生是出于 合理的医疗目的开药,那么即使服用此药会加速病人的死亡,医生 的行为也没有违法。"这就像做手术,"他说,"我们不能称那些手 术死亡为谋杀,因为医生并没有想杀死病人。假如你是一名医生, 只要你并没有想让病人自杀,你就可以去冒险给比病人治病。"

? Part of the problem is that many homeless adults are addicted to alcohol or drugs. And a significant number of the homeless have serious mental disorders. Many others, ______ not addicted or mentally ill, simply lack the everyday survival skills needed to turn their lives around. (06年完型 填空) ? [A] when [B] once [C] while [D] which
?C ?While的四个意思:1.当……时候 during the time that 时间状 语从句 2. 只要 as long as 条件状语从句 3. 尽管 although 让步 状语从句连词 4. which引导从句 ?部分问题在于,许多无家可归的成年人酗酒或吸毒成瘾;还 有大量的无家可归者患有严重的精神疾病。其他人虽然并不酗 酒、吸毒,也没有精神疾病,却缺乏必需的日常生存技能。

? Strangely, some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not another, __9__ others are sensitive to the smells of both flowers.(05年完型)
? A. when B. since C. for D. whereas
?D ?奇怪的是,有些人发现他们能够闻到一种类型的 花香但闻不到另一种,而另外一些人则对两种花 香都敏感。

? The phenomenon provides a way for companies to remain globally competitive __48__ avoiding market cycles and the growing burdens imposed by employment rules, healthcare costs and pension plans.(1997年48题) ? 48. A. but B. while C. and D. whereas ? B

? 这种现象为公司开辟了一条道路,使它们既保持 了自身的国际竞争力,同时也避免了市场周期的 冲击,以及就业法规、医疗费用和养老金所带来 的日益繁重的负担。





when, while, as, before, after, since, till, until, as soon as

2. 3.

一些时间名词:the moment, the instant, the minute, the day, next time, every time 一些副词:instantly, immediately, directly 固定搭配的连词:no sooner…than, hardly…when, scarcely…when

地点 原因 目的 结果 条件

Where Because, as, for, since So that, in order that So…that, so that, such…that If, unless

Wherever, anywhere, everywhere Seeing that, considering that, now that, given that, in that, in as much as, in so much as Lest, for fear that, in case in the hope that, on purpose that, for the purpose that, to the end that Such that, to the degree that, to the extent that, to such a degree that, to such an extent that Suppose, supposing, providing, provided( 注意:supposed, provide不用作条件从句的连词) On condition that, so long as, as long as while(一般用在句首), as(用于倒装结构); wh-ever: whatever, whoever, whichever, however, whenever, wherever; whether…or…as adj. as+主语 主谓结构用在句首 其它比较句型:


Although, though, even though, even if


as, than

? 1.1 Before的翻译——在……之前 ? Even before Alan Greenspan?s admission that America?s red-hot economy is cooling, lots of working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves.(2004TEXT3)
? 甚至在阿兰格林斯潘宣布美国经济繁荣正在降温之前,许多上班 族早已察觉到了经济疲软的迹象。

? During several years of gambling in that casino, Williams, a state auditor earning $35,000 a year, lost approximately $175,000. He had never gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $20 worth of gambling.(2006年7选5)
? 威廉先生是一位年薪收入为 35000美元的审计员,这几年,那个 赌场让他输掉了175000美元。而在该赌场送给他一张价值20美元 的赌票之前,他从未参与过赌博。

? 1.1 Before的翻译 ? The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.(2004年61题)

? 很早以前;在…以前很久 ? 希腊人认为,语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系。这一观 点在人们尚未认识到语言的千差万别以前就早已在欧洲扎下了根。 ? The mineral elements from the soil that are usable by the plant must be dissolved in the soil solution before they can be taken into the root.(1991年TEXT3) ? 只有……才…… ? 土壤里的矿物质是无法被直接利用的,它们只有在溶于土壤的溶 液之后,才能为植物的根系所吸收。

? 1.1 Before的翻译 ? Our magazines feature beaming celebrities and happy families in perfect homes. And since these messages have an agenda -- to lure us to open our wallets -- they make the very idea of happiness seem unreliable. “Celebrate!” commanded the ads for the arthritis drug Celebrex, before we found out it could increase the risk of heart attacks.(2006年TEXT4)

? 我们杂志的报道往往都专注于那些面带愉快微笑的名人以及完美 之家中的快乐成员。这些信息只有一个目的——诱惑我们掏钱包, 正是它们使快乐这个概念显得不可靠。比如,治疗关节炎药品 Celebrex的广告鼓动人们去“欢庆”,后来发现这种药品会加大 患心脏病的危险。

? 1.1 Before的翻译 ? It took a few months of investigation before it became clear. ? 在多长时间之后才…… ? 经过几个月调查之后,情况才开始变得明朗。 ? In this factory, suggestions often have to wait for months before they are fully considered.(1991语法) ? 在这家工厂,一项建议往往要等上数月之后才会 被考虑。

? When的用法 ? When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind’s instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.(1997年75 题)
? 当这种情况发生,这并有:这人类用道德观念进行推理的本能在 起作用,这种本能应得到鼓励而不应遭到嘲弄。

? _____ to speak when the audience interrupted him.(1991

? A.hardly had he begun B. no sooner had he begun ? C. not until he began D. scarcely did he begin
? A. 一……就…… ? 他刚要开始发言,观众就打断了他。

? Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true _____ it comes to classroom tests.(1998语法) A.before B. as C. since D. when
? 即when it comes to……的结构,表示“当提到……” ? 做家庭作业当然是一个提高考试成绩的好办法,尤其是对课 堂测试来说。

? On a rainy day I was driving north through Vermont _____ I noticed a young man holding up a sign reading “Boston”(2000语法) A.which B. where C. when D. that
? 一个延续动作中的一个短暂动作 ? 在一个雨天,我正驾着车往北穿越佛蒙特州。这时我突然看 见一个年轻男子,手里举着牌子,上面写着“波士顿”。

? In genera, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted cannot be well defined.(1995

? 如果 ? 一般来说,如果所需要测定的特征能很精确地界 定时,测试最为有效;而如果所要测定或预测的 东西不能明确界定时,测定效果最差。

? While后接延续性动词 ? While相当于during that time(在……期间),从句谓语 通常是延续性动词。 ? When相当于at that time(在……时刻),从句谓语动词 通常是短暂动词,表示某一时刻动作,从句也可用 延续性动词,但通常往往是过去进行时态。 ? I was walking along the road ____ suddenly someone patted me on the shoulder from behind.(CET-4) ? A. immediately B. when C. the moment D. while ? B pat是短暂动作,不能选while ? 当时我正在路上走,突然有人从后面拍了我肩膀。

? While后接延续性动词 ? The phenomenon provides a way for companies to retain globally competitive __48__ avoiding market cycles and the growing burdens imposed by employment rules, healthcare costs and pension plans.(1997年48题) ? A. but B. while C. and D. whereas ? B
? 这种现象为公司开辟了一条道路,使它们既保持了自身的国 际竞争力,同时也避免了市场周期的冲击,以及就业法规、 医疗费用和养老金所带来的日益繁重的负担。

时间状语从句 ? Until的用法

? Until前的主句谓语必须是延续性的,而until后的从 句谓语须是短暂动词或接时间点。若主句谓语动词是 短暂动词,则要用否定形式,因为否定表示的是一个 状态,而状态是延续的,故形成我们常说的 not…until…“直到…才…”的结构 ? Until recently most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution.(1998年完型) ? 动词spoke表示延续,recently是一个时间点。注意: until可以用在句首 ? 直到最近,大多数历史学家仍对工业革命持批评态度。


? Until的用法
? People in earlier eras were surrounded by reminders of misery. They worked until exhausted, lived with few protections and died young.(06TEXT4)
? 主句谓语动词worked是延续性的,谓语exhausted是短暂性的 ? 早期的人们被不幸的暗示包围。他们工作到筋疲力尽,在几乎无 保护的状态下生活,并且很年轻就夭折。

? In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days. In March 1997 he lost $72,186. He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat docked at 5 a.m., then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a.m.(06part2)
? 1997年,他在两天之内在一台老虎机上输掉21000美元。97年3月 他输掉 72186美元。他有时整夜同时在两台老虎机上赌博。直到 清晨5点船只停靠马图,然后上午9点赌场开门时他又返回船上。

? Until的用法 ? 正常结构 ? The exact time of dying was not of great importance until recently. ? Until置于句首 ? Until recently the exact time of dying was not of great importance. ? 倒装结构 ? Not until recently was the exact time of dying of great importance. ? 强调结构 ? It was not until recently that the exact time of dying was of great importance.

? Until的用法 ? As was discussed before, it was not ____ the 19th century that the newspaper became the dominant preelectronic medium , following in the wake of the pamphlet and the book and in the company of the periodical.(2002年完型) ? A. after B. by C. during D. until
? D. 像之前讨论过的那样,直到 19世纪,报纸在小册子、书本之 后随期刊一起成为了电子媒体出现之前的主要媒体。

? Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people will have to accept more unnatural food.(1991年75题)
? 除非人类终于意识到要把人口减少到这样的程度 : 使地球能为所 有的人提供足够的饮食,否则人们将不得不接受更多的“人造食 品”。

? Until的用法 ? Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.(2002-65) ? 如果这些问题得不到解决,研究行为的技术手段就 会继续受到排斥解决问题的唯一方式可能也随之受 到排斥。

1. ? ? ? 由where引导,放在主句后边 Stay where you are. 待在原地别动 Generally, air will be heavily polluted where there are factories. 一般有工厂的地方空气污染都很严重。 A driver should slow down where there are schools. 在有学校的地方,司机应缓行。

? ?

? ? ?

where引导的地点状语从句与定语从句的区别 45 percent of the world?s population live where mosquitoes transmit malaria. Approximately 45 percent of the world?s population live in the climate zone where mosquitoes transmit malaria.
疟疾是由蚊子传播的,全球大约45%的人口生活在 疟疾传染区域。

? ?

When you read books, you had better make a mark at the spot where you have any question. When you read books, you had better make a mark where you have any question.

? The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are few and unimpressive, where they are not extremely unattractive.(2000TEXT5)
? 对雄心壮志的攻击,并且来自不同的角度;为它公 开辩护的人极少,也很平淡,尽管辩护者并非极不 引人注意。

2. 由wherever, anywhere和everywhere引导地 点状语从句。 ? Wherever he happens to be, Clint can make himself at home.
? 无论在什么地方,Clint总是无拘无束。


Everywhere they appeared, there were ovations.

常用连词的用法 例句

Because语气最强,只有它能用 来回答why问句,其引出的 往往是听话人不知道的或最 感兴趣的原因。

My friends dislike me because I?m handsome and successful.

Since通常置于句首,引出人们 已知的不需要强调的原因, 所以常译成“既然……”

As与since的用法差不多,所引 出的理由在说话人看来已经 很明显,或已为听话人所熟 悉而不许用because强调 For表示推断的理由,是对前面 分句的内容加以解释或说明

Since we don?t have class tomorrow, why not go out for a picnic? Since you are an English major, I guess you can help me with this sentence. As Monday is a national holiday, all government offices will be closed.

It rained last night, for the ground is wet this morning.

? _24_ they are adjusting to their new bodies and a whole host of new intellectual and emotional challenges, teenagers are especially self-conscious and need the confidence that comes from achieving success and knowing that their accomplishments are admired by others.(2003年37题) ? A. If B. Although C. Whereas D. Because ? D

? Theories centering on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior __22__ they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through interaction with others.(2004完 型) ? [A] before [B] unless [C] until [D] because
? D ? 强调个人的理论认为,青少年之所以犯罪是因为他们在过 去并没有因为其不轨的行为而受到相应的惩处,或者通过 和其它人的交往而沾染了犯罪行为。

? Actually, it isn’t, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.(1997-71) ? 事实并非如此,因为这种问法是以人们对人的权利有 一种共识为基础的,而这种共识并不存在。 ? But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.(1998-71) ? 更为重要的是,这是科学家们能够观测到的最遥远的 过去的景象,因为他们看到的是150亿年前宇宙云的 形状和结构。

? This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the highenergy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields. (1991-74题) ? 这种困境将是确定无疑的,因为能源的匮乏使农业 无法以高能消费这种美国耕作方式继续下去了,而 按照这种耕作方式可以投入少数农民就获得高产。 ? Now since the assessment of intelligence is a comparative matter we must be sure that the scale with which we are comparing our subjects provides a ?valid? or ?fair? comparison.(1992-73) ? 既然对智力的评估是比较而言的,那么我们必须确 保,在对我们的对象进行比较时,我们所用的尺度 能提供“有效的”或“公平的”比较。

2. 用介词表示因果关系 ? because of, due to, owing to
? We had an accident because of his carelessness. ? We had an accident due to his carelessness. ? Owing to his carelessness we had an accident.

3. 其它复合连词表示原因
1). In that 原因在于… ? The girl is like her mother in that she also has very delicate feeling.
? 这个女孩很像她的妈妈,原因在于她感情也很细腻。

? Britain?s press is unusual in that it is divided into two very different types of newspaper: the quality press and the popular press.
? 英国报业与众不同,原因在于它的报纸内容分为内容严肃的大报 和通俗的小报两种截然不同的类型。

? Mercury differs from other industrial metals in that it is a liquid. ? 水银不同于其它工业用金属,原因在于它是液态的。

? Hydrogen is the fundamental element of the universe ____ it provides the building blocks from which the other elements are produced.(95年语法) ? A. so that b. but that C. in that D provided that ? C ? 氢元素是自然界的基本元素,因为它为其他元素的构 成提供了基础。 ? Vitamins are similar because they are made of same elements ----- usually carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sometimes nitrogen. They are different __46_ their elements are arranged differently.(1996年46题) ? A. in that B. so that C. such that D. except that

3. 其它复合连词表示原因
2). seeing (that), now (that), considering (that), given (that) ? 鉴于某个事实,考虑到…… ? Seeing that it’s raining hard, we’ll have to stay here for the night. ? They did the job very well, considering that they had no experience. ? Given that they are inexperienced, they’ve done a good job. ? Now that the semester is finished, I’m going to rest a few days and then take a trip. ? Now that you are sixteen, you can get a driver’s license.

1. 常用连词
1). So that, in order that, that.从句中常含有情态动词 may/might, shall/should, will/would, can/could ? Former Colorado governor Richard Lamm has been quoted as saying that the old and infirm “have a duty to die and get out of the way,” so that younger, healthier people can realize their potential.(2003TEXT4)
? 人们常引用科罗拉多前州州长Richard Lamm的话说,老年多 病者“有义务死去和让位”,以便更年轻、更健康的人们发 挥他们的潜能。

1. 常用连词 ? In these activities, it is important to remember that the young teens have short attention spans. A variety of activities should be organized _35_ participants can remain active as long as they want and then go on to something else without feeling guilty and without letting the other participants down. (2003年完型) ? [A] if only [B] now that [C] so that [D] even if
? C. 在设计这类活动时,应记住:青少年的注意力持续时间较 短。因此,活动的形式要丰富多彩,这样,他们就可以按自 己的意愿参与这些活动,想活动多久就活动多久,而在转而 参加另一项活动时,也不会感到内疚或让伙伴失望。

2. 其它引导词
1). Lest, for fear (that), in case. ? 以免、以防止 ? 从句谓语动词一般用情态动词should,但省略. ? They (scientists) should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal rights misinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth.(2003TEXT2) ? lest animal rights misinformation should go
? 他们(科学家)应该及时回复读者来信,以防止有关动物权利的 误导言论不受质疑,甚至披上一层真理的外衣。

2. 其它引导词
1). Lest, for fear (that), in case.以免、以防止 从句谓语动词一般用情态动词should,但省略. ? What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar.(2000TEXT5) ? lest they should be
? 实际情况是,人们不能像从前那么轻易地,公开地完全承认他 们的梦想,以免被人认为是出风头、贪婪、庸俗

? In the hope that, on purpose that, for the purpose that, to the end that来表示目的。

1. 常用连词
1). So…that, such that…, so that, such that ? He has put forward unquestioned claims so consistently that he not only believes them himself, but has convinced industrial and business management that they are true.(1999年TEXT5)
? 他一直不断地提出确定不疑的主张,以至于不仅他自己对它们深 信不疑,还使得工商管理界相信它们都是真的。

? Historians, especially those so blinded by their research interests that they have been accused of “tunnel method”, frequently fall victim to the “technical fallacy.”(1999年 翻译)

? 史学家,尤其是那些仅局限于他们自己的研究兴趣而被指责为 “井蛙之见研究法”的史学家,常常成了“技术谬误”的牺牲品。

? However, the world is so made that elegant systems are

in principle unable to deal with some of the world’s more fascinating and delightful aspects.(1996翻译74题)
? 然而,世界就是如此,完美的理论体系一般是无法解决世上某 些更加引人入胜的课题的。 ? Conversation becomes weaker in a society that spends

so much time listening and being talked to ___ it has all but lost the will and the skill to speak for itself.(2001年语

? A. as B. which C. that D. what ?C
? 在一个社会里,人们若是花费太多时间去倾听或是被动地与人 交流,以至于几乎丧失了说话的意愿和技能, 那么人们之间的 交流就会越来越少。



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