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2011高考英语第一轮复习导航[语法专题复习]


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语法专题
专题一 冠词 I、重点难点解析 冠词是一种虚词,放在名词的前面,帮助说明名词的含义 历年高考试题对冠词的考查涉及到冠词的位置、不定冠词、定冠词、零冠词及固定搭配 中的冠词等各个方面。下面我们以表格的形式对前四个方面进行总结, 1. 冠词的位置 考点 1 2 3 4 s

uch/what/many/rather/quite + a (n)+形容词+单数 可数名词 how / however / so / too / as / that / this 十 形 容 词 +a(u)+单数可数名词 both/all/half/twice/double + the +名词 half a (n)或 a half + 单数可数名词 示例 quite a small house so nice a girl twice the size of the room Half an hour/a half hour

2.不定冠词 考点 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 表示泛指,与 any 同义 表示数量“一”,与 one 同义,但其数的概 念不如 one 强烈 表示“相同的”,与 the same 同义 表示“每一个”,与 every,each,per 同义 表示“某一”,与 a certain 同义 表示“像……似的”,与 one like 同义 用在某些物质名词前表示“一种、?一阵、 一份、一场”等 用在某些抽象名词前,使其具体化 示例 A square has four sides. He will be back in a week. Birds of a feather flock together. I visit my father once a month. A Mr Smith is waiting to see you. He is a Lei Feng in our class. We had a heavy rain last night. You are a great help to your mother.

3. 定冠词 考点 1 2 3 4 5 示例

特指上文提到过的、谈话双方都清楚的、 There l met a foreigner and the foreigner helped me a lot. / Do you know the man 受定语修饰的人或物 standing by the window? 用于单数名词前,指一类事物 用于乐器名称前 用于世界上独一无二的事物前 与某些形容词连用表示一类人 The lion is a wild animal. the violin / the piano the sun/ the earth/ the world the rich / the young / the aged
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6 7 8 9 在字数词和最高级前 the first one to come to school/the best student in our class

在江河湖海、山脉群岛、海峡海岸的地名 The Changjiang River / the West Lake / the English Channel 中 在表示姓氏的复数名词前、逢整十数词的 play (the) piano/the Browns/in the 1920s/ 复数前 在表示国家的形容词前, 泛指该国的人民. the Chinese / the English in the morning / the day after tomorrow / the day before yesterday / the next year

10 用在一些习惯用语中

4. 零冠词 考点 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 专用名词和不可数名词前 当复数名词和不可数名词表示泛指时 成对名词连用时 在球类、棋类、学科、语言、三餐名词前 示例 China, America, Grade One, Class Two

名词前已有 this, that, my, your, some, any 等 Go down this street. We are students./ I like reading stories. day after day/face to face play basketball/play chess/like physics. speak English/at lunch

在季节、月份、某些含 Day 的节假日、星 Autumn is the best season in Beijing./in 期等名词前 May/New Year?s Day/On Sunday 在某些习惯用语中的名词前 At noon/by bus/by telephone/ in bed, in time / go to bed / go to college

5. 英语中含有冠词的词组辩析 英语中有不少词组,从形式看好象只有冠词之差,而实际上却是意义完全不同的新词组。 1. in front of 在……(外)的前面 ; in the front of 在……(内)的前面 There?s a garden in front of the classroom. There?s a blackboard in the front of the classroom. 2. in charge of 掌管;负责; in the charge of 在……负责之下 An experienced worker is in charge of the project. The project is in the charge of an experienced worker. 3. at table 在用饭;吃饭时; at the table 在桌旁 He seldom talks at table. They sat at the table, talking and laughing. 4. by day 白天;日间 ; by the day 按日计 He works in an office by day. Cleaning women in big cities get paid by the day. 5. take place 发生;举行 ; take the place 代替;接替 When did this conversation take place? Electric train has now taken the place of steam trains in England. 6. in words 用言语 ; in a word 总之 Please express your thought in words.
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In a word, I don?t trust you. 7. at times 有时;不时 ; at a time 一次 I do feel a little nervous at times. Pass me the bricks two at a time. 8. little 少;不多的 ; a little 一些;一点点 Hurry up, there?s little time left. Don?t hurry, you still have a little time. 9. few 很少;几乎没有的; a few 有些;几个 He is a man of few words. Only a few of the children can read. 10.a most interesting 非常有趣的 ; the most interesting 最有趣的(形容词的最高级) This is a most interesting story. This is the most interesting story of the three. 11.a doctor and nurse 一位医生兼护士 ; a doctor and a nurse 一位医生和一位护士 A doctor and nurse is standing there. A doctor and a nurse are standing there. 12.A number of 许多;好些 ; the number of …(的)数目 A number of students are in the classroom. The number of students in the classroom is forty. II、实战演练 (一) .用适当的冠词填空,不需要的划“\”. 1.---Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith? ---Sorry, wrong number. There isn't______ Mr. Smith here. 2. I know you don't like _______ music very much. But what do you think of _______ music in the film we saw yesterday? 3. --- I knocked over my coffee cup. It went right over ______ keyboard. --- You shouldn't put drinks near ________ computer. 4. Of all _______ reasons for my decision to become a university professor, my father's advice was _______ most important one. 5. According to _________World Health Organization, health care plans are needed in all big cities to prevent _________ spread of AIDS. 6.. For him ____ stage is just ___ means of making a living. 7. I think it really _______ honor for me to speak here.. 8. This lab used to be in _______ charge of Mr. Wang. 9 I know there is ______ Mr. Smith next door, who has gone on ________ business. 10 He devotes most of his time to _______ football. And I am sure he promises ________ excellent footballer. 11 Don?t lose heart. Please have ______ second try. 12 Those who are rich should help ______ poor. 13 When stealing the thief was caught by ______ arm by a policeman.
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14 In some factories workers get paid by ______ piece. 15 It is a bad habit to go to work without ______ breakfast. 16 John is _______ university student from ______ European country. 17 Teachers play _______ active and important part in building up students? character. 18 _______ Zhangs live on the second floor. 19 Cotton is grown in _______ north of China. 20 It is known to us all that _______ light travels faster than _______ sound. 21 A tower is seen in _______ distance. 22In case of fire please press _______ red button. 23 Shenzhen has ________ population of more than 10 million. 24_______ days I spent with Catherine in Beijing were so wonderful. 25A bullet hit the solider and he was wounded in ______ leg. 26He loved writing and his first novel was ______ great success when it came out. 27 My brother was born in _______ spring of 1990. 28 Mr. Smith is ______ most learned scholar and you can turn to him for help. 29 How sweetly she sings! I have never heard _______ better voice. 30 Beijing is ______ second largest city in China. 31 My trip to Tibet was really ________ unforgettable experience. 32 This watch is _______ 18th century watch, which has been passed down from my great grandpa. (二) 语法填空 在括号中填入适当的冠词 There once was a king who offered 1 prize to 2 artist who would paint 3 best picture of peace. Many artist tried. The king looked at all 4 pictures. But there were only two he really liked, and he had to choose between them. One picture was of a calm lake. The lake was a perfect mirror for peaceful high mountains all around it. Overhead was a blue sky with fluffy white clouds. All who saw this picture thought it was 5 perfect picture of peace. The other picture had mountains, too. But these were rugged and bare. Above was 6 angry sky, from which rain fell and in which lightning played. Down 7 side of the mountain tumbled(翻腾) a foaming(水泡) waterfall. This did not look peaceful at all. But when the king looked closely, he saw behind 8 waterfall a tiny bush growing in a crack in the rock. In the bush 9 mother bird had built her nest. There, in the midst of the rush of angry water, sat the mother bird on her nest-in perfect peace. The king chose 10 second picture. 答案:I 1 a 2 /; the 3 the; a 4. the; the 5 the; the 6 the; a 7 an 8 the 9 a; / 10 /; an 11 a 12 the 13 the 14 the 15 the 16 a; a 17 an 18 The 19 the 20 /; / 21 the 22the 23 a 24 The 25 the 26a 27the 28a 29a 30 the 31 an 32 an II 1 a 2 the 3 the 4. the 5a 6 an 7 the 8 the 9 a 10. the

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基本上不看短文内容仅看选项,2010 年高考有人竟然过了 100 分!

高考有没有瞬间大幅度提分的可能?
谁能让你不用花很多时间和心思学习,英语就能提高至少 20-30 分?要是真的话,简直 是白捡的分数!不仅如此,当你了解了高考真题答案的所有内幕规律,看到了绝密的解题招 式,就会豁然开朗。哇!原来也可以这么做题!你的思路因此将会被彻底打通,提高的分数 将不仅仅是 20-30 分!无论现在的英语成绩是 60 分,还是 110 分,任何人都可以做到!这 些绝密招式是太简单、太震撼了!所以,如果你看到了,切勿告诉他人,否则,他们会在高 考中轻松超过你! 请注意 ! 如果你不相信这世上有考试秘诀,请立即将您的眼睛离开; 如果你习惯于按照传统思路做题,不希望有思维上的突破,请你立即将您的眼睛离开; 如果你现在的成绩已接近满分,甚至已是满分,请你立即将您的眼睛离开; 如果你患有心理疾病或心脏病,请您立即将您的眼睛离开; 如果你选择留下来,那么接下来的事,很可能让你目瞪口呆! 如果我告诉你 N 个秘诀,在做完形填空和阅读理解题时,不用看文章和题干,只是简 单的比较四个选项,就能瞬间选出正确答案,你是否想看? 请先看下面的例子,它是辽宁卷 2010 年真题的第 36 题,是一个完形填空题. 在此我 只列出它的四个选项,试试看,只是比较选项,你是否能够在 3 秒之内选出正确答案? 36. A. worried B. sad C. surprised D. nervous 正确答案是 C, ABD 都是一个人状态不好的倾向词,而 C 则为中性词,表述态度不一 致者是答案。.如果你知道了这个秘诀,可以解决很多类似的完型填空题! 看一下辽宁卷 2010 年完形填空真题的第 52 题: 52. A. Largely B. Generally C. Gradually D. Probably 正确答案是 C, ABD 都是含义不肯定的副词,排除表述不明确的选项,答案就水落石出 了. 如果你知道了这个秘诀, 你更是可以解决很多类似的完型填空题! 试想一下,知道了全部 36 个完形秘诀之后,您的分数会怎么样呢? 请再看下面的例子, 它是辽宁卷 2010 年真题阅读理解题的第 56 题, 在此我只写出它 的题干和四个选项.也试试看,只是比较选项,你是否能够在 5 秒之内选出正确答案? 56. From Paragragh 1 we learn that the villagers A.worked very hard for centuries B.dreamed of having a better life C.were poor but somewhat content D.lived a different life from their forefathers 正确答案是 C, 选项中表述的内容前后相互矛盾的是答案! 思路很简单,如果你掌握 了其中的秘诀,抛开文章,你也可以很快选出正确答案. 掌握此类瞬间解题秘诀,不仅缩短 了答题时间,还能保障近乎 100%的准确率!请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈 阳英语家教吴军"查询!
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模棱两可处和看不懂,该怎么办?
要知道,如果对文章似懂非懂,那么,在文章中寻找答案线索就像大海捞针一样的难, 更谈不上做对题!吴军英语高分密码将会告诉你此类瞬间解题秘诀,帮助你辨识选项中的诸 多暗示点, 瞬间找出正确答案,或者瞬间排除错误选项.请记住!在英语完型填空和阅读理解题 的选项中,从头到尾都充满了暗示点,善于利用这些暗示点,可以快速做对题! 无论任何人,在考试中,总会遇到吃不准选项的题,或可以称之为不会做的“难题”,那 么, 如果遇到“难题”, 你会怎办?是放弃?不可能, 怎么着也要“猜”出一个答案!那么, 是“瞎 猜”吗?如果是“瞎猜”,其正确率仅是 25%,是可想而知的低!那么,如何“猜”才能有高 的准确率呢?如果我告诉你 N 个秘诀,让你在做“难题”时,猜出的答案的准确率由 25%提 高至 95%,甚至是 100%,你愿意继续看下去吗? 35. A. eat up B. deal with C. throw away D. send out 35 题在 B 和 C 模棱两可处到底选哪个? 当然选范围大的,能包括另一个的,即选 B. 再举个例子,假如 2010 年辽宁卷高考英语完形填空的 47 题,不知选哪个, 怎么办? As I found out, there is, 46 , often no perfect equivalence(对应)between two 48 47 that a Chinese “equivalent” can never D. characters

in two languages. My aunt even goes so far as to give you the 49 47. A. words B. names

meaning of a word in English! C. ideas

很简单,选 A,勿须有任何的犹豫,为什么?复现法则! 吴军英语高分密码会告诉你具体原因以及更多的解决“难题”的秘诀,都是非常的简单和 直接.请记住!遇到“难题”,即使“猜”答案,也要“猜”的有理有据,切勿盲目的“猜”! The moment he was about to 47 the hospital, he saw on the desk the he had left it one 49 ago. 48. A much B still C hardly D quite 很简单,选 B,为什么?答案高频词汇倾向归纳让你笑逐颜开! 高频形容词 \ 副词: suddenly, even, finally, first, last, again, also, however, though, although, yet, instead, even though, but, still 等. 吴军英语高分密码真的有这么神奇吗?是!一点儿没错!效果是绝对的真实!作为一种 标准化考试,选择题本身是有很多缺陷的,这些缺陷就是暗示点,就是解题的突破口!吴军英 语高分密码通过对历年真题的长时间的研究,对这些暗示点进行了全面、深入、细致的挖掘 和整理,将其转化为超级解题秘诀! 每一个秘诀的准确率都在 95%以上,甚至是 100% 吴军英语高分密码,真正做到了立竿 见影!甚至是一剑封喉!单选 280 个考点,42 个诀窍; 阅读 16 大满分攻略; 完形 36 绝招; 七 选五 6 大原则; 改错 36 个规律;作文 4 大模板 6-8 页;不想考上一本、 二本都很难!马上用吴军 英语高分密码对照历年所有的高考真题进行逐一的验证吧! 遇到吴军老师,您太幸运了!请 上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询!
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new book ,just as

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“当时学习,当时提分”的超实战家教!
抚顺 2 中的徐金良同学,来时成绩是 71 分左右, 2009 年高考成绩为 117 分;沈阳 4 中的刘 洪鹏同学 来时成绩是 46 分, 2009 年高考成绩为 100 分; 黑山 1 中的高三刘璐同学来时成绩 是 50-70 分, 2010 年高考成绩为 113 分!………………………. 孩子从小学开始,学习英语已经多年,孩子天天背单词、做习题、记笔记,做过的卷子 岂止几百套,上千套,那么孩子的英语成绩一直在稳步提高吗?还是一直没有提高,甚至越 学越落后、越学越迷茫?如果孩子的英语成绩一直提高不了,如果孩子一直抓不住重点、找 不到感觉,就来找 “神奇”的吴军老师吧!在这里孩子马上就会体验到英语学习成绩“突 飞猛进”的快乐!在这里一天提高几十分的孩子比比皆是!

鲁美附中、沈音附中 7 人全部考取国本!
热烈庆祝吴军一对一家教学员---2010 届鲁美附中 1 班王巨龙、冯潇潇,沈音附中李同 学(女,不愿公开全名)及沈阳 2 中补习班姜雯悦等 7 人考取鲁美和沈阳音乐学院!为什么 一个英语烂到家的学生, 在不到 2-3 个月内成绩突飞猛进?为什么英语基础几乎为零的学生 经过他辅导 10 到 20 次课,成绩就能迅速提升 30-70 多分?走捷径考高分的窍门是什么? 沈阳高端英语快速提分名师吴军老师将为您咨询谜底。艺术类国本,英语小分很关键!9 年 的高分经验能成就了他们,同样也可以成就暂时停止成功的你!

只学习 5-10 次课,英语成绩就提高了 30 多分!
能接触到吴军老师《英语高分密码》的人太幸运了!如何把握中心,猜测题意,一听就 会!融会贯通,举一反三!沈阳 83 中高二的金柏岑同学来时成绩是 82 分, 2010 年学习 5 次 课后的期末成绩为 108 分; 现就读于沈阳 4 中高二文科班的胡兢元同学来时成绩是 91 分, 13 次课后的期末成绩为 125 分; 现就读于皇姑区沈阳 10 中高一的高雅慧同学来时成绩是 90 分 左右, 2010 年高一下学期期中考试的成绩为 127 分;现就读于沈阳东北育才高中本部高二的 戴冠宇同学来时成绩是 107 分,学习后的成绩稳定在 125-140 分之间,最好成绩是由倒数到 班里前 6 名。

2010 年沈阳中考距离满分竟然只差了 7 分!
2010 届杏坛中学初三 6 班的周千会同学(女) 2010 年沈阳市铁西区一模才 120 分左 , 右,其中一大半还是?懵?来的。跟吴军老师学习 3-4 次后,自己很快找到了英语学习的感觉, 好像一下子容易了很多,二模考了 135 分。10 次课后,中考距离满分竟然只差了七分,考 了 143 分。她说没想到她的最高纪录竟然创造在 2010 年沈阳中考中! 请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询!

2010 中考冲刺,没想到效果居然这么好!
2010 届 43 中学初三 13 班的李圣同学(男) ,初三后成绩与其他同学突然拉大,成绩一 直在 80 分左右,很少达到及格线 90 分,对自己没有信心,对英语家教更是排斥。跟吴军老 师学习 20 次后,虽与好学生还有 5-7 分的差距,但又找到了初一前十名时的感觉。2010 年 沈阳中考虽然发挥不算理想(非选择手写部分基础不好) ,也达到了 129 分! 请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询!

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英语一对一家教授课内容
单项选择 13 条经典实战技巧,助你避开语法的干扰轻松得高分; 完型填空 11 个重要特点,10 种判断技巧,彻底解决一错错一串、发挥不稳定两大难题; 阅读理解 9 大要点,9 种提高方法轻松解决 做题慢准确率低等难题; 短文改错 6 大应试策略,6 大提高方法让你拿分如探囊取物; 书面表达 “黄金写作模型”,精辟独到的讲解,写出让阅卷老师无可挑剔的高分作文!

以下情况不能提分:
单词量要达到初二牛津 8B 水平(目标高考分数是 70-95 分) ,初二牛津 9B 水平(目标 高考分数是 95-115 分) 当次见效 , (通过现场实战做题, 题也可以自己带,明显感觉提了 8-10 分) ,一般 8-20 次课达到目标!什么也不会(连羊 sheep 和睡觉 sleep 都分不清就别浪费家 里的钱了) ,家里有钱也没用,”神”也帮不了你! 心里形成强烈“自己不行”思维定势,不能迅速扭转的,应先找心理医生或另寻他法; 一模 40 分,二模 50 分以上可以来,30 分左右的得包 5-8 天,费用得 1.5 万起,否则拒访! 不走心,每次课都没有问题,甚至连给的课后专项题或语境化词汇题都不做的, 拒访!非 要学可以,成绩变化不大,就别来找我! 仅上 3-5 次课就想提 30-50 分的别来,当次课提分是因为阅读或完形有了技巧性突破, 但考点还没系统化,所以只能提 10-15 分. 提 30-50 分不是 3-5 次而是包 3-5 天!

他的诚信宣言:
1.我只能帮助孩子提高英语分数,而不能提高孩子基本功! 2.现成绩 125 分以上的同学,建议不要参加。因为他们只有 10~15 分的提分空间,性价 比不合适! 3.听完 1 小时内不满意,保证不问原因、不问理由、无条件地、全额退费!超过了,则 按一课收取。 讲课当中或讲完后, 提供试题或自己带题, 马上答题验证! 再于下次补交 10-20 次的费用,3 课内不满意可以退回未上课的所有费用,因用大量时间为您的孩子做个性化教 案,故 3 课后恕不退还!本承诺已坚持了四年半! 4.保分”需要过程,中考高考结束后才能验证,到时就算退回了学费也买不回来孩子的 时间和未来。Peter 高分英语“立竿见影”当次课见效!每次课后都可以拿高考真题和你的 期中/末考题来验证高分教案,答的正确率高或方法好使,就可以证明我们的教案有效!一 般情况下,85 分以上来的,都能在 6-20 课内提到 105-135 分。2009-2010 年(吴军亲授的 学 生 ) 高 考 130 分 以 上 的 有 39 人 , 3 个 月 内 提 高 了 50-70 分 的 有 17 人 。 请 上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询!

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专题二 名词 I、重点难点解析 名词的高考命题导向 名词的“可数”与“不可数”是高考命题的热点之一。不可数名词前不能与不定冠词连用,之后 不能+s。有些抽象名词却有复数形式,但意义与原来的不同。有些可数名词复数有两个意 思, 一个与单数意义相同, 另一个和单数含义不同, 高考中这些含义很可能成为考查的内容。 词语的固定搭配及名词作定语也是高考命题的注意点。 一 名词的分类及常见用法 可数名词 不可数名 词 个体名词 集体名词 物质名词 抽象名词 专有名词 teacher, student, piano family, committee, people wood, water, steel friendship, progress John, Smith, Beijing 表有生命的东西 或时间,空间,距 离,价格,重量等名 词的所有格 无生命的东西的 名词所有格 如: Women?s Day, an hour?s walk,students? reading-room, today?s paper 如:a map of China, the top of the mountain days, boys, Americans buses,dishes;(stomachs 除外) babies, factories leaves,wives;(roofs,proofs, gulfs,beliefs,chiefs,staffs, safes 除外) 功能 名词在句 中可做主 语、表语、 宾语、宾语 补足语、定 语、同位语 或状语

名词所有 格

一般由名词右上 方+?s;以 s 结尾 的名词单复数只 加“?” 介词 of+名词 规则变化

1.一般词后+s 2.s, x, sh, ch 结尾+es 3.辅音字母+y 结尾,变 y 为 i+es 4.以 f 或 fe 结尾, f/fe 变 为 v+es

5.以 o 结尾, 有生命+es, heroes,potatoes;pianos,radios 无生命+s (hippos, bamboos)除外 可数名词 的复数 6.数字的复数+s 或 “?s” 不规则变 化 1.改变词中元音字母 in the 1930s/1930?s woman-women, goose-geese man-men,foot-feet,tooth-teet h news,maths,politics, economics 等 means,deer,sheep,fish,works (工厂),species, Chinese 等 child-children, bacteriumbacteria,crisis-crises,ox-oxen ,phenomenon-phenomena 等

2. 形式复数, 意义单数 3.单复同形 4.其它

二 名词其他需要注意的几点: 1. 名词的数 1) 复合名词变为复数的规则
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有主体名词的复数形式 (lookers-on, passers-by 等) 和无主体名词的复数形式 (grown-ups, go-betweens 等) 。 2) 集体名词的数 ① 有些集体名词只能用作复数。如:cattle,police,people 等。 注意:people 意为“民族;种族”时有单、复数形式。 ② 有些集体名词只能用作单数。如:machinery,furniture,jewellery,mankind 等。 ③ 有些集体名词作为整体看待时,用作单数;指其中各个成员时,用作复数。如:class family,couple,audience,government,public 等。 The whole family are watching TV now.全家人现在都在看电视。 His family is a big one.他家是个大家族。 3) 只能用复数形式的名词 由两部分构成的名词:glasses,trousers, shorts,scissors,gloves,scales,compasses 等。 4) the +姓氏的复数,表全家人: the Blacks, the Wangs 5) 具有双重特性的名词 (1)意义不同的可数和不可数名词 a room 房间一 room 空间 a chicken 鸡一 chicken 鸡肉 an experience 经历一 experience 经验 an agreement 协议一 agreement 同意 (2)单、复数意思不同的名词 arm 手臂一 arms 武器 brain 脑一 brains 智力 custom 风俗一 customs 海关 force 力量一 forces 军队 regard 注意,关心一 regards 问候 time 时间一 times 时代 work 工作一 works 作品,工厂 manner 态度一 manners 礼貌 spirit 精神一 spirits 心情,情绪 content 内容一 contents 目录 loss 损失一 losses 损失物 condition 状况一 conditions 条件 expression 表达一 expressions 短语 feeling 感觉一 feelings 感情 wood 木头一 woods 树林 2. 名词的所有格 1) 表示两者或两者以上共同所有,在最后一个词的后面加?s;表示各自拥有时,每个名词 后都要+s”。如 Li and Ma?s room 李和马共有的房间; Li?s and Ma?s rooms 李和马各自的 房间 2) 表某人家或店铺,诊所。如:Li?s 李家,the doctor?s 诊所;the barber?s 理发店 3) 所有格除了用于有生命的物体外,也可以用于表示国家、城市等的名词。如: China's prosperity 中国的繁荣 the country's plan 国家计划 4) of 所有格也可用于有生命的物体,用于名词较长或名词的定语较长时。 如:a story of a famous doctor 一个名医的故事 the son of the man you iust talked to 刚刚和你说话的那个男人的儿子 5) 双重所有格 “of +名词的?s 所有格或名词性物主代词”称为双重所有格。of 后的宾 语必须是人,而且是特指。如: an old friend of my uncle's 我叔叔的一个老朋友 a play of Shakespeare's 莎士比亚的一部戏剧 some houses of my grandfather's 我爷爷的一些房子 3. 名词作定语 1) 一般用单数形式。如:country music 乡村音乐 shoe shops 鞋店 traffic lights 交通灯 注意:sports,customs,arms,clothes,sales, goods 作定语时,要用复数形式。如: sports meeting 运动会 customs officiers 海关官员 arms production 武器生产 2) man 和 woman 作定语时,与中心词一起变。如:
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men doctors 男医生 II、实战演练 一、用适当的词或所给词的正确形式填空: 1. There are fifty-six __________________ (people) in China. 2. We need much ______________ (room) for all the furniture. 3. This kind of dress was popular in the ___________________ (1980) 4. ______________ (girl) students and _________________ (woman) teachers are in the majority in our school. 5. There used to be a lot of milu ______________ (deer) in China. 6. These are art _______________ (work) of the Tang Dynasty. 7. _____________ (child) shoes are on the second floor of this store department. 8. We can see many _________________ (editor-in-chief) present at the conference. 9. I had my hair cut short at the _____________ (barber) nearby yesterday. 10. On the whole, he was a ______________ (fail) in his life. 11. Health problems are closely connected with bad eating habits and a _______ of exercise . 12. Now more and more people prefer to have a ______________ at home---a little dog, a cat or some other animals. 13. My parents always let me have my own __________ of living. 14. We volunteered to collect money to help the _____________ of the earthquake. 15. We all know that _______________ speak louder than words. 答案: 1. peoples 2. room 3. 1980s/1980?s 4. Girl, women 5. deer 6 works 7.Children?s 8. editors-in-chief 9. barber?s 10. failure 11. lack 12. pet 13. way 14.victims 15. actions 二 语法填空 Charles Pink was a young 1 (Canada) who had a good house and he knew how to enjoy himself. Every Saturday, he went to the theatre and 2 (party). His car was one of the best in his city. He had lots of money and one day bought 3 plane. He learned to fly and flying became one of his main 4 (enjoy). One day about thirty 5 (yearly) ago, he set off in his small plane on a trip across 6 (Mexican). At first everything went well, but when he was over the part of the country 7 engine of the little machine failed. Fortunately, Pink was flying at a good 8 (high) when the bad thing happened, and he had time to find a place to land. Below him he could see a number of 9 (field) which looked nice enough to land on, and he managed to bring his machine down on one of 10 . 答案:1. Canadian 2. parties 3. a 4. enjoyments 5. years 6. Mexico 7. the 8. height 9. fields 10. them 三、完形填空 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 21-30 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳 选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 Do some FL (Foreign Language) reading every day and try to finish one FL book at least every week. You are no doubt 21 with little spare time, and this may sound unrealistic. But if you read in the 22 described, it is perfectly possible. The key is to be honest with yourself about 23 you really enjoy: thrillers, women's magazines, newspapers---it really doesn't
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women teachers 女老师

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matter what you read as 24 as it genuinely interests you, because that is the only certain way to make yourself read. It is 25 to reach good speeds by practising on material that is difficult or dull. If you pursue this program for only few months, you should achieve a very marked increase in your reading 26 . What you do with your FL reading skill when you have developed it is to study for a further qualification. The 27 is that in order to develop the 28 , a great deal of practice on easy interesting materials is essential. If you can 29 this to yourself by developing your own reading skill by this method, your teaching will carry the certainty that comes only from 30 . 21. A. bored B. helpless C. free D. busy 22. A. key B. problem C. way D. job 23. A. which B. when C. who D. what 24. A. much B. good C. long D. well 25. A. impossible B. possible C. necessary D. easy 26. A. efficiency B. effects C. method D. capacity 27. A. question B. point C. idea D. problem 28. A. habit B. idea C. skill D. task 29. A. realize B. tell C. improve D. prove 30. A. work B. experience C. theory D. doing 21-30 DCDCA ABCDB

专题三 代词 I、重点难点解析 代词是代替名词的一种词类。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的功能。英语中的代词,按 其意义、特征及在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、反身代词、相互代词、 疑问代词、关系代词和不定代词八种。 代词类别 人称 代词 物主 代词 主格 宾格 形容词性 名词性 例 词 功 只做主语 做及物动词或介词的宾语 只做定语 做主语、宾语、表语 itself, 做宾语、同位语、表语 做主语、宾语、定语、表语 做宾语 引出疑问句 连接定语从句 视情况而定, 一般的可做定语、 主语、 宾语等 能 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves this, that, these, those each other, one another who, whom, what, which, whose, etc. that, who, whom, whose, etc. some, any, no, either, neither, all, none, each, somebody, no one, everybody, etc.

反身代词 指示代词 相互代词 疑问代词 关系代词 不定代词

下面举例说明,其中疑问代词见“句子种类”,关系代词见“定语从句”。

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一 人称代词的用法 1 作主语,用主格。作宾语用宾格。She teaches us English. 2 在句中作表语,常用宾格。Who is it? It?s me. 但有时用主格。 If I were she, I would?t go there. It was I who told him about it. 二 物主代词的用法 1.形容词性物主代词——只作定语: This is our classroom. His father is an engineer. 2.名词性物主代词 所作成分 1 2 3 作主语 宾语 表语 例句 This is her coat. Mine is over there. Something has gone wrong with my bike. May I use yours ? This book isn?t mine; it?s Tom?s.

说明: ① 英语中必须有形容词性物主代词,而汉语中往往省略不译。如: Jack took off his coat and went to bed. 杰克脱掉外套就上床睡觉了。 ②“of + 名词性物主代词”可用作定语。如: Some friends of mine will attend my birthday party. 我的一些朋友要出席我的生日晚宴。 三 反身代词 所作成分 1 2 3 宾语 表语 同位语 动宾 介宾 Tom taught himself Chinese. She loves me for myself, not for my money. She is not quite herself today. (be oneself: 身心自在) I myself can repair the bike. The table itself has only three legs. 例句

四 指示代词的用法 1.时空的差别 e.g. There is this seat here, near me, or there is that one in the fourth row. Which will you have, this or that? 2. This 和 that 在行文叙述上的差别。E.g. I shall say this to you: he is a poor man. He was ill. That?s why he didn?t come. 3.that 和 those 用于表比较的结构。 The weather of Zhanjiang is better than that of my hometown. TV sets made in Nanjing are better than those made here. 4. 打电话时 this 表示我,that 表示你. 五 不定代词的用法 可数 不可数 可数不可数 复合不定代 one, each, many, both, another, either, neither, (a) few much, (a) little none, any, other, all, some anyone, anybody, anything; someone, somebody, something; everyone,
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词 everybody, everything; nobody, nothing 1.none, no one, nothing 的用法区别 1)none 既可指人,也可指物,且一定是特指概念,常用来回答 how many /much 引导的疑 问句;no one 只能指人,且只能是泛指概念,常用来回答 who 引导的疑问句;nothing “什 么也没有”,否定一切,常用来回答 what 引导的疑问句。如: — How many people are there in the room now ? — None. — Who is in the room ? — No one / nobody 2) none 后面可加 of 引导的介词短语,而 something / anything / everything / nothing; someone / anyone / everyone / no one 却不能。 2. each 和 every 1) each 强调“个体”,起代词和形容词作用;every 强调“全体”,只能作定语。Each 作同位 语时,不影响谓语动词的数,不可用 not each 来表示部分否定,而 not every 表示部分否定。 如: The tickets each cost ten dollars. 这些票每张十美元。 (each 作同位语,不能用 costs) 2) every 还可表示“每……的;每……中的”,如下列说法中只能用 every。 every year or two 每一两年 every now and then 时常 every other day 每隔一天 Choose one out of every ten boys. 每十个男孩中选一个。 one car to every 20 people 每 20 人乘一辆车 3. another, other, the other, others, the others 的用法一览表 不定代词 another 意义 任 何 一 个,另一 个 另外的 两者中的 另一个 泛指别的 人或物 特指其余 的人或物 用法说明 指三者或三者以上中的任何一个,用作代词或形容词。如: I don?t like this coat. Show me another, please. 只作定语, 常与复数名词或不可数名词连用; 但如果前面有 the, this, that some, any, each, every, no, one 及 my, your, his 等时,则可与单 数名词连用。如:any other plant, every other day。 常与 one 连用,构成:one … the other… 一个……另一个……;作 定语修饰复数名词时,表示“全部其余的” 是 other 的复数形式, 泛指别的人或物 (但不是全部) 不能作定语, , 构成 some…others… 是 the other 的复数形式,特指其余的人或物。

other

the other others the others

4. Both, all, either, any, neither, none 的用法 都 两者 两者(以上) both all 任何 either any 都不 neither none

如: 1) I had to buy all these books because I didn?t know which one was the best.

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2) It is easy to do the repair. All you need is a hammer and some nails. 3) I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but neither of them came. 4) — Which of the three ways shall take to the village ? — Any way as you please. 5) We had three sets of the garden tools and we seemed to have no use for any. 5.one, ones, the one, the ones, that, those one 用来替代前面出现的单数名词,是泛指概念相当于 a/an +单数名词;ones 用来替代 前面出现的复数名词,有时可用 that 代替(尤其在有后置定语的情况下) 。The ones 用来代 替前面的特指的复数名词,有时可用 those 代替(尤其在有后置定语的情况下) 。that 用来 替代前面出现的特指的单数可数名词或特指的不可数名词,相当于 the +单数/不可数名词。 如: Mr. Zhang gave me a very valuable present, one ( = a present ) that I have never seen. Mr. Zhang gave me many valuable presents, ones ( = many presents ) that I have never seen. The book on the desk is better than that / the one under the desk. The books on the desk are better than those / the ones under the desk. 6.it 的用法 用法说明 1 2 3 4 用作人称代词, 指代前面提到的 事物 用来代替指示代词 this 或 that 指人 指时间、距离、天气、环境等 例句 This is not my book. It is Mary?s. ① What?s this ? — It is a dictionary. — ② Whose jacket is that ? — It is hers. — ① Who is knocking at the door ? — It?s me. — ② The baby no more cried as soon as it saw its mother. ① What?s the time now ? — It?s ten past eight. — ② getting colder and colder now. It?s ③ about ten minutes? walk from my home to the It?s school. ④ was very quiet at the moment. It Our team won the football match. Have you heard about it ?

5 6

指代前面整个句子的内容

I 表示“喜欢、 恨”等心理方面的动 ① will appreciate it if you can give me a hand. 词,后面跟上 it 然后再跟从句, ②I hate it when people talk with their mouths full. ③ I like it in autumn when the weather is clear ad 其从句作 it 的同位语 bright. (未指明但谈话双方心里都明 白的)那件事、那种情况 ① How is it ( = you life, work ) going ? ② Do you like it here ? — — Oh, yes. The air, the weather, the way of life. Everything is so nice. ① impossible to get there in time. It?s ② find it strange that she doesn?t want to go. I

7

8

it 还可用作形式主语、 形式宾语 以代替主语从句、宾语从句。

II、实战演练
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一、用适当的代词填空.使其意思和结构完整: 1. We couldn't eat in a restaurant because of us had money on us. 2. I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have 3. Although he is wealthy, he spends on clothes. 4. -- Can you come on Monday or Tuesday? -- I'm afraid day is possible. 5. If you want to change for a double room you'll have to pay 15 dollars. 6. -- Shall I sit at this end of the boat or the other end? -- If you keep still, you can sit at end. 7. These plants are watered (每两天). 8. If we had followed his plan, we could have done the job better with ______ money and ______ people. 9. There are a lot of trees on side of the square. 10. You will not see the animals in winter. 二、用适当的关系代词或副词填空,使其意思和结构完整: 1. The weather was very sunny the following day, was what we had expected. 2. I have finished reading all the books were borrowed from the school library. 3. Is this the second time you have been to Guangzhou? 4. is reported in the newspaper, the war between the two countries has come to a stop. 5. Can you think of another example this phrase can be used? 6. The train on he is traveling is late. 7. Do you still remember the happy days we spent together in Beijing? 8. I have bought the same skirt she is wearing. 9. Is this the reason he is late again? 10. Her parents wouldn't let her marry anyone family was very poor, 11. l, am your best friend, will help you out. 12. The dam' will come the people all over the world will win liberation. 13. The students are talking about the strange people and stories they met in the adventure. 14. He is the very man in pocket I found my lost money. 15. I have a picture bv a famous painter was sent to me for my birthday. 三、语法填空:用适当的代词填空。 One day, as Zeng Zi?s wife was going out, her child began to cry, begging to go with 1 . “Stay home,” the mother said to him. “When 2 return, we?ll kill a pig for 3 dinner!” When she came back, 4 found Zeng Zi preparing to slaughter a pig for the child?s meal. She hurried over to stop 5 : What are you doing? You?re not really going to kill a pig, are you? I was just kidding him!” “How can 6 lie to children?” Zeng Zi replied. “ 7 learn each and 8 movement from 9 parents. If 10 deceive your child with lies, you are teaching the child to lie. One cannot educate children this way.” In the end, Zeng Zi killed the pig. 答案:
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一.用适当的代词填空.使其意思和结构完整: 1. none; any 2. one 3. little 4. neither 5. another 6.either 7. every other day 8. less; fewer 9. every 10. all 二. 用适当的关系代词或副词填空,使其意思和结构完整: 1. which 2. that 3. that 4. As 5 .where 6 .which 7. that/which 8. as 9 .why 10 .whose 11. who 12. when 13. that 14 .whose 15 .that/which 三、 1. her 2. I 3. your 4. she 5. him 6. we 7. They 8. every 9. their 10. you

专题四 数词 I、重点难点解析 数词是用来表示事物和数量的顺序的词,分为基数词和序数词两种。 功能 读法 三要 点 做主语、宾语、表语、定语、同位语 A. 31 个词: 记 基数词 1~19, 20~29 整十位数和 hundred, thousand, million, billion B.会读个、十、百位数 C.由右向左每三位数前的逗号分别读做 thousand, million 和 billion,逗号 之间的按百位以内的数读 A.表示“几百”、“几千”时,hundred, thousand 等词不加 s B.hundred, thousand 等词为复数时做名词,表示“数量很多”的意思 A.一般的基数词后+th,多位数的基数词只变最后一位。如:ten→tenth 构成 功能 B.整几十的基数词,去掉词尾的 y 再加 ieth,如:thirty→thirtieth C.几个不规则词:first, second, third, fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth 做定语,前面加 the;年、月、日中的日;表示“第几”时;分数中的分母

基 数 词

注意 序 数 词

一 基数词:表示数目的词为基数词,它的构成如下表: 范 围 1~12 13~19 20~90 21~99 101~999 无规律 以 teen 为结尾 以 ty 结尾 十 位 与 个位 之 间要 加 连 字符 “-” 百 位 与 十位 之 间通 常 用 and 特 点 实 例 one, two, www.ks5u.comthree, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety twenty-five, sixty-five, ninety-nine three hundred and twenty-five(美语中常将 and 省略)

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千以上 6275—six thousand two hundred and seventy-five ; 1200—twelve hundred

二 序数词:表示顺序的数词为序数词,它的构成如下表: 范 围 特 点 实 例 其中七个例外: first, second, third, fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth, 其余,如:four — forth, six — sixth, nineteen — nineteenth twentieth, fortieth, ninetieth 21st — twenty-first, 110th — one hundred and tenth

1~19 20,30~90 21 以后多位 数

各基数词尾加 th 把 y 变 i 后加 eth 最后一个数用序数词,其 余用基数词

三 数词的用法: 1.英语中年月日、点钟、序数词、分数词、算式列表 汉语示例 2001 年 6 月 30 日 时 间 表 达 七点二十五分(7:25) 九点十五分(9:15) 二点半(2:30) 第二十一 第一百二十三 二分之一 二又五分之二 百分之二十 第七路公共汽车 第 201 房间 人民路 153 号 第三中学 4+8 = 12 11-7= 4 算 式 表 达 6× 5=30 20÷ 4 5= A>B A<B A≈B A≠B 英语表示法 June 30,2001 30June,2001 30thJune, 2001 seven twenty-five / twenty-five past even nine fifteen a quarter past nine two thirty half past two twenty-first one hundred and twenty-third a half two and two-fifths 20 per cent 20 percent Bus Number 7 Room 201 153 Renmin Road No 3 Middle School Four plus eight is twelve Eleven minus seven is four. Six times five is thirty. twenty divided by five is four. A is more than B. A is less than B. A is approximately (近似地, 大约)equal to B. A is not equal to B.

十二点五十四分(12:54) twelve fifty four six to one

二十一点五十分 (20: 50) twenty-one fifty 9:50p.m. 数 字 表 达 编 号 表 达

2.约数表示法列表 含义 大于某数 英语表达 more than 例句 He has lived here for more than twenty years.

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over or more less than 小于某数 under below or less nearly almost up to 大约(某数) 高.考.资.源.网 高.考.资.源.网 or or so about some more or less around/round 3.不定数量词“多”的表示法列表 被修饰名词的数 dozens of scores of Many / a good(great) many, many a (饰单数可数名 词) hundreds of thousands of / thousands upon thousands of millions of billions of 修饰不可数名词 修饰可数名词或 不可数名词 much , a great (good)deal of , a large amount of ,large amounts of a lot of / lots of ,plenty of, a large quantity of , large quantities of 英语表达 许多 许多、大量 数以百计 成千上万 数百万 亿万 许多、大量 汉译 几十、许多 she is over fifty. There're thirty people or more in the meeting-room. I have less than (not more than )fifty dollars. Children under seven are not allowed to enter. He would not sell it for below a hundred fifty dollars. The coat might cost him sixty dollars or less. She is nearly fifty now. Its almost three o'clock. Up to ten men can sleep in this tent. He spent four or five days writing the article. The distance is twenty miles or so. I visited that village about three years ago. Their team has some four or five players. The container can hold more or less twenty pounds of water. Let's make it round/around eight o'clock.

修饰可数名词

许多、大量

II、实战演练 根据句意将括号内的汉语译成英语 1.It is not rare ________________(在九十年代) that people in their fifties are going to university for further education. 2.______________ (三分之二)of the land in that district is covered with trees and grass. 3. Americans eat __________________ (两倍多的) many vegetables per person today as they as did in 1910. 4.The earth is ______________ (49 倍)the size of the moon. 5.The grain output of this year is ___________________ (高 8%)than that of last year.
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6._______________ (几百万)people in the world are sending information by E-mail every day. 7.The hero of the story is an artist ____________________ (三十多岁) . 8.Mr Smith asked me to buy _____________(两打)eggs for the dinner. 9.—Tell me where you live,please. —I live____________________(在和平路 123 号) . 10. About ______________________ ( 三千人)took part in the demonstration against the war on Iraq. 11. The rice production has __________________________ (增加了 5.8%) this year. 12. There were fifteen presidents before Abraham Lincoln, so he was _____________ ( 第十六 任)president. 13. It will take me ____________________________( 一年半的时间) to finish the course. 14. Is the Yellow River ___________________________(第二大河 )in China? 15. ______________________ (开始的三个部分 )of the text are rather difficult for us beginners. 16. I will stay here for _________________(一两天 ). 17. He lived in _________________________________(五楼 506 房 ). 18. The class was over. The students went out of the classroom __________________( 三三两两 地). 答案:1. in the 90s 2. Two fifths 3. more than twice 4. 49 times 5. 8 percent higher 6 . S e v e r a l mi l l i o n 7.in his thirties 8.several dozen 9.at 123 Heping Street 10. three thousand people 11. increased by five point eight percent 12. the sixteenth 13. one and a half years? time 14. the second largest 15. The first three parts 16. one or two days 17. Room 506 on the fifth floor 18. in twos or threes

专题五 形容词和副词 I、重点难点解析 形容词、 副词比较级和最高级的常用句型及用法。 系动词后接形容词作表语和一些常用 副词(seldom, even, enough, never, hardly)也是高考热点之一。 一 形容词、副词比较级和最高级的常用句型 名称 相等 句型 1. as+原级+as 2. as+原级+a/an+单数名词+as 3. as many+名词复数+as as much+不可数名词+as 4. 倍数+as+原级+名词+as 不及 not as/so+原级+as 1.比较级+than 超越 2. the+比较级+of the two 两者中较…… 的一个 例句 The train travels as fast as the 3:55 train. He is as honest a man as you. I have as many books as you. My room is twice as big as my brother?s. She is not as/so beautiful as her sister. Health is more important than wealth. He is the taller of the two.

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用于否定 用于否定 程度递增 两种情况 同时变化 三者或三 者以上比 较 no+比较级+than 和……一样不 再……不过(可译为“非常,十分”) -er and -er,more and more+多音节词原 级(越来越……) the+比较级,the +比较级 越……) (越……, He is no richer than I. 他和我一样不富有。 His work couldn?t be worse. 他的工作再糟糕不过了。 higher and higher; more and more important

The quicker you get ready,the sooner we'll be able to leave. Of all things in the world,people are the most precious.

the+最高级+of/in + 比较范围(…之中 最…)

二 比较级结构的修饰语 1 用于原级之 前 用于比较级 前 用于最高级 前 almost, nearly, just, quite, half, twice, three times, etc The river is three times as long as that one.

2

1) many, a few (用于“more+可数名词复 It takes many more hours to go there by train than by plane. 数”前) 2) a lot, much, even, still, far, a great deal, rather, two years, 5%, twice, etc. the very, much the, by far the, the first/second My desk mate is even fatter than me. This cake is by far the largest in the world.

3

三 两种形式的副词,一个与形容词同形,一个以 ly 结尾。 1 hard hardly hard 劝告;刻苦地;猛烈地;困难地 hardly 几乎不;简直不 high 高高地;地位高;声音高 2 high highly highly 高度地;非常(常和 praise , speak 等动 词连用) 修饰具体动作时,往往两个词可换 用,但多用 deep 表示静止状态时只用 deep (此时多与 介词、副词连用)。 修饰形容词或过去分词只能用 deeply。 deeply deeply 可与 hate , dislike , regret , admire , love , value 等动词连用,但 不能与动词 like 连用。 He studies very hard . 他学习非常努力。

We hardly had time to eat breakfast . 我们简直没时 间吃早饭。 The plane flies high . 飞机飞得很高 They spoke very highly of him . 他们称赞他。

deep deep deeply

They had to dig very deep (deeply) in order to find water . 他们必须挖得很深,才能发现水。

The meeting continued deep into the night . 会议持 续到了深夜。 I am deeply grateful to you . 我非常感谢你。

3

I deeply regret his death . 我对他的去世深感遗憾。

late 迟;晚。 4 late lately lately 最近;不久前 (同 recently )。

The bus arrived 5 minutes late . 公共汽车迟到了五 分钟。

What have you been doing lately ? 最近你在做什 么 ?

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as late as 与 as lately as 都有“近至;直到”之 意,用法相同。 5 near nearly near 近;临近;在附近。 nearly 几乎;差不多;将近。 close 靠近;挨近;接近。 6 close closely closely 紧密地;紧紧地;秘密地;仔细地;严 密地。

I saw him as late(lately) as yesterday . 直到昨天我 才看见他。

The train came nearer and nearer . 火车越来越近 了。 It is nearly ten o'clock . 差不多十点钟了。

Come close so that I can see you . 走近点以便我能 看清你。

We followed closely after him . 我们紧紧地跟在他 后面。

四 以 ly 结尾的形容词: 1 表示时间的形容 词 表示人的形容词 hourly, daily, nightly, weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly, early, timely 及时的。 manly 男子气的,womanly 女人气的, wifely 妻子似的,fatherly 父亲般的, childly 孩子般的, comradely 同 志式的 lovely, friendly, ugly, lively, lonely, friendly, unfriendly, kindly, sickly, poorly, elderly 年长的,homely 不漂亮的、朴 实的。 likely 可能的, orderly 整齐的, costly 花费大的,deadly 致命的,mannerly 有 貌的,chilly 凉的,disorderly 乱七八糟 的,unlikely 不可能的。 This theatre gives nightly performance. a

2

What are wifely duties? 什么是做妻子的责任? Children lively. are usually

3

表示人的外貌、特 征、性格、心理等 的形容词 表示事物特征、环 境、情况、状态的 形容词

4

Please leave our classroom in an orderly way.让我们的教室整整 齐齐的。

五 senior, junior, superior, inferior 等词与 to 连用 1 能与 to 连用,但 不能与 than 连用 superior 优秀的, 高级 的(反义词 inferior)。 senior 年长的,地位高 的,资格老的(反义词 junior ). 2 既不能与 than 连 用,又不能与 to 连用的 major 主要的 minor 次 要的,表示不太重要或 较次要。 This restaurant is superior to the one we went to last week.这家饭馆比我们上周毒 的那家好。 She is senior to everyone else in the company. 她 在公 司里比其他人 资格都 要 老。 The young actress was given a minor part in the new play. 年轻的女演员在这部新戏里 被分配担任一个小角色。 The infection is fairly minor, nothing to worry about.感染不严重,用不着担心。

六 某些以 a 开头的表语形容词 以 a- 开头的只能作表语的形容词还有 afraid, alone, asleep, alive, alike 等。特殊用法 1) alive“活着的,活的”是表语形容词,既可指人又可指物,有时可与 living 互换。 He is dead, but his dog is still alive/living .他死了,但他的狗仍然活着。 2) alive 作定语一般放在所修饰的名词后: Who is the greatest man alive? 谁是当今活着的最伟大的人? 3) alive 可作宾语补足语:
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Let's keep the fish alive. 让鱼活着的吧。 4)这类形容词一般都不能用 very 修饰,但可用 much 或 very much 等修饰。 不能说:I am very alone, 只可以说 I am much alone 或 very much alone。 七 多个形容词修饰一个名词的排列顺序大致为: 限定词(冠词/代词)→数词→描绘形容词→大小→形状→新旧→年龄→颜色→国籍→ 材料+名词 a small round wooden table; an old Chinese stone bridge; the man?s first two famous small red French oil paintings II、实战演练 填入适当的形容词、副词或用所给词的正确形式填空 1. The number of the trees that the villagers planted last year reached as __________ as 6,000,000. 2. There was so _________ smoke that they couldn?t see across the hallway. 3. My little brother is not old ___________ to go to school. 4. In that case, there is nothing you can do __________ than wait. 5. I must be getting fat-I can ____________ do my trousers up. 6. They are __________ little insects that we can not easily see them with our eyes. 7. There was __________ little food left then that we had to turn to the local people for help. 8. Mary kept weighing herself to see how much ___________ she was getting. 9. I haven?t seen the movie and my brother hasn?t _____________. 10. He is always telling lies, so I will ________ believe him. 11. John is very lazy. He falls ________ behind in his studies. 12. Two passengers fell into the sea. ______________, neither of them could swim. 13. We talked ___________ into the night and I was ___________ moved by his words.(deep) 14. I found his talk very _____________ and I was really _____________ in it.(interest) 15. Who is the greatest poet ____________ (live)? 16. The more words you know, the ______________(easy) you can read. 17. David has won the first prize in singing; he is still very excited now and feels _____________(little) desire to go to bed. 18. We have a __________ (month) rainfall of four inches in winter here. 19. He is by far the ___________ (good) student in his class. 20. I have two brothers and both of them are ___________ than me. My __________ brothers are friendly with me.(old) 答案: 1. many 2. much 3. enough 4. other 5. hardly 6. such 7. so 8. heavier 9. either 10. never 11. far 12. Unluckily/Unfortunately 13. deep, deeply 14. interesting, interested 15. alive 16. the more easily 17. the least 18. monthly 19. best 20.older, elder

二、语法填空 用括号中所给词语的正确形式填空。
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A father sat at his desk looking at and carefully studying his 1 (month) bills when his young son rushed in and announced, “Dad, because this is your birthday and you?re 55 years old, I?m going to give you 55 kisses, one for each year!” But the father exclaimed, “Oh, Andrew, don?t do it now; I?m too busy!” The youngster immediately fell 2 (silence) as tears flew down from his big blue eyes. 3 (Apologetic) the father said, “You can finish later.” The boy said nothing but 4 (quiet) walked away, 5 (disappoint). That evening the father said, “Come and finish the kisses now, Andrew!” But the boy didn?t respond. 6 (fortunate), the boy had an accident and was drowned. His heartbroken father wrote… “If only I could tell him how much I regret my 7 (thought) words, and could be assured that he knows how much my heart is aching.” Love is a two-way street. Any loving act must be 8 (warm) accepted or it will be taken as 9 (reject) and can leave a scar. Nothing is more 10 (importance) than responding with love to the cry for love from those who are near and precious to us. Because there may be no chance at all as in the case of the little boy. 答案: 1. monthly 2. silent 3. Apologetically 4. quietly 5. disappointed 6. Unfortunately 7. thoughtless 8. warmly 9. rejection 10. important Many people think teachers give pupils too much homework. They say that it is 1 (necessary) for children to work at home in their free time. 2 they argue that most teachers do not 3 (proper)plan the homework tasks they give to pupils. The results are that pupils have to repeat tasks which they have 4 done at school. 5 (Recent) Recently in Greece many parents complained about the 6 (difficulty) homework which teachers gave to their children. The parents said that most of the homework was 7 (use), and they wanted to stop it. Spain and Turkey are two countries which stopped homework recently. In Denmark, Germany and several other countries in Europe, teachers cannot set homework at weekends. In Holland, teachers allow pupils to stay at school to do their homework. The children can 8 (free) help one another. Similar arrangement also exists in some British schools. Most people agree that homework is not fair. A pupil who can do his homework in a quiet and 9 (comfort) room is in a much 10 (good) position than a pupil who does his homework in a small, noisy room with the television on. Some parents are ready to help their children with their homework. But other parents even take no interest at all in their children?s homework. 答案 : 1. unnecessary 2. Moreover 3. properly 4 . already 5. Recently 6.difficult 7. useless 三、完形填空 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 21-30 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳 选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 One day a police officer managed to get some fresh mushrooms (蘑菇). He was so 21 that he cooked them and offered to share with his fellow officers. “Let the dog try a piece first,” suggested one 22 officer who was afraid that the mushrooms might be 23 . The dog seemed to enjoy his mushroom, and the officers then began to eat their meal, saying that the
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mushrooms had a very strange but quite 24 taste. An hour later, however, they were all 25 when the gardener rushed in and said 26 that the dog was dead. Immediately, the officers jumped into their cars and rushed to the 27 hospital. Pumps(洗胃器) were used and the officers had a very 28 time getting rid of the mushrooms that remained in their stomachs. When they returned, they called the gardener to tell how the dog died. “Did it suffer much before death?” asked one of the officers, feeling very pleased that he had escaped a 29 death himself. “No”, the gardener looked rather 30 . “It was killed the moment a car hit it.” 21.A.sure B. careless C. pleased D. disappointed 22.A.frightened B. shy C. cheerful D. careful 23.A.dangerous B. poisonous C. harmful D. smelly 24.A.special B. delicious C. pleasant D. bitter 25.A.glad B. curious C. satisfied D. astonished 26.A.cruelly B. curiously C. seriously D. finally 27.A.animal B. biggest C. best D. nearest 28.A.hard B. busy? C. exciting D. unforgettable 29.A.strange B. painful C. peaceful D. natural 30.A.happy B. interested?C. surprised D. excited CDBCD CDABC

专题六 介词 I、重点难点解析 介词又叫前置词, 是一种虚词。 介词不能独立在句中做成份, 介词后必须与名词、 代词、 或动名词构成介词短语在句中充当一个成份,表示人、物、事件等与其它人、物、事件等之 间的关系。介词短语在句中可作定语、状语、表语、宾语补足语。 一 介词从结构上分类一览表 介词的分类 只有单独一个词的介词 after, at, on, in, during, since, till 等(时间介词); across, over, through, past, near, to, above 等(方位介词);by, for, down, from, of, off, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, up, with, about, against, along, among, around... 由两个单一词合成的介词 into,inside,onto,outside,throughout,towards,upon,within,without… (1)形容词,分词或副词+介词 according to, away from, down to, inside of, near to, opposite to, owing to... 短语 介词 (2)连词+介词 as for,as to,because of… (3)介词+介词(又称双重介词) from among, from behind, from under, till after, in between...

简单 介词 复合 介词

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(4)介词+名词+介词 by means of, in front of, in spite of, on account of, with regard to…… (5)其他 (名词十介词)thanks to 由其 他词 类转 用 (1)分词 (2)形容词 或副词 (3)连词 (4)名词 concerning(关于),considering(就……而论),including(包括), regarding(关于) like(像),near(接近).opposite(在……对面),unlike(不像),round(围 绕……),next( 和……邻接) than,but(除……之外) despite(不顾;不管)

二 主要介词区别 1.表示时间的 at,in,on: at 表示片刻的时间,如:at 8 a.m. 常用词组有:at dawn, at noon,at night,at midnight,at the end of,at that time, at Christmas,at New Year 等。 in 表示一段的时间,如:in the morning/afternoon/evening,in October,in 1998,in the 21st century, in summer, in the past, in the future 等。 on 指特定的日子, 时间: Monday, Christmas Eve, on May Day, a warm morning, on on on on September 12, on that day 等。 2.表示时间的 since 和 from: since “自从…以来”,常与现在完成时、现在完成进行时连用。 from “自…起”, 一般多与现在时、 过去时、 将来时连用。 I hope to do morning exercises 如: from today./We have not seen each other since 1995. 3.表示时间的 in 和 after: in+时间段,一般用于将来时。如:We' II be back in three days. after+时间段,一般用于过去时。如: After two months he returned. 注意:after+时间点,可用于过去时和将来时。如:After seven the rain began to fall. / What shall we do after graduation? 4.表示方位的 in,on,to: in 表示 “在…内”, Beijing is in the north of China. on 指 “与…接壤,在河/江畔”, Korea lies on the east of China to 指在境外某方向,只强调方向 Japan lies to the east of China. 5.表示“在……上”的 on 和 in: on 只表示在某物的表面上,如:There is a book on the piece of paper. in 表示占去某物一部分,如: There is an interesting article in the newspaper. / He dug a hole in the wall. 6.表示“穿过……”的 through, over 和 across: through 指在内部穿过, across 则指在表面上的横穿, over 指在上方过去, 跨越。 如: The Great Wall winds its way from west to east, across deserts, over mountains, through valleys, till at last it reaches the sea.
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7.In the end,at the end of,by the end of in the end 意为“最后”、“终于”; 如: In the end they reached a place of safety at the end of 表示“在…末梢”,“到…尽头”,既可指时间,也可以指地上或物体;如: At the end of the road stands a beautiful garden. They decided to have an English evening at the end of this week. by the end of 作“到…末为止”解,只能指时间,如:By the end of last month he had finished the novel. 8.between,among: between 一般表示两者之间。如:You are to sit between your father and me among 用于三者或三者以上的中间。如:. The girl quickly disappeared among the crowd. 注意: 有时虽然是三个以上的人或东西, 如果强调两两相互间接关系, 仍用 between。 如:Agreements were made between the different countries. 在谈事物间的差别时,总 是用 between。如:They don?t know the difference between wheat, oats and barley. 9.besides,except,but,except for: besides 指“除了……还有”。如:Two foreign teachers were present at the meeting besides Smith. ; except 指“除…外”,不能放在句首。如:We go to school every day except Sunday. but 与 except 意思相近, 常用在 no, all, nobody, anywhere, everything ,no 等词和其他疑问词 后面。如:Who but a fool would do such a thing? except for 表示“如无……就,只是” 表明理由细节。如:His diary is good except for a few spelling mistakes. 10.表示用工具和手段的 by, in, with: by 表用工具(by train / land / hand / email…)或手段(by reading…), 其后的名词前不带冠词; with 表用工具(with a pencil / our eyes),其后的名词多被冠词、物主代词修饰; in 表示用材料、方式、方法、度量、单位、语言、声音等(in pencil/English/a low voice…) 11.as,like: as 指身份、资格,意为“作为”。 如:Let me speak to you as a father.(事实是父亲) like 作“象……一样”解。如:Let me speak to you like a father.(事实上不是父亲)。 12.as, with 都有“随着…”之意。 as 为连词,后接从句。如:As the day went on, the weather got worse with 为介词,后接名词或代词。. 如:With spring coming on, the weather gets warmer. II、实战演练 一、 介词比较精练,用适当的介词填空 1. 1) __________ the night of May 4th, my good friend left for Canada. 2) __________ night you can see the stars twinkle in the sky. 3) __________ Sunday morning/a cold morning Marie was woken up by a loud noise. 4) __________ the morning she often has milk and some bread for breakfast. 5) __________ the 1970s we had a hard time. 2. 1) Kate is writing __________ a friend of hers. 2) Kate is writing __________ a piece of paper. 3) Kate is writing __________ blue ink. 4) Kate is writing __________ a piece of chalk on the blackboard. 5) Kate is writing a letter __________ an old man who can?t write. 3. 1) We all passed the exam ________ the end. 2) We had finished learning five books __________ the end of last term.
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3) We will hold a party ___________ the end of this term. 4. 1) The apples ________ the tree are ripe. 2) The birds _________ the tree are singing merrily. 3) There is a map of China _________ the back wall. 4) There is a small hole ____________ the wall. 5. 1) China lies __________ the west of Japan. 2) Canada lies _________ the north of the USA. 3) Canada lies _________ the north of North America. 6. 1) He can do everything __________ cooking. 2) He can speak two other languages __________ English. 3) He did nothing _________ watch TV all day. 4) The road was empty _________ _________ several cars at that time. 7. 1) The man tried to walk __________ the big rock. 2) The man walked __________ the road and got on a bus. 3) The man saw some beautiful birds when walking __________ the woods. 8. 1) There is no secret _________ you and me. 2) You are the tallest ___________ my friends. 3) There is a break ____________ classes. 9. 1) ________ time passed, things seemed to get worse. 2) _______ time going by, he knows more and more. 10. 1) He will leave for Korea _________ three days. 2) He went to Beijing and returned ___________ three days. 3) He will be back ___________ 3 p.m. 4) He has lived in Paris __________ three years ago. 5) It kept raining heavily ___________ Monday _________ Wednesday. 二、 语法填空 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后选用适当的介词填空 It was so nice an afternoon that I decided to go for a little walk 1 my new boots---the ones I?d seen advertised on TV 2 “the world?s best boots”. Well, 3 theory, yes, they were very comfortable boots but I soon found that in fact they gave me blisters. In general I do enjoy walking, but at that moment all I wanted was rest and refreshment, in other words, I needed to sit down, have a drink and go home 4 the bus. The last bus home was in half an hour and I was far 5 the bus stop so I would have to get there 6 a hurry. At last I got to the bus stop just in time 7 a drink at the pub before the bus came. I limped to the bus stop in the hope 8 getting on. But I was out of luck because the bus was full up---not even standing room! I knew I?d never make it home on foot and I was 9 the point of returning to the pub to drown my sorrows when another bus came round the corner, completely empty. I got on, sat by myself at the back and started to feel 10 peace with the world again as I took off my boots! 答案:1. On, At, On, In, In 2. to, on, in, with, for 3. in, by, at 4. on, in, on, in 5. to, on, in 6. except, besides, but, except for 7. over, across, through/in 8. between, among, between 9. As, With 10. in, after, at, since, from…to

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1. in 2. as 3. in 4. on 5. from 6. in 7. for 8. of 9. on 10. at 专题七 情态动词 I、重点难点解析 情态动词的高考命题导向:情态动词表示说话者的情感和态度,有一定的含义,但是不能单 独做谓语,必须与其他动词连用。注意区别具有相同功能的,意思相近的情态动词的用法。 一 情态动词基本用法一览表 情态动 词 用法 1 表许可(和 may 可互换)、能力 2 表怀疑、猜测、可能性(用于 否定和疑问句中) 3 could 可表比 can 更委婉的语 气及用于虚拟语气。 1 表可以(问句中表请求,might 更婉转) 2 表可能,或许(might 语气更 加不肯定) 3 表祝愿(用于倒装句中) 例句 1You can/may sit here./He can swim. 2 He can?t be sixty. 3 Could you come again tomorrow? 注意事项

can could

can 和 be able to 都可表能 力, be able to 可表达“某 但 事终于成功”, 有更多的时 态。 1 回答 May…do…?的否定 用 mustn?t/can?t 2 回答 May/Might… do…? 的 否 定 can?t/might not 用

may might

1 May/Might I use your bike? 2 He may/might be at home. 3 May you succeed!

must

1 表必须,应该(表主观要求) 1 You must study 2 表推测 (用于肯定句)译为“准 hard. , 2 She must be tired. 是,一定” 只好,不得不(客观的必须,有 时态人称变化) 应当(表示义务责任,口语中多 用 should 1 用于一三人称的疑问句,表征 询意见 2 用于二三人称, 表示许诺、命 令、警告等 1 表建议或劝告,译为“应该” 2 本该(含有责备意味) Without help, I had to do it myself. You ought to obey laws. 1 Shall we go now? 2 The sign there reads, “No person shall smoke here.” 1 You should learn from each other. 2 You should have given him help. 1 He promised he would never smoke again. 2 Will/Would you like some tea? He dare not/daren?t

否定式 mustn?t 表不准, 禁 止 ; 否 定 回 答 用 needn?t/don?t/doesn?t have to(不必) must 表主观意识。have to 有多种时态。 否定用 oughtn?t 疑问句用 Ought…to do…?

have to ought to

shall

should

will would

1 表意志或决心 2 疑问句中用于第二人称表请 求,would 比较委婉 敢(常用于否定句、疑问句和条

would 表示过去的习惯或 喜好,不涉及现在; used to 表示过去常常做现在已经 不再有的习惯. 过去式 dared; 可作实义动

dare

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件从句中) sleep alone. Dare you touch it? You needn?t do the work now. 词 Need…do…?的肯定回答: Yes,…must. 可 作 实 义 动 词 否 定 式 usedn?t/usen?t to do/didn?t use to do; 疑问 Used…to…do…?Did…use to do…?

need

需要,必须(常用于否定句和疑 问句中)

used to

过去常常(现在已不再)

He used to play football.

二 “情态动词+不定式进行式”和“情态动词+不定式完成式”用法一览表 句式 can +不定式进行式 can +不定式完成式 说明 表示“可能”, 用于否定句和 疑问句(could 也可能有此 用法,只是语气更委婉) 指过去没实现的动作,表 “本来可以” 例句 He can?t be telling lies. 他不可能在说谎。 He can?t have told lies. 他不可能说过谎话。 It?s too late. You could have told him earlier.你本来能早点告诉 他的。 He may be doing homework. 他也许在做作业。 He may have missed the train. 他可能错过了火车。 The light is on. He must be working. 灯亮着,他一定在工作。 He is sad. He must have failed the exam.他准是考试不及格。 You needn?t have lent the book to him. He bought it already. 你本来不必把这本书借给她, 他已经买了一本。 I should have bought it. 我应该把它买下来的。 You shouldn?t have scolded him. 你不应该这样粗心大意。

could+不定式完成式

may+不定式进行式 may+不定式完成式

表示“可能,也许”,用于肯 定句 肯定句表示“一定在干某 事” 用于肯定句,表示“准是干 了某事” “本来不必做”, 只用于否定 句 肯定句表示“本应该做而实 际没做”; 否定句表示“不应该做而实 际却做了”

must+不定式进行式

must+不定式完成式

needn?t+不定式完成式

should/ought to+不定式完成 式

II、实战演练 填入情态动词的恰当形式或根据括号所提供的词填入情态动词恰当的结构。 1. I should have been there, but I ____________ find the time. 2. Helen _______ go on the trip with us, but she isn?t quite sure yet. 3. Tom, you ___________ not leave all your clothes on the floor like this! 4. You can?t imagine that a well behaved gentleman _____________ be so rude to a lady. 5. It has been announced that candidates_____________ remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected.
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---Lucy doesn?t mind lending you her dictionary. ---She ____________. I?ve already borrowed one. 7. John, look at the time. _______________ you play the piano at such a late hour? 8. ---__________ this book be yours? ---No, it ____________ not be mine. It ___________ be his. 9. As a girl, she ____________ get up at six every day. 10. __________ he to clean the classroom after school? 11. You ____________ be tired after the long trip, aren?t you? 12. ---What?s the name? ---Khulaifi. __________ I spell that for you? 13. You _____________________ (see) the film, haven?t you? 14. You _____________________ (talk) on the phone at that time, for I couldn?t get through. 15. They _____________________ (miss) the plane, or perhaps they have been prevented from coming for some reason. 16. ______________ you pass the college entrance examinations! 17. He had known the matter before you told him, so you _____________________ (not tell) it to him. 18. I did not call to make any airline reservation but I ________________. 19. The light is out. They _______________________ (not work) now. 20. ---My cat is really fat. ---You _____________________ (not give) her so much food. 6. 答案:1. couldn?t 2. may 3. mustn?t 4. should 5. shall 6. needn?t 7. Must 8. Can; can?t; must 9. would 10. Ought 11. must 12. shall 13.must have seen 14. must be talking 15. might/might have missed 16. May 17. needn?t have told 18. should have 19. can?t be working 20. shouldn?t have given

专题八 非谓语动词 I、重点难点解析 非谓语动词的高考命题导向:非谓语动词是高考的重点,考查立意较低,主要考查非谓语动 词的一般用法和含义,但是题目的设计注重了情景化,结构较为复杂。 一 非谓语动词的分类、构成及功能一览表 非谓语形式 构成
第 31 页 共 73 页

特征和作用

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时态和语态 to do, to be doing, to have done to have been doing doing, having done 否定式 复合 结构 具有名词、 副词和形容词 的作用,在句中作主语、 定语、 表语、 宾语、 状语、 宾补(在 let, make, see, feel, notice 等动词后做宾 补时不带 to) 具有副词、形容词的作 用, 在句中作定语、 表语、 状语、宾补(常用在 see, find, feel, keep, get, have 等动词之后) sb. ?s dong 具有名词的作用, 在句中 作主语、定语、表语、宾 语、

不定式

to be done, to have been done 在 to, 动名词及 分词前 +not/never

for sb. to do sth.

分 词

现在分词 过去分词

being done, having been done done

动名词

doing, having done

being done, having been done

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二 作宾语的非谓语动词比较 情况 只接不定式作 宾语的动词 只接动名词作 宾语的动词或 短语 常用动词 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage, agree, afford, determine, promise, happen mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist, consider can?t help, feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to, adapt to begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue (接不定式多指具体的动作,接动 名词多指一般或习惯行为) need, want, require (接动名词主动形式表示被动意义,若接不定式则应用被 动形式) stop to do 停止手中事,去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在做的事 remember/forget/regret to do (指动 作尚未发生)remember/forget/regret doing(指动作已经发生) try to do (设法,努力去做, )try doing(试试做, ) go on to do (接着做另外一件事) go on doing (接着做同一件事) mean to do(打算做,企图做) mean doing(意思是,意味着)

意义基本 相同 两 者 都 可 以

意义相反

意义不同

can?t help (to) do(不能帮忙做)can?t help doing(忍不住要做) 三 非谓语动词作宾语补足语的区别 类别 常见动词 ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, want, wish, encourage have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make notice, see, watch, hear, find, keep, have, feel (即:感官动词和使役 动词) 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概 念 例句

不 定 式

主谓关系。强调动作将发生或 已经完成

1) I expect them to win the game. 2) I heard him call me several times. I found her listening to the radio. We found the village greatly changed.

现在 分词 过去 分词

主谓关系。强调动作正在进 行,尚未完成 动宾关系。动作已经完成,多 强调状态

四 现在分词和过去分词的用法对比 分 类 现在分词 项目 意义 表示主动意义 表示被动意义 1 I can hear him singing. 2 I can hear the song sung in English. 过去分词 例句

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动作 语义 所表示的动作一 般在进行中 意思为“令人…” 所表示的动作多 已完成 意思为“感到…” China is a developing country while America is a developed one. It is an exciting match, so we are excited.

五 特别提示 1. 关于不定式 1)不定式作介词宾语时,如前面有实义动词 do(各种形式) ,则不定式不带 to;否则不能 省 to。 He did nothing all the morning but watch TV. He said nothing but to sleep. 2)不定式作定语时,如果不定式与所修饰的名词有逻辑上的动宾关系,且不定式的动词是 不及物动词,记住别漏掉介词。 I want a small room to live in. / I need a nice pen to write with. 3)不定式作感官动词和部分使役动词(let, make)的宾补,动词不定式不带 to,但句子变成被 动语态时,要带 to。 I saw him go into the room.→ He was seen to go into the room. 2. 关于分词 1) 现在分词作补语表示动作正在进行,不定式作补语表示动作发生的全过程。 I saw him walking across the road. (正在穿过马路) I saw him walk across the road. (看到全过程,过了马路) 2)及物动词的过去分词(done)与现在分词的一般被动式(being done)都有被动意义,前者表 示动作完成,后者表示动作在进行。 The picture fixed on the wall was presented by a friend.(已经被订在墙上了) The picture being fixed on the wall was presented by a friend. (正被订在墙上) 注意:不定式有表将来之意。 The picture to be fixed on the wall was presented by a friend. (将要被订在墙上) 3) 分词的独立主格结构:如果分词短语的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致,需用一个独立结 构(即保留分词的逻辑主语)或者由一个 with/without 引导的介词短语表达。 Time permitting, we?ll do another two exercises. His work finished, he prepared to go home. With his work finished, he prepared to go home. 3. 关于动名词 1)动名词作定语表所修饰词的用途,而现在分词表动作或状态、特征。 2)动名词的复合结构作宾语,动名词的逻辑主语可用宾格代词或不带所有格。但作主语不 行。Do you mind my/me/Tom smoking here? My/Tom’s smoking here annoyed him. 3)动名词作主语还可用于“There be no+动名词”结构和“布告形式的省略结构中。 There is no knowing what he will do next. 不知道他下一步会做什么。 No smoking. 禁止吸烟。

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II、实战演练 I 用所给动词的适当形式填空 1. 1) ___________ to the left, and you?ll see the bus stop. 2) ___________ to the left, you?ll see the bus stop. (turn) 2. 1) ___________ many times, he still couldn?t understand the question. 2) ___________ me the bad news, he went out of the room sadly. (tell) 3. 1) Nothing could make us _________ up the hope. 2) Crusoe made a candle __________ light. (give) 4. 1) I want __________ your bag. 2) Your eyes want ___________. 3) I want my eyes ________ this afternoon.(examine) 5. 1) What?s the way Smith thought of _________ enough money to buy the new house? 2) I?m thinking of _________ Tom to repair my bike. (get) 6. 1) We don?t allow _________ in the office because of the public health. 2) We don?t allow anyone _________ in the office because of the public health.(smoke) 7. 1) My little brother enjoys nothing but __________ to music. 2) My little brother does nothing all day but __________ to music. 3) My little brother had no choice but ____________ to me.( listen) 8. 1) The teacher raised his voice in order to make himself ______________ . (hear) 2) The teacher raised his voice in order to make his students ___________ what he said. 3) The children talked so loudly at dinner table that I had to struggle _______________ . 9. 1) The problem is worth __________________ again . 2) The problem is worthy _________________ again . 3) The problem is worthy of __________________ . (discuss) 10. 1) It passes right through their bodies , only ______ (get) a little thicker and sweeter . 2) He worked harder only ______ (fail) again . 11. 1) No one can stop us _______________ questions. 2) We stopped ____________ a schoolboy the way to the teachers? office. (ask) 12. 1) _____________ with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time. 2)Nearly every great building in Beijing was built _____________ south. (face) 13. 1) The parents? meeting ________________ next Saturday is very important. 2) The 29th Olympic Games _____________ in Beijing was a great success. 3) The parents? meeting __________________ in our school now is important.(hold) 14. 1) ____________ this cake, you need 2 eggs, 175g sugar and 175g flour. 2) ________________ the cake, she got down to cooking some milk. 3) I lost my way in complete darkness and, _________________ matters worse, it began to rain. (make) 15. 1) The room is so dirty that I can?t help _____________________ it. 2) I?m too busy, so I can?t help _________________ the room. 3) The room is too dirty. I can?t help but ________________ it. (clean) 16. 1) I knew I would be busy today, so I had my paper _______________ last night. 2) I can?t go with you. I have some papers ________________. 3) Do you have any papers _____________________ , sir? (type) 17. 1) With many problems ________________ , the president will have a hard time. 2) With the problem _______________, he had a good sleep last night. 3) With the secretary ______________ the problem, he is reading the newspaper leisurely in the office. (settle) 18. 1) “I ever saw him _____________ an old man of 500 yuan,” he said to the police.
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2) He was seen ________________ an old man of 500 yuan in the street yesterday. 3) Unluckily, the policeman saw him _______________ an old man around the corner. (cheat) 19. The film was ________________ and all of us were very _________________ . (disappoint) 20. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks __________________ (open and close) could be heard outside the classroom. 答案:I 1. Turn; Turning 2. Having been told/Told; Having told 3. give; to give 4.to examine; examining/to be examined; to be examined/examined 5. to get; getting 6. smoking; to smoke 7.listening; listen; to listen 8. heard; hear; to be heard 9. discussing; to be discussed; being discussed 10. getting; to fail 11. asking; to ask 12. Faced; facing 13. to be held; held; being held 14. To make; Having made; to make 15. cleaning; (to) clean; clean 16. typed; to type; to be typed 17. to settle; settled; settling 18. cheat; to cheat; cheating 19. disappointing; disappointed 20. being opened and closed 二、 语法填空 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后用括号中的词的适当形式填空 A study 1 (publish) in September suggests there is a 2 (surprise) way to get people 3 (avoid) unhealthy foods: change their memories. Scientist Elizabeth Loftus of the University of California at Irvine asked volunteers 4 (answer) some questions on their personalities and food experiences. “One week later,” Lotus says, “ 5 (feed) the people, we told them to type their answers into our smart computer and it came up with an account of their early childhood experiences.” Some accounts included one key additional detail. 6 (tell) that they had got sick after 7 (eat) strawberry ice-cream, the researchers then changed this detail into a manufactured (人为促成的) memory through 8 (lead) questions---Who were you with? How did you feel? By the end of the study, up to 41% of those 9 (give) a false memory believed strawberry ice-cream once make them sick, and many said they?d avoid 10 (eat) it. 答案:1. published 2. surprising 3. to avoid 4. to answer 5. having fed 6. Having been told 7. eating 8. leading 9. given 10. eating

专题九 动词和动词短语 I、重点难点解析 对动词和动词短语主要考查词义辨析,动词的用法与搭配及一词多义;在具体语境中正确使用动词短语。要特
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别注意一些最常用的词汇,如 get, make, have, take 等。 一 动词分类一览表 行为动词 (实义动词) 及物动词(vt.)+宾语 不及物动词(vi.) 后不加宾语 +介词 系动词 动 词 的 分 类 表 人 或 事 物 的 特 征 和 状 态 : be, feel, appear, seem, look, sound 等 表状态变化: become, get, go, turn, grow, fall 等 表状态的延续或持续: keep, remain, stay 等 助动词(不能独立作谓语, 须与动词原形或分词构成合 成谓语):be, have, do, shall 和 will 的各种形式 情 态 动 词 can(could), may(might), shall(should), will(would), must, need, dare 等 He sang a song for us. He arrived late. He arrived in Beijing at10 a.m. He is a farmer. He seems angry. The fish went bad. He became a doctor. It keeps warm. He remained silent. Do come tomorrow. I have bought a car. He may come tomorrow. We must study hard.

注:有些动词是兼类词。如:We have lunch at 12.(行为动词) /We have been to Japan.(助动词) 二 动词短语构成一览表 动 词 短 语 构 成 动词+副词 动词+介词 动词+副词+介词 动词+名词+介词 动词+名词 break out Agree with Come up with Make use of Take place The Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937. I agree with you on that point. I came up with a good idea. You should make full use of your time. Great changes are taking place in our life.

三 高中常用动词短语: 常用动词 come, go, keep, look, make, put, take, turn 的搭配 1. come come about 发生,造成; come across 越过某处; 被理解; 偶然发现, 偶然遇到 come after 跟在…后面,追踪;寻找 come along 来到;一道走;赶快;再加把劲儿 come at 向...扑过来, 向...袭击 come back 回来;东山在起;重新流行;回想起;还 嘴(常与此同时连用) come from 由…造成;出身于;来自于 come into being/existence 出现,开始形成,建立 come in 进来; (蔬菜、水果等)到成熟期,上市 ;涨 潮;火车进站,船进港口; (比赛中) 得…名次 (come in second 得第二名) come on 跟随;上台; (工作等)进展;赶快;骑(马 2. go go about 四处走动; (故事、消息等)传开;在…地方

等) ; come out 出来; 出发;出版;名列…; (总数等)达到 (+ at/to) come to (oneself)苏醒; 总共; 达到; 碰到 come to an agreement 达成协议 come to a close/an end 终止,结束 come to life 活过来;活跃起来;栩栩如生 come to light 泄露(真相) ;被发现 come to mind 想起,回忆起 come to the point (讲话、写文章等)切中要害 come to the /one' s rescue 帮助 come true 实现,变成现实 come up 升起;走进;种子生长发育; 被提出 来回走动

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go after 追赶;追捕;追求 go ahead 前进;开始干某事;说吧,走吧,做吧(口语); 走在前面 go all out to do sth 全力以赴去做某事 go around/round 绕道; (在某一地方)四处走动; (故 事、消息等)传开;在头脑中盘旋 go beyond 超出;超出…的能力 go by 从…经过/通过; (时间)流逝过去;顺便走访 go back to 追溯到 ;返回;恢复到;回顾 go down(温度等)下降; (价格等)下跌;倒下; (太 阳、月亮等)降到地平线下 go in for 参与,参与(竞赛等) ;从事(某项工作) ;爱 好,酷爱 3. keep keep away(使)不靠近, (使)远离;不沾 keep back 往后站,后退;阻止;对…保守秘密; (从工 资等中)扣压,扣下;留给 keep in mind 把…记在心里;记住 keep in order(使)保持整齐,使井井有条;维持秩序 keep in touch with 与…保持联系 keep off(使)不接近, (使)保持距离;挡开,避开; 回避(避开)某话题 keep one?s ears open(口)留心细听;倾听 4. look look about/around 向四周看;仔细查看 look after 照料 ;寻找 look ahead 向前看;展望未来; look at 看;察看;大致浏览 look back 回顾 ;回过头看;回忆 look down one?s nose at 傲慢;看不起; 轻视某人 look down upon/ on sb 轻视某人;鄙视某人/某物 look forward to doing /sth. (殷切地,愉快地)期待, 希望;预计有…情况 look into sth 注视…的内部或深处; (=investigate sth.) 5. make make out (勉强地)看出;辩认出;理解; make up 构成 make up for 补回失去 make up one's mind(s) 决定,下决心 make an effort to do 努力,尽力 make oneself heard 使自己被别人听到 6. put put away 放好;收起来;把…放在原位;储藏 放弃 put aside 放在一边;抛弃;暂时不做;留出(时间),省出 (钱) put back 放在原处;推迟, 延期 go into 进入 ;撞在…上;调查 go off 离开某地;放弃; (口)变坏,变酸(水、电、 煤气等)被切断 go over 越过;超过(期限等) ;审阅或审查,核对; 仔细查看;复习 go out (火)熄灭,过时了,罢工 go through 穿过;进过;议案、决议等被通过;遭受, 经受 (痛苦/困难), 审阅;完成 go too far 太过分, 走太远了 go with 相配(同义词 match/go along with) go well with 协调 go wrong 出错;发生故障

keep one?s eyes open 留心看着,注意留神,提防 keep out(使)不让入内,不要进来;留出来 keep out of 将…置身于…之外; (使)不参与;不牵涉 进去;不要惹事/麻烦 keep quiet 保持安静,别吵闹;保守秘密,隐瞒某事 (+about sth.) keep up your courage 保持勇气,别泄气 keep up with 跟上

调查;浏览(书报等) look sb. in/into the eye/face 镇定勇敢地面对 look like/as if 似乎是;看起来像 look on /upon sb./sth. as 把...看作. look out 小心,当心;向外看 look over 对…审阅;粗略地看;翻阅 look through 透过…看(尤指空隙或透明物体等)(从 ; 头到尾)初略地翻阅 look up 仰视;(从词典,电话本等中)找出 look up to sb 尊敬某人 make good /no sense 有意义/没意义 make fun of 嘲笑,和某人开玩笑 make up of 由...组成 make one?s living by doing 通过做… make tea/coffee 泡茶/咖啡

put down 放下;让(乘客)下车; 压下去;写下来 put forward 提出(计划/建议等) ;拨快钟点;推荐 put off 推迟, 延期;打消, 关上 put into use 投入使用

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put off 脱掉(衣服等) ;推迟,延期 put on 穿上,带上;长高;上演 put out 扑灭,吹灭;生产;出版 put up 举起;张贴;留某人过夜;建造 ;提出(建议 等 7. take take away 拿走, 挪开,拿开; (使)离开,把某人带 走 take back 拿回来 , 退回; 送回某人; (同意) 收回 (退 货) take A for B 把 A 误认为是 B take sb./sth. for granted 认为…是必然情况,视为当然 take part in 参加 take pride in =be proud of 引以为自豪 take advantage of 利用;占…的便宜 take care of 照看,照顾 take charge of 开始负…的责;看管;控制 take a chance 碰运气 8. turn turn against 背叛; (使)事情对…不利; (使)攻击 turn around/round 转过身去,将…转过来;使(船、飞 机等)返航 turn down 拒绝;音量调低 ;向下翻; turn into 把...变成...;把...翻译成... turn in 上交 turn left 向走转 II、实战演练 put up with 和某人住在一起;忍受,忍耐 put through 做成,完成;接通电话 使通过考试;使经 历(难受的事) put one's heart into 全心全意投入

take hold of 抓住;掌握 take notice of 对…注意/留心;认真地听 take the opportunity of 抓住机会;利用(机会) take the place of 代替 take the risk of 冒…的险 take off 拿开;去掉; (飞机)起飞;脱下(衣、帽等) take on a new look 呈现新面貌 take up 占据(时间,地方);从事于 take in 吸收(气、水等) ;接纳(工作人员等) ;收集; 骗 take in turn 依次

turn off 关掉(开关等) ;关闭,断开 turn on 打开(开关、水、电等) turn out 制造出,生产出,培养出;结局是,结果是; 原来是 turn over 移交,把...打翻 turn to 转向,求助于,翻到第几页 turn to sb for help 求助于

圈出划线部分的正确答案,使句子完整正确。 1.The question that is remained / remains / remaining is: can Luo Peng, the young star, be like Jordan and lead the Bulls to an NBA championship? 2. As the popular saying says / tells / goes, “Laugh and the whole world laugh with you. Cry and you cry alone.” 3. With the weather worsening, they called off / called for / called in the voyage from London to Australia. 4. “Goodbye, then,” she said, without even looking away/looking up/looking at from her book. 5. Why don?t you just care/mind/consider your own business and leave me alone? 6. Hardly could he get through/get down/get into this amount of work in such a short time. 7. The computer system broke out/broke up/broke down suddenly while he was searching for information on the Internet. 8. Don?t be taken in/taken off/taken away by products promising to make you lose weight quickly. 9. Does this meal cost $50? I expect/prefer/suppose something far better than this? 10. Someone who lacks perseverance is unlikely to turn/make/grow a good researcher. 11. ---Julia said she sent you a birthday card yesterday. Have you got it? ---Oh, really! I haven?t examined/tested/checked my mailbox yet. 12. I can?t find my watch. I must have left/forgotten/put it in the hotel. 13. Lei Feng was always ready to help others when they were in trouble and he never turned down/turned over/turned up their request. 14. If no one replies/answers/receives the phone at the home, ring me at work. 15. You will accept/receive/get a warm welcome when you come to China. 16. The clothes cost/spent/took me 500 yuan. 17. The terrible noise from the man?s room simply caused/turned/drove me mad. 18. It does/feels/makes good to lie in the sun or swim in the cool sea in summer. 19. I built up/set up/took up the hobby of fishing as a child.
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20. In my opinion, all Mr. Tom does does do/does do do/did do does good to his students in his class at present. 答案:1. remains 2. goes 3. called off 4. looking up 5. mind 6.get through 7. broke down 8. taken in 9. expect 10. make 11. checked 12. left 13.turned down 14. answers 15. receive 16. cost 17. drove 18. feels 19.took up 20.does does do

专题十 动词的时态 I、重点难点解析 高考中通常是把时态和语境结合起来考查。题干中往往没有明确的时间状语,需要考生搜索出时间参 照信息。英语有 16 种时态,中学阶段常用的是 10 种。 一 动词的基本形式一览表 二 常用 10 种动词时态的构成及其常用时间状语一览表 形式 原形 现在时 第三人 称单数 形式 一般情况 以 ch, sh, s, x 结尾 以 o 结尾 以 “辅音字母+y”结尾 过去式 过去分 词规则 变化 一般情况 以不发音 e 结尾 以重读闭音节结尾,末尾 只有一个辅音字母 以 “辅音字母+y”结尾 一般情况 以不发音 e 结尾 以重读闭音节结尾,末尾 只有一个辅音字母 时 态 加-s 加-es 加-es 变 y 为 i ,加-es 加-ed 直接加-d 双写这个辅音字母再加-ed 变 y 为 i ,加-ed 加-ing 去 e,再加-ing 双写这个辅音字母再加 -ing 变化规则 构成方法 例词 see, finish, teach look→looks, write→writes teach→teaches, finish→finishes guess→guesses, mix→mixes do→does, go→goes try→tries, cry→cries stay→stayed, look→looked decide→decided, hope→hoped stop→stopped, admit→admitted carry→carried, try→tried go→going, read→reading have→having, write→writing cut→cutting, run→running

现在分 词

一般现在时 一般过去时

构 成 动词原形 (第三人称单数+s 等) 动词过去式

常用时间状语 always, usually, often, sometimes, every…,etc. yesterday, the day before yesterday, the other day, last…,…ago, etc.

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一般将来时 过去将来时 将来进行时 现在进行时 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 现在完成进行时 will(shall)+动词原形 be going to+动词原形 would+动词原形 will(shall)+be+现在分词 am(is, are)+现在分词 was(were)+现在分词 have(has)+过去分词 had+过去分词 have(has)+been+现在分词 tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next…, in two days, etc. 多用于间接引语的宾语从句中 at eight(this time)tomorrow, etc. now, during these days, etc. at eight(this time)yesterday, etc. already, just, yet, since, for…, etc. by…,before, etc. for…, since…, etc.

三 注意以下几种时态的区别 1. 一般过去时和现在完成时 1) 一般过去时只表示过去发生的动作或状态, 常和表过去的时间状语连用, 即仅谈过去, 不关现在。 wrote I a letter this morning. (只说明写了一封信的事实) 2)现在完成时表示过去发生的动作或状态,但和现在有联系,可能刚结束,也可能继续下去。不能和表 过去的时间状语连用,译成汉语时可加“已经”。 I have written a letter this morning. (我已经写了一封信,有继续写第二封的可能,现在还是早上。) 2. 一般过去时和过去进行时 1)一般过去时侧重于说明发生某动作的事实。 It rained heavily last night.昨晚雨下得很大。(强调下雨,并不强调持续时间) 2)过去进行时侧重于强调某动作的持续过程或表示动作在进行。 It was raining cats and dogs last night 昨晚整整一夜都在下倾盆大雨。(强调没停,一直持续) 3. 现在完成时和现在完成进行时 1) 现在完成时在含义上着重表示动作的结果。 I have read that book. (已读完) 2)现在完成进行时着重表示动作一直在进行,即动作的延续性。 I have been reading that book all the morning.( 还没读完) II、实战演练 用所给动词或根据中文提示填入动词的正确形式 1. 1)---Remember the first time we ____________________ (meet)? ---Of course. You _____________________ (study) in Beijing University then. 2) Cathy is taking notes of the grammatical rules in class at Sunshine School, where she _________________________ (study) English for a year. 2. 1) The government __________________ (build) two factories in this region since the end of last year. 2) The government ____________________(build) two factories in this region by the end of this year. 3. 1) It ___________ (be) ten years since we left school. 2) It ____________ (be) two years before we leave school. 4. They _______________________ (work) on the program for almost one week before I joined them, and now we ____________________ (still work) on it as no good results have come out so far. 5. The pen I ____________ (think) I _____________ (lose) is on my desk, right under my nose. 6. If their marketing plans succeed, they _______________ (increase) their sales by 20 percent. 7. She said that it ___________ (be) the second time she _______________ (see) the film. 8. I don?t really work here. I _________________ (just help) out until the new secretary arrives. 9. Look at the timetable. Hurry up! Flight 2039 _____________ (take) off at 18:40.. 10. ---How are you today? ---Oh, _________________ (not feel) as ill as I do now for a very long time. 11. 1) My good friend _______________ (come ) from Guangdong.(是广东人) 2) My good friend _______________ (come ) from Guangdong last week.(从广东来) 12. 1) Where _____________ (be) you? (你在哪儿) 2) Where ____________ you ____________? (be) (你去了哪) 3) Where _____________ he ____________ (go)? (他去哪了)

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13. 1) Mr. John ______________ (teach) English in China for two years. (不在中国了) 2) Mr. John ______________ (teach) English in China for two years. (也许仍在中国) 14. 1) I _____________________ (read) that book. (读过那本书了) 2) I _____________________ (read) that book all the morning.(一直在读那本书) 15. 1) When I got there, he __________________ the work (做完那工作了) 2) When I got there, he __________________ the work carefully (在认真地做工作) 3) When I got there, he __________________ the work (才要做工作) 答案:1. met, were studying; has been studying 2. has built; will have built 3. is; will be 4.Had been working; are still working 5. thought, had lost 6. will increase 7.was, had seen 8. am just helping 9. takes 10. haven?t felt 11.comes; came 12. are; have been; has gone 13. taught; has taught 14. have read; have been reading 15. had done; was doing; was about to do 语法填空 When he was a little boy, Christopher Cockerell once watched his mother turning the wheel of her sewing-machine with her hand. “Wouldn?t it work quickly if a machine 1 (turn) the wheel for you?” he asked. “I suppose it would,” said his mother, without paying him any attention. Christopher 2 (know) she always had a lot of work, and he wanted to help. Up in his bedroom there was a toy steam-engine which his father 3 (buy) him as a gift. “I 4 (make) better use of it,” little Christopher said to himself. So, when his mother 5 (not use) her sewing-machine, he fixed the toy steam-engine onto it. When the job 6 (finish), he was quite pleased, thinking his mother 7 (like) it. “Very clever,” his mother said, when she saw it. Then she sat down and went on turning the wheel by hand. “I 8 (work) like this for too many years,” she explained. This taught Christopher the lesson that anyone who 9 (try) to improve anything 10 (have) to learn: Many people don?t like new ideas. 答案: turned 2. knew 3. had bought 4. will/shall make 5. was not using 6. was finished 7. would like 1. 8. have been working 9. tries 10. has 三、完形填空 Several years ago, a well-known writer and editor Norman Cousins became very ill. His body ached and he felt constantly tired. It was difficult for him to even __21__ around. His doctor told him that he would lose the ability to move and eventually die from the disease. He was told he had only a 1 in 500 chance of survival. Despite the diagnosis (诊断), Cousins was __22__ to overcome the disease and survive. He had always been interested in medicine and had read a book, which __23__ the idea of how body chemistry and health can be __24__ by emotional stress and negative attitudes. The book made Cousins __25__ the possible benefit of positive attitudes and emotions. He thought, “Is it possible that love, hope, faith, laughter, confidence, and the will to 1ive have positive treatment value?” He decided to __26__ positive emotions as a way to treat some of the symptoms of his disease. In addition to his traditional medical treatment, he tried to put himself in situations that would __27__ positive emotions. “Laugh therapy” became part of his treatment. He __28__ time each day for watching comedy films, reading humorous books, and doing other activities that would draw out positive emotions. Within eight days of starting his ??laugh therapy” program his pain began to __29__ and he was able to sleep more easily. He was able to return to work in a few months? time and actually __30__ complete recovery after a few years. 21. A. run B. pass C. move D. travel 22. A. devoted B. determined C. planned D. forced 23. A. discussed B. explained C. presented D. demonstrated 24. A. killed B. ruined C. damaged D. influenced 25. A. remind of B. learn from C. refer to D. think about 26. A. concentrate on B. pick up C. absorb in D. care about 27. A. make up B. set about C. put up D. bring about 28. A. arranged B. appointed C. offered D. afforded 29. A. escape B. decrease C. recover D. end 30. A. received B. sought C. reached D. recognized

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答案:21---25 CBACD 26---30 ADABC

专题十一 动词的语态 I、重点难点解析 高考中通常是把时态和语态结合起来考查的。 动词的语态有两种:主动语态(the active voice)和被动语态(the passive voice)。主动语态表示主语是动作的 执行者,被动语态示主语是动作的承受者。如: People speak English all over the world. (the active voice) English is spoken all over the world. (the passive voice) 一 动词的被动语态构成一览表(以 ask 为例) 常用被动语态 构 成 常用被动语态 构 成 am/is/are asked 6 was/were being asked 1 一般现在时 过去进行时 was/were asked 7 have/has been asked 2 一般过去时 现在完成时 will/shall be asked 8 had been asked 过去完成时 3 一般将来时 should/would be asked 9 过去将来完成时 will/would have beenasked 4 过去将来时 5 am/is/are being asked 10 含有情态动词的 can/must/may… be asked 现在进行时 被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not, 短语动词的被动语态不可漏掉其中 介副词。固定结构 be going to, used to, have to, had better 变为被动语态时,只需将其后的动词 变为被动语态。如:We are not allowed to smoke./ He is often made fun of by his classmates./ Newspaper used to be sent here at 10 a.m. 据说类动词, 如: is said/believed/supposed/reported that…, It is generally considered that…, It is It well known that…等,及 It must be admitted/pointed out that…等结构常以被动形式出现。 以下主动形式常表被动意义:The bike needs/wants/requires repairing. /The film is worth seeing. /The door won?t shut/open. /The play won?t act. /The clothes washes well. /The book sells well. /The dish tastes delicious. /Water feels very cold. 以下词或短语没有被动态:happen, appear, become, last, cost, occur, lack, fit, mean, join, equal, fail, enter, have, contain, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, consist of, lose heart, keep up with 等。 二 被动语态和系表结构的区别: 1. 被动语态表示动作,而系表结构表状态; The cup was broken by a boy. (被动语态) The cup is broken. (系表结构) 2. 前者可有多种时态,而后者只有一般现在时和过去时; My bike is being/will be/was repaired. He is/was interested in his work. 3. 被动语态可跟 by 短语,表动作的执行者; The dress was made by my mother. II、实战演练 用所给动词的适当形式填空 1. As the years passed, many occasions---birthdays, awards, graduations _______________ (mark) with Dad?s flowers. 2. Customers are asked to make sure that they __________________(give) the right change before leaving the shop. 3. Great changes _________________ (take place) in the city, and a lot of factories ________________ (set up).

注 意 事 项

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4. The police found that the house ____________________ (break into) and a lot of things ____________ (steal). 5. The discussion _______________ (come) alive when an interesting topic was brought in. 6. The headteacher says that all the preparations for the party __________________________ (complete) by Friday. 7. The wet weather will continue tomorrow when a cold front ________________ (expect) to arrive. 8. The careless driver is ______________ (blame) for the traffic accident that ____________ (happen) yesterday. 9. Flowers usually _______________ (sell) well on Valentine?s Day, so their flowers ______________ (sell) in no time that day. 10. I want to buy that kind of cloth because I _______________ (tell) the cloth _______________ (wash) well. 11. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) ___________________ (say) to have bought birds kept in cages in order to have the pleasure of setting them free. 12. ---Have you handed in your schoolwork yet? ---Yes, I have. I guess it ______________________ (grade) now. 13. If Newton lived today, he would be surprised by what ________________________ (discover) in science and technology. 14. The work needs _________________ (complete) by 6 p.m. 15. The number of deaths from heart disease __________________ (reduce) greatly if people are persuaded to eat more vegetables. 答案:1. were marked 2. have been given 3. have taken place; have been set up 4. had been broken into, stolen 5. came 6. will have been completed 7. is expected 8. to blame, happened 9. sell, was sold 10. have been told, washes 11. is said 12. is being graded 13. has been discovered 14. completing/to be completed 15. will be reduced

专题十二 句子种类 I、重点难点解析 自2007年广东省高考使用新题型后, 有了用5个句子表达全部意思的“基础写作”。 考生对句子种类相关知 识的掌握显得尤为重要。 一、 句子种类: 分类 句子种类 陈述句 肯定句 否定句

例句 He is six years old. She didn?t hear of you before. Do they like skating? How old is he? Is he six or seven years old? Mary can swim, can?t she? Be careful, boys. Don?t talk in class How clever the boy is! What a clever boy he is! He often reads English in the morning. Tom and Mike are American boys. You help him and he helps you. The food was good, but he had little appetite. The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。

按 使 用 目 的

疑问句

一般 特殊 选择 反意

祈使句 感叹句 简单句

按 结 构

并列句(由并列连 词 and, but, or 等或 分号把两个或两个 以上的简单句连在

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一起) 复合句(含有一个 或以上从句)

The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.

二、简单句的五种基本句型 句型 1、主语+系动词+表语 2、主语+不及物动词 3、主语+及物动词+宾语 4、主语+及物动词+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) 5、主语+及物动词+复合宾语(宾语+宾补) 三、并列句 分类 联合并列句 转折并列句

例句 He is a student. We work. Henry bought a dictionary. My father bought me a car. Tom made the baby laugh.

常用并列连词 and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then 等 but, still, however, yet, while, when 等

选择并列句 or, either…or…, otherwise 等 因果并列句 so, for, therefore 等 四、感叹句 1、感叹句用法:表示说话人的强烈的感情。 讲解 句型 What What 引导的感叹句 What+(a / an)+形容词 的中心词是名词 +名词+(主语+谓 语) ! How How 引导的感叹句 How+形容词/副词+ 的 中 心 词 是 形 容 词 (主语+谓语) ! 或副词。

例句 The teacher?s name is Smith, and the student?s name is John. He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting. Hurry up, or you?ll miss the train. It was late, so we went home.

例句 1)What a cold day (it is)! 今天天气真冷啊! 2)What an old house (it is)! 这间房子真老啊! 3)What nice air (it is)! 空气真好啊! 6)How cold(it is )today! 今天天气真冷啊! 7)How happy (the children are) 孩子们真愉 ! 快啊! 8)How hard(the student works)! 这个学生学 习多努力啊! 2、注意点:在复数可数名词和不可数名词之前不可用 “how+形容词” 构成感叹句,而应用 “what+形容词 +复数可数名词或不可数名词”。也就是说 how +形容词可置于带不定冠词的单数名词之前构成感叹句。 1) What great changes we have had these years! 这些年我们的变化真大呀! 不可说成 How great changes we have had these years! 2) What good news it is! 多么好的消息呀! 不可说成 How good news it is! 五、祈使句 表示请求或命令的句子是祈使句。谓语动词无时态与数的词形变化,与动词原形同形。祈使句一般用 降调,为使祈使句听起来比较婉转,可用低升调,祈使句句末用句号或感叹号。 一、祈使句有两种类型:含有第二人称和带有第一、三人称主语的祈使句。每种类型又有肯定形式和否定 形式。用 don't:否定时,只能用其缩略式。 1 含有第二人称的祈使句 Be sure to come on time.请务必按时来。 Don't ever do that again.请不要做那事了。 2 带有第一、三人称主语的 Let's have a rest. 咱们休息一会儿。 祈使句(通常以 let 为引导 Let us try again. 让我们再试试。 词) Don't let's open the window. 咱们别开窗户了。(非正式)

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3 其他形式的祈使句 1) 以 no 开始的禁 止性祈使句: 2) 固定短语 No entry.禁止入内。 No parking.禁止停车。 No smoking.禁止抽烟。 Out with it 说出来吧。 Beg pardon.请原谅。 Faster.快点。

二、注意点: 1)第二人称主语通常不表示出来,有时为了强调指明向谁提出要求或发出命令,主语也可表示,这时 主语需重读: 2)第一人称祈使句可在 1et 前面加 do,表示强调,第三人称祈使句不可: Do let me have another try. 请务必让我再试试。 注意以下两句的区别: Don't let the children make much noise.不要让孩子发出大的噪声。 . Let the children not make much noise.让孩子不要发出大的噪声。 3)为了使祈使句听起来比较客气,婉转,除了用低声调外,还可用下列方法: a.加 please Please give me a hand.请帮一下忙。 Lend me your dictionary,please. 请把字典借给我使一下。 b. .加 will you Read the text,will you? 读一下课文好吗? Come in and sit down,will you? 进来坐下,好吗? c.please 和 will you 同时运用 Be careful,please,will you? 小心些,行吗? : d.用 would you 则更加客气 Shut the window,would you? 关上窗户,行吗? e, 加 won't you,can't you,why don't you: Turn down the radio,won't you? 关闭收音机,好吗? Take it away,can't you? 拿走,不行吗? Be patient,why don't you? 耐心点,难道不行吗? 六、反意疑问句? 构成:陈述句 + 简略问句? 肯定 否定? 否定 肯定? 简略问句的主语与陈述句保持一致,只能用人称代词(there 除外),简略问句的谓语动词也与陈述句保 持一致,如果是否定,一定要用简写。如:? Jim isn't a student, is he?/There are some books in it, aren't there? ? 解说 1 2 3 陈述部分 I'm...结构,疑问部分一般用 aren't I, 陈述句中有 little, few, no, never, nothing, nobody, hardly 等词表示否定时,简略问句用肯定。 陈 述 句 中 有 指 物 的 不 定 代 词 nothing, something, anything 时,简短问句中用代词 it,陈述句中有指人的不 定代词 everyone, no one, someone, everybody, nobody, anybody 时,简短问句中用代词 he 或 they, 陈述句的主语是指示代词 this, that 等时,疑问部分的主 语在形式上与前者不同,但在逻辑上却与前者一致 5 陈述部分如果是“I (don't) think (believe, suppose...)+宾 语从句”时,疑问部分中的动词和主语应与宾语从句中 的主语和动词保持一致 6 含有情态动词 must 的句子表示猜测时, 疑问部分与 must I'm late, aren't I ? 例句

Everyone is here, aren't they/isn?t he??

4

This is very important, isn't it?? I don't believe she knows it, does she??

5

You mustn't walk on grass, must you??

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6 后面部分一致,不能用 mustn't,如:You must be tired, aren't you?当 must 表示“有必要”时, 疑问部分用 needn't, 如:You must go home right now, needn't you? 当 mustn't 表示禁止时,疑问部分一般用 must 7 祈使句的反意疑问句肯定祈使句+will you/won't you? 否定祈使句+will you?? 8 感叹句的反意疑问句一律用否定式,并用 be 的一般现 在时 9 前面否定后面肯定的反意疑问句在回答时,需根据其 实际情况,实际情况是肯定的,则用 Yes+肯定结构,实 际情况是否定的,则用 No+否定结构 1 关于“'d better ”, “'d rather”和“'s”?

7 8 9

Let's...+shall we?(包括对方)? Let us...+will you?(不包括对方)? What a lovely girl, isn't she ?? —You can't speak English, can you?—Yes, I can(不,我会的). He?d like a cup of tea, wouldn?t he? You?d better go now, hadn?t you? He?s never late for school, is he? He?s never been there, has he?

10

七、复合句: 复合句由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成。主句为句子的主体,从句只用作句子的一个次要成分,不 能独立成为一个句子。从句通常由关联词引导,并由关联词将从句和主句联系在一起。从句按其在复合句中 的作用,分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语、定语从句和状语从句等。 (见专题讲解) II、实战演练 1. 完成下列反意疑问句? 1.Catherine is a girl's name, _________? 2.I am a teacher, ______? 3.There's little water in the glass, _________? 4.Don't take the book out of the library, _________? 5.He'll never forget it, _________? 6.Let's have a rest, _________? 7.I think Kate speaks English well, _________? 8.That boy must be Tom, _________? 2. 填连词完成下面的感叹句 (根据需要可以加上 a 或 an) 1. __________ nice music it is ! 2. __________ that boy missed his mother! 3. __________ great fun it is to hike ! 4 __________ beautiful parks there are in Shanghai! 5. __________ good the soup tastes ! 6. __________ useful subject Chinese is! 7. __________ bad weather it is today! 8. __________ happy life we're living today ! 9. ________ lovely deer they are! 10. __________ bad cold you've got ! 3、翻译下面的句子 1)请务必按时来。 2)请不要做那事了。 3)请你安静一会儿。 4)让我告诉你答案吧。 5) 不要让任何人打扰你。 6) 请务必让我再试试。 7)不要让孩子发出大的噪声。 . 答案:

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1. 完成下列反意疑问句? 1. isn't it 2. aren't I 3.is there?? 4 will you??5 . . 6. shall we??7 doesn't she??8 . . isn't he? 2. 填连词完成下面的感叹句 1. What 2. How 3. What 4. What 5. How 8. What a 9. What 10. What a 3、翻译下面的句子 1)Be sure to come on time. 2)Don't ever do that again. 3)You be quiet for a moment. 4)Let me tell you the answer. 5)Don't let anyone disturb you. 6)Do let me have another rtry. 7)Don't let the children make much noise. .

will he??

6. What a

7. What

专题十三 名词性从句 I、重点难点解析 名词性从句是历年高考的重点和难点也是热点。 名词性从句相当于名词, 可分别作主句的主语、 宾语、 表语和同位语。因此,名词性从句可分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位从句(见下表) 。 主语从句 做主语,用 that,whether,what(=the thing that)等连接词(原疑问词)引导 做宾语,用 that(可省略) ,if,whether(or not) ,what(=the thing which)等连接词(原 宾语从句 疑问词)引导 表语从句 用 that(一般不省略) ,whether,what(=the thing which)等连接词(原疑问词)引导 同位语从句 用 that(常用在 news,thought,idea 等词后) ,whether 等连接词(原疑问词)引导 一、主语从句 主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语 it 代替,而本身放在句 子末尾。如: Who will go is not important. It doesn?t matter so much whether you will come or not. That he suddenly fell ill last week made us surprised. 1. It 作形式主语和 it 引导强调句的比较 It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。而 it 引导的强调句 则是对句子某一部分进行强调,无论强调的是什么成分,都可用连词 that。被强调部分指人是也可用 who/whom。例如: It is a pity that you didn?t go to see the film.(主语从句) It doesn?t interest me whether you succeed or not. (主语从句) It is in the morning that the murder took place.(强调句) It is John that broke the window. (强调句) 2. 用 it 作形式主语的结构: 句型 例子 1 It is + 名词 + 从句 It is a fact that … 事实是… / It is an honor that …非常荣幸 It is common knowledge that …是常识 2 It is + 形容词 + 从句 It is natural that… 很自然…/ It is strange that… 奇怪的是… 3 It is + 不及物动词 + 从句 It seems that… 似乎…/ It happened that… 碰巧… It appears that… 似乎… 4 It + 过去分词 + 从句 It is reported that… 据报道…/ It has been proved that…已证实… It is said that… 据说…

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3. 主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况: 情况说明 1 if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。 2 3 4 5 It is said /reported…结构中的主语从句不可提 前 It happens/occurs…结构中的主语从句不可提 前 It doesn?t matter how/whether …结构中的主语 从句不可提前 含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时, 主语从句不 可提前

例句 If he will come or not is unknown (误) . Whether he will come or not is unknown (正) It is said that Jiang will visit our school. (正) Jiang will visit our school next week is said. (误) It occurred to him that he failed in the examination. (正) That he failed in the examination occurred to him. (误) It doesn?t matter whether he is wrong or not. (正) Whether he is wrong or not doesn?t matter. (误) Is it likely that it will rain in the evening? (正) Is that will rain in the evening likely? (误)

二.宾语从句 宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词) 或介词之后。 情况说明 例句 1 作 动 词 的 宾 由 that 引导的宾语从句(that I heard (that) he joined the army. 语 通常可以省略) 由 what, whether (if),when, She did not know what had happened. I wonder whether you can change this note for me. where 等引导的宾语从句 She told me that she would accept my invitation. 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句 2 3 4 5 作介词的宾语 Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. I am afraid (that) I?ve made a mistake. We heard it that she would get married next month. I don?t think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服 不适合你穿。

作形容词的宾语 it 可以作为形式宾语 否定的转移 (若主句谓语动词为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine 等,其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要 把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定 式) 注意:that 引导的从句常跟在下列形容词后作宾语: anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等。也可以将此类词后的 that 从句的看作原 因状语从句。 三.表语从句 表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语+连系动词+表语从句”。 可以接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等。引导表语从句的 that 常可省略。另外,常用的还 有 the reason is that… 和 It is because 等结构。例如: 1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time. 2) This is why we can?t get the support of the people. 3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes. 4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus. 四.同位语从句 同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。 情况说明 例句 1 The king?s decision that the prisoner would be set free 同位语从句的功能 对于名词进一步解释, surprised all the people.

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( 一 般 由 that 引 导) 同位语从句在句子 中的位置 说明名词的具体内容, 有时可以不紧跟在它所说明 的名词后面,被别的词隔开 The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general. He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.

2

五.whether, if 引导名词性从句的区别: 情况说明 1 在句首引导主语从句时,只能用 whether

例句 Whether we will go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. 2 What the doctor really doubt is whether my mother will if 不能引导表语从句 recover from the serious disease soon. 3 Everything depends on whether we can make a plan that if 不能引导介词后的宾语从句 they will agree to. 4 I asked Pave if he hadn?t decided what he would say at 如果宾语从句是否定句只能用 if the meeting. 5 We discussed whether the medicine will cause side discuss 后的宾语从句只能用 whether 引导 effect. 注意:doubt 作“怀疑”解,后接宾语从句时,如主句是肯定的,宾语从句用 whether 或 if 引导;如主句 是否定,宾语从句只能用 that 引导。 (1) I doubt whether/ if he is fit for the job. (2) I don?t doubt that he can do it very well. II、实战演练 用适当的连词填空: 1. I can?t decide ____________ dictionary I should buy. 2. That?s ____________ he refused my invitation. 3. I am very interested in ____________ he has improved his pronunciation in such a short time. 4. ____________ we need is more time. 5. The fact ____________ she had not said anything at the meeting surprised everybody. 6. ____________ and ____________ they will meet has not been decided yet. 7. Please tell me ____________ you are waiting for. 8. Is that ____________ you are looking for? 9. Would you please tell me ____________ the nearest post office is? 10. I don?t know ____________ he will agree to the plan or not. 11.______ is done cannot be undone. 12.Take care ______ you don?t make mistakes in the coming exam. 13.To his surprise, the umbrella was not ______ he had put. 14.______ we can?t get seems better than ______ we have. 15.______ we?ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. 16.______ they are most interested in is ______ they can produce more and better cars. 17.It doesn?t matter ______I rest or not. 18. ______I have will be yours sooner or later. 19.I think it is ______ you?re eating too much. 20.Can you make sure ______ Alice has put the gold necklace? 21.——Do you remember ______ he came? ——Yes, I do. He came by train. 22.Mother asked me ______ was wrong with me. 23______they have won the game made us excited. 24. ______he says in his report is a very interesting question. 25.That is he failed to arrive on time. 答案: 1. which; 2. why; 3. how; 4. What; 5. that; 6. when, where; 7. who(m); 8. what; 9. where; 10. whether/ if 11.What 12.that 13.where 14.what ; what 15.Whether 16.What;how 17.whether 18.Whatever 19.because 20.where 21.how 22.what 23.That 24.What 25.why

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专题十四 定语从句 I、重点难点解析 定语从句是英语语法中的重点。除了在语法填空中会考到,在基础写作和任务型写作中正确恰当地运 用定语从句是作文得高分的关键。另外,在阅读理解中正确理解定语从句也至关重要。 常见考点: 1.指物时只用 that 或 which 的情况 2.介词+关系代词 3.Whose 用法及转换形式 4.as 与 which 的区别 5.指人时 that 与 who 的区别 6.如何判断用关系副词还是关系代词 7.定语从句中的主谓一致问题 一、定语从句的概念 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词从句叫定语从句,在句中起定语的作用. 被定语从句修饰的词叫做先行词。引导定语从句的词叫关系代词或关系副词。如: The man who lives next to us is a policeman. 先行词 关系代词 定语从句 二、关系代词和关系副词的用法: 关系代词和关系副词又称关系词,用来引导定语从句、代替先行词并在从句中担当一个成分。其用法见 下表: 定语从句的关系词 词例 who whom that which 先行词 人 人 人&物 物 充当成分 主语 宾语 主语、宾语 主语、宾语 例句 This is the doctor who saved my life . She is the new student (whom) I want to tell to you . (指人相当于 who 或 whom,指物相当于 which) 1.Please pass me the book which is lying on the table. 2.The novel (which) Tom bought is very interesting. The earth ,as is known to all ,is round. The professor whose daughter teaches you English is Dr. Williams We?ll never forget the day when the People?s Republic of China was founded. This is the house where he lived. I know the reason why she works so well.

as 物 主语、宾语 whose=of 人&物 定语 whom\of which when=at\in\on\du 时间 状语 关 ring which 系 where=at\in\to 地点 状语 副 which 词 why=for which 原因 状语 三、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

关 系 代 词

限制性定语从句 非限制性定语从句 从 句 与 先 行 从句是先行词不可缺少的定语,如果省 从句只是对先行词的附加说明, 如果省去,主句的意思 词的关系 去,主句的意思就会不完整或不明确。 仍然清楚或完整 标 点 从句和主句之间不用逗号分开 从句和主句之间通常用逗号分开 指人 who (that) whom 指人 who(作主语)whom(做宾语) 关系 代词 指物 which (that) 人和物的 whose 关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省去 指物 which 人和物的 whose 关系代词一般不可省

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修饰 翻译 从句只修饰一个名词或代词 定语从句译在被修饰词的前面 可以修饰一个词也可修饰整个主句 定语从句通常被译成另一个独立的句子

四、关系词的选用 1 只能用 that 做关系代词的情况: 只能用 that 做关系代词的情况 1 当先行词是 all, everything, anything, nothing, much, little, none, one 等不定代词时(something 除外) 2 当先行词被 All, every, no, some, any, little, much 等修饰时 3 当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时 4 如果出现两个或两个以上的先行词,并同时兼指人和物 时 5 当先行词被 the only, the last, the way, the same 等等修饰 时 6 .在疑问词 who, which, what 开头的特殊疑问句中,为了避 免重复只用 that 7 当定语从句为 there be 句型时,关系代词只能用 that,也 可以省略 8 当指人或物的关系代词在定语从句中做表语时,关系代 词只能用 that,也可以省略 2 指物只能用 which 不用 that 的情况: 只能用 which 不用 that 的情况: 1 在非限制性定语从句中 2 在介词后面

例句 Pay attention to everything that I do. He has little time that he can spare. This is the best novel (that) have read. They were talking about the person and things that they remembered in school. This is the last time that I I want to see you. Which of the students that knows something about history. This is the fastest train (that) there is to Beijing. China is not the country (that) it was.

例句 St Petersburg, which was once called Leningrad, is a very beautiful city. This is the room in which we lived last year.

3 指人时只能用 who 不用 that 的情况: 只能用 who 不用 that 的情况 1 先行词为 one, ones,those,anyone,he 时

例句 Those who break the law must be punished.

4 as 与 which as 与 which 均可引导非限制性定语从句,有时可以互换,但下列情况多用 as: 多用 as 的情况: 例句 1 Such books as you read are interesting 与 such 或 the same 连用时,一般用 as Such money as he earned was spent on books. 2 as 引导的从句可以放在句首, as 表“正如…..正象…”之 As we all know, the earth is round. 意 五、定语从句中的主谓一致 定语从句中的动词在人称和数方面应该与它的先行词保持一致: 1.I am not one who is afraid of difficulty. 2.Don?t choose me, who am not fit for this job. II、实战演练 用恰当的关系代词或关系副词填空: 1. Because of my poor memory, all ____ you told me has been forgotten. 2. Do you remember those days ____ we spent along the seashore very happily? 3. Those ____ want to go please sign their names here.

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4. Who is the woman ____ is sweeping the floor over there? 5. The man ____ you are going to make friends is my father?s neighbour. 6. Finally, the thief handed over everything ____ he had stolen to the police. 7. This is the very letter ____came last night. w。w 8. This is the factory ____ we worked a year ago. 9. Jack is pleased with what you have given him and all ____ you have told him. 10. Do you work near the building ____ colour is yellow? 11. Alice received an invitation from her boss, ____ came as a surprise. 12. I live in the house ____ windows face south.. 13. They stayed with me three weeks, ____ they drank all the wine I had. 14. The room ____ Mr White lives is not very large. 15. I?ve finished writing the novel, ____ is to be published next month. 16. He returned home safe and sound after a fierce battle, ____ was unexpected. 17. The old man had three sons, all of ____ died during World War Ⅱ . 18. I have bought two pens, both of ____ write well. 19. Do you know the reason ____ she has changed her mind? 20. He failed in the exam, ____ proves that he wasn?t working hard enough. 21. ____ was expected, he succeeded in the exam. 22. We should read such books ____ will make us better and wiser. 23. He is absent, ____ is often the case. 24. It is the first time ____ I have come to your city. 25. Who ____ has the same idea as it will do it in this way. 26. I shall never forget those years ____ I lived in the country with the farmers, ____ has a great effect on my life. 27. This is the only book ____ I can find. 28. This is the only one of the students ____ handwriting is the best. 29. You must show my wife the same respect ____ you show me. 30. This is the professor ____ taught me chemistry in 1980 .

答案:1. that 2. which 3. who 4. that 5. with whom 6. that 7. that 8. where 9. that 10. whose 11. which 12. whose 13. during which 14. where 15. which 16. which 17. whom 18. which 19. why 20. which 21. As 22. as 23. as 24. that 25. that 26. when, which 27. that 28.Whose 29. as 30.who / that

专题十五 状语从句 I、重点难点解析 状语从句是由从句担任的状语,在句子中可修饰谓语(或其它动词) 、形容词、副词或是整个句子, 它可以用来表示时间、地点、www.ks5u.com 原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等。状语从句

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是一较大的语法项目,也是近几年高考题中常见的一个重要试点。高考中已考查了时间、让步、地点、条 件、目的等状语从句,这些从句仍是今后高考热点,应作充分准备。同时对方式状语从句也应引起重视。 不同的状语从句所使用的连接词也各不相同。见下表: 状语从句名称 时间状语从句 连接词 when, as, while, whenever, after, before, till (until), since, once, as soon as (或 the moment ), by the time, no sooner … than, hardly (scarcely) … when, every time 等 地点状语从句 条件状语从句 原因状语从句 结果状语从句 目的状语从句 让步状语从句 where 和 wherever if, unless, so (as) long as, on condition that, so (as) far as, if only ( = if ) because, since, as, now that(既然) so that (从句谓语一般没有情态动词), so … that, such … that so, so that(从句谓语常有情态动词), in order that, in case(以防,以免) although, though, as, even if (though), however, whatever, whether … or, no matter who (when, what, …) 等 比较状语从句 方式状语从句 than, so (as) … as, the more … the more as, as if (though), the way, rather than 等

一、时间状语从句 w。 1、当 while, when, as 引导时间状语从句时的区别: (1) while 引导的状语从句中动词必须是持续性。 谓语动词多为进行时, 或状态动词的一般时。 while 的 这些用法可用 when 代替。 E.g. Please keep quiet while (when) others are studying; (2) when 除可指一段时间外,还可用来指一点时间,等于 “at the time”,也就是说 when 引出的时间 状语从句中的谓语动词可以是终止性的, 也可以延续性的。 因此主句和从句的谓语可以是一般时, 进行时, 或完成时。 E.g. When I went into the lab, the teacher was doing an experiment. when 不能换成 while) often makes ( He mistakes when he is speaking English.(when 可换成 while) (3) as 常可与 when, while 通用, 但强调“一边、 一边”。 As (when, while) I was walking down the street, E.g. I noticed a police car in front of number 37. (4) when 有时代替 if,引导条件句,意为“如果”、“假如” E.g. I?ll come when (if) I?m free. 2、till, until 引导时间状语短语或状语从句,用于否定句时,结构为 not …until (till),主句谓语动词延续与 非延续皆可,意为“直到…才…”。用于肯定句时,只与延续性动词连用,表示“到…为止”。E.g. They played volleyball until (till) it got dark./ They didn?t talk (延续性动词) until (till) the interpreter 译员) ( came./ He didn?t go to bed(非延续性动词)until (till) the his father came back.;until 可以放在句首,till 则不行,E.g. Until the last minute of the match we kept on playing./ Not until he finished his work did he go home.(倒装) ;till, until 只用于时间,以下句子是错误的:We walked till the edge of the forest.(要用 as far as 或 to) 。

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二、地点状语从句 引导地点状语从句的连词是 where 和 wherever 等。 E.g. Sit wherever you like. Make a mark where you have a question. 三、条件状语从句 条件状语从句分真实性(有可能实现的事情)与非真实性(条件与事实相反或者在说话者看来不大可 能实现的事情) 条件句。 引导条件状语从句的词 (组) 主要有 if, unless, so (as) long as, on condition that, so (as) far as, if only ( = if )。注意:条件从句中的 if 不能用 whether 替换。 E.g. If he is not in the office, he must be out for lunch. You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean. So far as I know(据我所知), he will be away for three months. You can go swimming on condition that ( = if ) you don?t go too far away from the river bank. If he had come a few minutes earlier, he could have seen her. 四、原因状语从句 because, since, as 引导原因状语时注意使用上的区别: 1.如果原因构成句子的最主要部分,一般用 because ,因此 because 引导的从句往往放在句末。用 why 提问的 句子,一定用 because 回答。 E.g. He had to stay at home yesterday because he was ill.;2.如原因已为人们所知,或不如句子的其他部 分重要,就用 as,或 since。since 比 as 更正式些。as 和 since 引导的从句一般放在句子的开头。 E.g. As you are tired, you had better rest./ Since everyone is here, now let?s begin. 五、结果状语从句 结果状语从句是表示事态结果的从句,通常主句是原因,从句是结果。由 so that (从句谓语一般没有 情态动词), so … that, such … that 等引导。 E.g. She was ill, so that she didn?t attend the meeting. He was so excited that he could not say a word. She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her. 六、目的状语从句 引导目的状语从句最常用的词(组)是 so, so that(从句谓语常有情态动词), in order that, in case(以 防,以免)等。 E.g. Speak clearly, so that they may understand you. She has bought the book in order that she could follow the TV lessons. He left early in case he should miss the train. 七、让步状语从句 让步状语从句可由 although, though, as, even if (though), however, whatever, whether … or, no matter who

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(when, what, …) 等引导。注意:as 引导的让步状语从句一般是倒装的。 E.g. Though he is a child, he knows a lot. Child as he is, he knows a lot. Whatever ( = No matter what ) you say, I?ll never change my mind. 八、比较状语从句 比较状语从句常用 than, so (as) … as, the more … the more 等引导。 E.g. I have made a lot more mistakes than you have. He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford. The busier he is, the happier he feels. 九、方式状语从句 方式状语从句常由 as, as if (though), the way, rather than 等引导。 E.g. You must do the exercise as I show you. He acted as if nothing had happened. 十、使用状语从句时要注意的几个问题 1、在时间和条件(有时也在方式、让步等)从句中,主句是一般将来时,从句通常用一般现在时表 示将来。 E.g. We?ll go outing if it doesn?t rain tomorrow. I?ll write to you as soon as I get to Shanghai. 2、有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步从句,如果从句的主语与主句主语一致(或虽不一致,是 it) , 从句的谓语又包含动词 be ,就可省略从句中的“主语 + be”部分。 E.g. When (he was) still a boy of ten, he had to work day and night. If (you are) asked you may come in. If (it is) necessary I?ll explain to you again. 3、注意区分不同从句:引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句子结构和句意来判别。以 where 为例,能引导多种从句。 E.g. You are to find it where you left it.(地点状语从句) Tell me the address where he lives.(定语从句,句中有先行词) I don?t know where he came from.(宾语从句) Where he has gone is not known yet.(主语从句) This place is where they once hid.(表语从句) 4、as 作从属连词可引导多种状语从句。 (1) 引导时间状语从句, as 意为“当…时”。 例如: (he was) a young man, he was a storekeeper and later As a postmaster./ He sang as he worked. 高.考.资.源.网 (2)as 引导方式状语从句,意为“象…一样”。例如:We must do as the Party teaches us.

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(3)as 引导原因状语从句。意为“由于”,例如:As you are tired, you had better rest. (4) 引导让步状语从句。 as 意为“虽然”、 “尽管”Child as he is, he can do it well. ( = Although he is a child, he can do it well.) 另外,as 做为关系代词还可以引导定语从句,如:I have the same book as you. II、实战演练 用适当的连词填空: 1. Dr. Bethune (白求恩) came to China __________ he was fifty. 2. He began to work __________ he got there. 3. Let's begin our meeting __________everyone is here. 4. I like the English people, __________ I don't like their food. 5. __________ you go in China, you can see smiling faces. 6. He didn't come to the lecture, __________ he was very busy. 7. __________we had enough time, we walked to the cinema. 8. They will help you __________ you meet with difficulty. 9. _________ we came to the university, we have learnt quite a lot. 10.I didn't join them yesterday evening __________ I had to go to an important meeting. 11. We would try to get a car __________we could all travel together more easily. 12. She wouldn't forget her mother's birthday __________ she seldom wrote to her family. 13. We're doing everything we can to make things as easy for you ___________we can. 14. The meeting became so disorderly __________ the speaker had to shout the audience down. 15. He was angrier __________ ever before. 16. __________ you lock all the doors, he can still manage to get in. 17. The boy was so tired __________ he fell asleep on the bus. 18. Hard _________ he tried, he couldn?t force the door open. 答案:二、1. when; 2. as soon as; 3. as; 4. though; 5. Wherever; 6. because; 7. Since; 8. whenever; 9. Since; 10. because; 11. so that; 12. though; 13. as; 14. that; 15. than; 16. Even if; 17. that; 18. as

专题十六 倒装句和省略句 I、重点难点解析 倒转句的考查主要从以下几个方面入手:1) 含有否定意味的词置于句首,部分倒装;2)only+状语 /状语从句置于句首,部分倒装;3)so/such…that 句型中,so+形容词/副词提前,部分倒装;4)表示方位

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的副词或介词短语放在句首,要完全倒装。 一 倒装句用法一览表 分 倒装条件句型结构 类 完 There be…句型 全 表地点的介词短语置于句首: 倒 地点状语+谓语(be, lie, sit 等)+主语 装 here, there, now, then(只用过去式), up, down, away, out 等副词位于句首 直接引语的一部分或全部位于句首, 主 句倒装。结构:“ ,” said/asked sb. 强调表语,置于句首,或为保持句子平 衡 部 分 倒 装 主谓宾结构的一般疑问句和特殊疑问 句 seldom, never, little, hardly, nowhere, by no means, in no time 等表否定意义的副 词或短语置于句首。 Only +状语置于句首 not only…but also…连接并列的句子, 前倒后不倒 neither…nor…连接并列的句子, 前后都 倒 so/such…that 中 such/so 的修饰成分置 于句首时前倒后不倒 as 引导的让步状语从句 so, neither 或 nor 表示前句内容也适用 于另外的人或事 表示祝愿的祈使句 省 略 if 的 虚 拟 条 件 句 : 结 构 : Were/Had/Should+主语+谓语动词

例句 There are many students in our school. Near the river is/stands a pine tree. Out rushed the boy. Then came the teacher. “You had better stay at home,” said my mother. Fastened to the pole is the national flag. We saw a house, in front of which stood a tall tree. Have you finished your homework?/ Why did you buy it? Seldom does he watch TV. By no means will I give up trying. Only when you have grown up can you understand your parents. Not only does he do well in study, but also he is ready to help others. Neither do I know it, nor do I care about it. So fast did he speak that I didn?t follow him./Such good players are they that they often win. Child as he is, he knows a lot. He can play the piano. So can I . we didn?t win. Neither did they. May you have a good trip. Were I you, I would not do it this way.

二 特别提示 1. There be 结构的倒装句型中,there 后还可接 lie, live, seem to be 等。 例如:There lived an old man in the village long long ago. 2. here, there, now, then(只用过去式), up, down, away, out 等副词位于句首,主语为代词时不倒装。例如: Out he rushed. 3. 直接引语的一部分或全部位于句首,主句倒装。但是主语为代词时不倒装。 “You had better stay at home,” she said. 4. So 位于句首不倒装的情况:主语与前句相同,表赞同, 译为“确实如此”。 例句:---Mike studies hard. ---So he does. (确实是。) 比较: (---So do I .我也是。 ) 5. 表示前句内容也适用于另外的人或事,前句如果列举了两种事实以上,用 “So it is/was with sb/sth.” 回答。 ---Tom is kind and often helps those in trouble.

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---So it is with his father. 省略句 高考命题导向:省略是一种避免重复,保持简洁的语法手段。缺少一个或一个以上的必要语言成分,但在 一定语境中能够独立存在,意义明确,并且能发挥交际功能的句子叫做省略句。高考主要是考查省略在固 定结构中的运用。 省略句用法一览表

分类 句子 成分 的省 略

说明 省略主语 省略谓语 省略宾语 省略表语 省略定语

例句 (It)Doesn't matter.没关系。 I won the first race and Tom(won)the second. 我赢了第一场比赛,汤姆赢了第二场。 I don't know(it).我不知道这件事。 Is he a student? Yes,he is (a student). 他是一名学生吗?是的,他是。 Part of the money belongs to my mother and the rest (of the money) belongs to my father.一部分钱属于我妈妈,其余的 钱属于我爸爸。 He was not hurt.(How)Strange! 他没有受伤。真奇怪! I would accept the invitation (if I were you). (如果我是你)我会接受邀请的。 Will you teach English to the students ? Yes.(I will teach English to the students.)你要教学生英语吗? 是的。 He is busy (in) doing his homework.他正在忙着写作业。 I am sure (that)we will succeed. 我确信我们会成功。 This is the dress (which)I bought in Shanghai. 这是我在上海买的裙子。 When was it(that)you received his e-mail? 你收到他的电子邮件是什么时候? If(it is)necessary,we will go there by air. 如果有必要,我们会乘飞机去那里。 Henry looked about as if (he were)in search of something.亨 利向四周环视,似乎在寻找什么。 You may go home if you wish to (go home). 如果你愿意,你可以回家了。 How about playing football? 去蹋球怎么样? Why not go there with us? 为什么不和我们一起去? Can he finish the work on time? I think so.(I think he can finish the work on time.) 他能按时完成工作吗?我认为他能。 We tried to help her but (we tried)in vain.

省略状语 省略从句

省略整句 小品 词 的省 略 省略介词 省略连词 that 省略关系代词 强调句型强调疑问词时, 常省略 强调句型中的 that 在 if,when,though,as if 等 连词引导从句时, 如从句中的主 要动词是 be,常将主语和 be 动 词省略 在口语中,为了避免重复,不定 式可以省去和前面句子相同的 动词,只保留不定式符号 to 由固定词组引导的疑问句 用 so,not 等来省略上文或问句 中的一部分或整个句义 并列复合句中一些相同的成分

固定 结构 中的 省略

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可以省略 我们试着帮助她,但是没有用。 This clock works well but that one doesn't(work well).这个钟 表运行得很好,但是那个不行。

II、实战演练 根据括号中的提示完成句子。 1. Not until __________________ (I; shout) at the top of my voice ________________ (he; turn) his head. 2. I won the prize at last. Never in my life ___________________ (I; feel) so happy. 3. Hardly _____________________ (the thief; see) the police ___________ he ran away. 4. ---Hurry up! There _______________________ ( the bell; go). ---My goodness! Has Mrs Li come yet? ---Look! Here ___________________ (he; come) 5. Not only ___________________ (he; like) singing, but __________________ (he; have) a good voice. 6. ---David has passed the final exam smoothly. ---So _________________ (he; have), and ___________________ (I, have). 7. So ____________________ (he; be frightened) in the darkness that he did not dare to move an inch. 8. Up _________________________ (the balloon; go) into the air. 9. At the foot of the mountain _________________________ (a village; lie) 10. I?v tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means _______________________ (the teacher, be satisfied) with my progress. 11. If Joe?s wife doesn?t go to the party, neither ______________________.(他也不去) 12. Should _________________________ (如果明天下雨), we would have to put off the sports meet. 13. Child __________________ (尽管只是孩子), he shows great consideration towards the others. 14. ---Mike hadn?t passed the exam and was afraid of being scolded. --- ________________________. (我也一样) 15. ________________________________ (我们一听到铃声) than we rushed into the classroom. 16. ---He hasn?t finished the work yet. ---Well, he _________________.(本该完成) 17. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if _______________ (see) whether he was going in the right direction. 18. ---Is your mother a teacher? ---No, but she __________________.(过去是) 19. ---Do you know Anna?s telephone number? --- _______________ .(恐怕不知) As a matter of fact, I don?t know any Anna, either. 20. ---Who should be responsible for the accident? ---The boss, not the workers. They just carried out the order ____________ (按被告诉的). 答案:1. I shouted; did he turn 2. have I felt 3. had the thief seen; when 4. goes the bell; he comes 5. does he; he has 6. he has; so have I 7. frightened was he 8.went the balloon 9. lies a village 10. is the teacher satisfied 11. will he 12. it rain tomorrow 13. as/though he is 14. So it was with me. 15. No sooner had we heard the ring 16. should/ought to have 17. to see 18. used to be 19. I?m afraid not 20. as told

专题十七 强调句 I、重点难点解析 高考命题导向:“It is/was…who/that…”强调句型是重要的句型之一,是高考考查的重点之一。此句型

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可强调主语、宾语、状语。如果强调谓语时,用 do/does/did+动词原形。高考通常考查强调句与几个易混 句型连词的使用和强调句的问句。 强调句型注意事项一览表 说明 1 强调主语,其后的谓语动词和 主语在人称和数上保持一致。 2 强调部分除了指人可用 who/whom,其他只能用 that 3 not until…句型的强调句 强 调 句 型 注 意 事 项 例句 It is he who/that often does good deeds. It is I who/that am looking for you. It is the book that I want. It was not until you told me that I realized my mistake.可 转换为以下句型: Not until you told me did I realize my 1) mistake. 2) I didn?t realize my mistake until you told me. 1)It is true/a fact that they won the game.(it 是形式主语) 2)It was in Xiamen that I first met him.(强调句的特点: 去掉 It was…that 后句子仍成立。 1) It was two hours before he worked out the problem.(两 个小时后他才算出这道题) 2) It is two years since he joined the army.(他参军两年 了) 1) It was in 1919 that he was born.( (强调句) It was 1919 when the May 4th Movement took place. ( 定 语从句) 2) It was in Bejing that I met him.( (强调句) It was Beijing where I met him.( 定语从句)

4 与主语从句(It is / was… that clause)的区别 5 与 “It be…before (时间过多久 才…) / since(自…以来多长时间 了)句型的区别 6 与 “It be…when/where 定语从 句的区别

II、实战演练 填入适当的连词或疑问词 1. It was along the Mississippi River ______________ Mark Twain spent much of his childhood. 2. It is the ability to do the job ___________ matters, not where you came from or what you are. 3. ---What was the party like? ---Wonderful. It is years ___________ I enjoyed myself so much. 4. It was October __________ they finally came back to their hometown. 5. It was in the lab that was taken charge of by Professor Li ____________ they did the experiment. 6. It will be more than 100 years ____________ the country begins once again to look as it did before. 7. ___________ is it that has made Peter what he is today. 8. I?ve already forgotten _____________ it was that you put the dictionary. 9. I have always been hones and straightforward, and it doesn?t matter __________ it is I am talking to. 10. It was _____________ he did ______________ frightened me. 答案:1. that 2. that 3. since 4. when 5. that 6. before 7. what 8. where 9. who 10. what; that 专题十八 虚拟语气 I、重点难点解析 虚拟语气的高考命题导向:虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望、假设、猜测或建议,而不是表示客观存在的事实。 真实语气与虚拟语气的区别主要在谓语动词的形式上。在做题时,要根据语境,判断出是与那种时态相反 的虚拟语气。 一 虚拟语气在从句中的用法和构成一览表 类别 用法 例句 if 引 从句动词:过去式(be 用 were) ;主句动词: If he were here, he would 与现在事实相反 help us. 导的 should/would/could/might +动词原形

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条件 从句 If I had been free, I would have visited you. If it should rain 从句动词:过去式/should +动词原形/were +不定 tomorrow, we would not 与将来事实相反 式; 主句动词:should/would/could/might +动词原形 go camping. They are talking as if they had been as if 引导的状语从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式 friends for years. even if/though 引导的从句, 与现在将来/事实相反:从句动词 用过去式,主句动词用 should/would +动词原形。与过去事实 Even if they were to fail, they wouldn?t 相反:从句动词:had +过去分词;主句动词:should/would lose courage. +have +过去分词 demand, suggest, order, insist 等表命令、建议、要求后的从句 He suggested that we not change our mind. 中动词(should)+动词原形 wish 后的从句中分别用过去式、 过去完成式和 could/would+ I wish I could be a pop singer. 动词原形表示与现在、过去和将来情况相反 与过去事实相反 在 It is necessary/important/strange that…, It is It is strange that such a person should suggested/demanded/ordered/requested that…等从句中,谓语 be our friends. 动词用(should)+动词原形 作 idea, advice, order, demand, request 等表命令、建议、要求 的词的表语从句和同位语从句,其谓语动词用(should)+ 动词原形 It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+动词原形 would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去完成式 If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式, 表示强烈的 愿望 My advice is that you (should) finish your homework first. The idea that you (should) go is right. It?s high time that we left. I would rather you stayed at home now. If only our dream had come true! 从 句 动 词 : had + 过 去 分 词 ; 主 句 动 词 : should/would/could/might +have +过去分词

其他状 语从句

宾语从 句

主语从 句 表语从 句和同 位语从 句 其他句 型中

二 其他要注意的事项 1. 虚拟语气中出现 be 的过去式,只能用 were。 2. suggest 表 “暗示、表明”和 insist 表示 “坚持认为”,其后的宾语从句用陈述句语气。 例如:You pale face suggests that you are ill. / He insisted that he was right. 3. if 虚拟语气条件句中如有 had, should, were,可省略 if, 将其提前引起倒装。 例如:Were I you, I would remain. / Had you told me earlier, I wouldn?t have missed it. 4. 可用 with, but for 代替虚拟语气条件句。 例如:But for your help. I would have failed the exam. Without air there would be no life. 5. as if/though, even if/though 也可以不用虚拟,表示真实的情况。 例如:It looks as if it is going to rain. II、实战演练 用所给动词的适当形式填空 1. ---If he ________________ (warn), he ________________ (not take) that food. ---Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. 2. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it _________________ (break). 3. I would rather they _________________ (not hear) of the news. 4. I wish I _______________ (have) a room of my own when I was a child. 5. To the surprise of the public, the identification of the cause of such a simple event ___________________ (take) more than a year. 6. Without air to hold some of the sun?s heat, the earth at night _______________ (be) freezing cold, too cold for us to stay. 7. If I had worked harder at school, I _____________________(sit) in a comfortable office now. 8. Her pale face suggested that she _____________ (be) ill, and her colleagues suggested that she

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_____________ (have) a medical examination. 9. I insisted he ____________ (go) to see a doctor, but he insisted nothing __________ (be) wrong with him. 10. He asks that he _______________ (give) an opportunity to explain why he?s refused to go there. 11. It is high time we _____________ (get) down to discussing this plan. 12. If it were not for the fact that you ___________ (be) too busy, I would ask you to help me do this right now. 13. Who do you suggest __________________ (send) to work there? 14. I would have come earlier, but I ________________ (not know) that you were waiting for me. 15. If it _______________ (rain) tomorrow, the outing would be cancelled. 答案:1. had been warned; wouldn?t have taken 2. were broken 3. didn?t 4. had had 5. should have taken 6. would be 7. would be sitting 8. was; have 9. go; was 10. be given 11. got 12. are 13. be sent 14. didn?t know 15. should/were to rain

专题十九 主谓一致 I、重点难点解析 主谓一致的高考命题导向 考点主要分布在:语法结构对主谓一致的影响;充当主语的词汇意义对主谓一致的影响;复合句中的主谓 一致等。 主谓一致是指主语和谓语要保持人称和数上的一致,主语的“人称”和“数”决定谓语动词的变化。 一 主谓一致原则一览表 原则 概念 例句 语法一致原则 指主语是单数形式, 谓语动词用单数形式; Steve Ember is a good player. Children like toys. 主语是复数形式,谓语也用复数形式 指主语形式上为单数.但表示复数意义, 谓语动词用复数形式;或主语形式上为复 数. 但表示单数意义,谓语动词用单数形式 谓语动词用单数形式还是用复数形式取决 于最靠近它的主语 My family are having lunch now. News is travelling fast nowadays. There is a knife and two forks on the desk. Either you or he is to go.

意义一致原则

就近一致原则

二 概念归纳: 1. 表时间,距离,金额,重量,数字等的复数名词作“整体”看时,谓语常用单数。 Two hours is quite enough. 2. 以-s 结尾的名词作主语时,根据其意思来决定谓语动词的单复数。 1) 表学科的名词(physics)、 书报名(the Times)、 国名(the United States)或组织名称(the United Nations)及 news -单数 2) 单复同形的名词,如:means, works 等。 Every means has been tried./ All means have been tried. 3) the Olympic Games-复数 3. 集体名词作主语时,视其意义来决定谓语动词的单复数: 1) people, police, cattle 等名词-复数 2) clothing, furniture, equipment 等名词-单数 3) family, class, government 等名词表示整体时单数,表单位成员时复数。 4. a number of/a variety of+复数名词,the+形容词指“一类人”时作主语,谓语用复数 the number of/the variety of+复数名词,the+形容词指抽象的“事物”时,谓语用单数 如:The beautiful is loved by all.(表抽象的概念) 5. 以 and 连接的两个名词作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式,但名词有 each, every, no 修饰时,谓语动词用 单数。 Walking and riding are good exercises. Each boy and each girl wants to have a holiday.

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注意:当 and 连接的两个单数名词在意义上指的是同一人,物或概念时,仍用单数。 The teacher and writer is popular with his students.(区别:The teacher and the writer are…) 6. 动名词、不定式或从句作主语时,谓语用单数。但 what 引导的主语从句视后面的表语而定。 What we need is time./ What we need are books. 7. 主语后接 with, together with, along with, as well as, but, except, besides, like, rather than, in addition to 等短 语时,谓语根据主语用单复数。 8. 在“one of+复数名词+who/that”引导的定语从句中的动词用复数, 但当 one 之前有等 the (only/very)修饰 语时,从句中的动词则用单数。 This is one of the girls who were late for school this morning. This is the only one of the girls who was late for school this morning. 9. glasses, shoes, trousers 等复数名词若其前有 pair/kind/type/box of 等量词修饰时, 谓语根据量词的单复数 而定。 10. 由“a lot of/lots of/plenty of/ half of/the rest of/most of+名词/代词或分数/百分数+名词”作主语时,谓语视 其所接的名词决定单复数。 Three-fifths of the books are intended for the poor students. The rest of the money belongs to you. 11. 由 or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also 等连接的名词/代词作主语及 there be 结构,谓语与靠近 的主语一致。 Not only we but also the teacher likes listening to MP4. There is a book and two pens on the desk. 12. 不定代词(all 指人除外),many a +名词单数, more than one 作主语时,谓语用单数。 All has been finished./ All are late for the meeting. II、实战演练 一 用 BE 动词或所给动词的正确形式填空 1. The United States of America __________ one of the most developed countries in the world. 2. Every means __________ tried, but in vain. 3. Not only my sister but also I ________ good at painting. Both of us _________ good painters. 4. Going to bed early and getting up early ___________ a good habit. 5. I, who _________ your teacher, will try my best to help you out. 6. “All ________ present and all _________ going on well,” the chairman said. 7. The old _________ taken good care of in our country. 8. An iron and steel works, with some other factories _________ to be built here. 9. The number of people invited __________ fifty, but a number of them _________ absent for different reasons yesterday. 10. I as well as they __________ ready to help you. 11. What we need ___________ enough water, but what they need __________ houses. 12. Her family __________ larger than mine and her family _________watching TV now. 13. There ________ a big table and six chairs in the dinning room. 14. The rest of food __________ (leave) for the rest of the students who __________ (have) gone to the library. 15. We need one of the students who __________ at the meeting. He is the only one of the students who __________ (speak) English fluently. 16. Many a students in our class ___________ pop music while many students in their class __________ (like) classic music. 17. Each of them __________ Chinese food . They each __________(enjoy) Chinese food. 18. The worker and writer referred to ___________ (go) to write a comedy. 19. This kind of cartoons __________ well in the bookstore while cartoons of that kind __________ (sell) badly. 20. No boy and no girl _________________ (prevent) by the heavy rain from taking part in the activity. 答案: 1. is 2. has been 3. am, are 4. is 5. am 6. are, is 7.are 8. is 9. was, were 10. am 11. is, are 12. is, are 13. is 14. is left, have 15. speak, speaks 16. likes, like 17. enjoys, enjoy 18.is going 19. sells, sell 20.was prevented.

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专题二十 直接引语和间接 I、重点难点解析 一、直接引语和间接引语的区别: 直接引语 间接引语 直接引述别人的话,用“ ” 转述别人的话,不用“ ”

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请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询! 二、直接引语改为间接引语时,如引述动词为过去时,间接引语中的动词、时间、时态、地 点、人称等一般要作相应的变化。遵循下列规律: 在直接引语中 指示代词 this these 时间状语 now today yesterday last week tomorrow next year two days ago 地点状语 动词时态 ( 以 work 为 例) here 一般现在时 (work) 现左进行时 (is /are working) 现在完成时 (has / have worked) 一般过去时 (worked) 过去完成时 (had worked) 一般将来时 (will work) 动词变化 can/may must come bring 在间接引语中 that those Then that day the day before the week before the next day the next year two days before there 一般过去时 (worked) 过去进行时 (was / were working) 过去完成时 (had worked) 过去完成时 (had worked) (不变) (had worked)

过去将来时 (would work) could/might had to go take

三、各种句型的直接引语改成间接引语时的相应变化: 各种句 型 陈述句 连接词用 that,在口语中可省 She said: “He will be busy.”→ She said that he would be busy.
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变化要领

例句

请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询! 一般疑 问句 用 if 或 whether,改为陈述语序 She said to Tom, “Can you help me?”→ She asked Tom if /whether he could help her. 特殊疑 问句 用原句中的疑问词作连接词,改为 陈述语序 The teacher asked, “how did you repair it?” → The teacher asked me how I had repaired it. 祈使句 用“动词+宾语+不定式”结构 The mother said, “Tom, get up early, please.”→ The mother asked Tom to get up early. 四、直接引语变间接引语时,几种不变的特殊情况: 不变的情况 例句

1. 直接引语是客观真理, (习) The teacher said, “The earth goes round the sun.”→ 谚 语 The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.

2. 被引述的部分是反复出现的, He said, “We are still students.?→ 习惯性的动作或说话时情况仍 然存在 3.引语中有明确的表示过去的 时间状语,时态不变 4.引述部分含有 insist, suggest, demand 等 引 导 的 虚 拟 宾 语 从 句,变间接引语时,引语中的主 从句时态都不变 5.引述动词是现在时,则间接 引语中的动词、时间、时态的形 式不变 She says, “ I?ll never forget the moment.” → She says that she?ll never forget the moment. He said to me, “I was born in 1978.”→ He told me that he was born in 1978. She said, “He demanded that the girl leave at once.”→ She said he demanded that the girl leave at once. He said they are still students.

II、实战演练 每空填一个单词,将下列直接引语变为间接引语。 1. My father said, “Practice makes perfect.”→ ---- My father said practice _____ perfect.

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请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询! 2. The boy said to us, “ I usually get up at six every day.”→ ---- The boy told us he usually _______ ______ at six every day. 3. The engineer said, “I was at college in 1967.”→ ---- The engineer said he _____ at college in 1967. 4. My uncle said,“I sowed my carrot seed yesterday.” ----My carrot seed uncle . said

5. The farmers said,“We picked these cabbages three days ago.” ----The farmers said that 6. He sked me,“What's the weather going to be like tomorrow?” ----He asked me like . the weather to be cabbages `.

7. The teacher said to us ,“Light travells much faster than sound.” ----The teacher light .

8. She said to me ,“I've left my fork in your room.” ----She that fork in .

9. He said,“I will come here tonight.” ----He said that 10.“Did you plant rice last week?”he said to us. ----He 11. .“Are you ready,children?”asked Mrs Li. ----Mrs Li asked 12. .“Where is your brother ploughing now?”he asked. ----He asked brother ploughing . ready. planted rice . .

13.She said,“How many times do you harvest crops every year,Mike?” ----She asked how many times crops every year.

14.“Can I borrow this book of yours,Miss Gao?”asked the boy. ----The boy asked Miss Gao borrow of .

15.“How long did it take you to remove the weeds?”he asked the farmers. ----He asked the farmers how long
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the weeds.

请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询! 16.“Please have a rest,”the farmer said to us. ----The farmer a rest.

17.One of the students said,“Let me go on with the farm work,Uncle Wang.” ----One of the students Uncle Wang with the farm work.

18. .“Don't take off your blouse, ”Lily said to Lucy. ----Lily asked Lucy 答案: 1 makes 2. gets up 3. was had picked those, three days before much faster than sound night were blouse. 4. .that he had sowed his, the day before 6.what,was going, the next day 5.they

7.told us ,travels

8.told me, she had left her, my room

9.he would go there that

10.asked us if (whether) we had, the week before 12.me where my, was ,then 15.it had taken to remove 13.Mike,he harvested

11.her children if (whether) they 14.if (whether )he could, that 17.asked,to let him go on

book ,hers

16.asked us to have

18.not to take off her

基本上不看短文内容仅看选项,2010 年高考有人竟然过了 100 分!

高考有没有瞬间大幅度提分的可能?
谁能让你不用花很多时间和心思学习,英语就能提高至少 20-30 分?要是真的话,简直 是白捡的分数!不仅如此,当你了解了高考真题答案的所有内幕规律,看到了绝密的解题招 式,就会豁然开朗。哇!原来也可以这么做题!你的思路因此将会被彻底打通,提高的分数 将不仅仅是 20-30 分!无论现在的英语成绩是 60 分,还是 110 分,任何人都可以做到!这 些绝密招式是太简单、太震撼了!所以,如果你看到了,切勿告诉他人,否则,他们会在高 考中轻松超过你! 请注意 ! 如果你不相信这世上有考试秘诀,请立即将您的眼睛离开; 如果你习惯于按照传统思路做题,不希望有思维上的突破,请你立即将您的眼睛离开; 如果你现在的成绩已接近满分,甚至已是满分,请你立即将您的眼睛离开; 如果你患有心理疾病或心脏病,请您立即将您的眼睛离开; 如果你选择留下来,那么接下来的事,很可能让你目瞪口呆! 如果我告诉你 N 个秘诀,在做完形填空和阅读理解题时,不用看文章和题干,只是简 单的比较四个选项,就能瞬间选出正确答案,你是否想看? 请先看下面的例子,它是辽宁卷 2010 年真题的第 36 题,是一个完形填空题. 在此我 只列出它的四个选项,试试看,只是比较选项,你是否能够在 3 秒之内选出正确答案? 36. A. worried B. sad C. surprised
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D. nervous

请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询! 正确答案是 C, ABD 都是一个人状态不好的倾向词,而 C 则为中性词,表述态度不一 致者是答案。.如果你知道了这个秘诀,可以解决很多类似的完型填空题! 看一下辽宁卷 2010 年完形填空真题的第 52 题: 52. A. Largely B. Generally C. Gradually D. Probably 正确答案是 C, ABD 都是含义不肯定的副词,排除表述不明确的选项,答案就水落石出 了. 如果你知道了这个秘诀, 你更是可以解决很多类似的完型填空题! 试想一下,知道了全部 36 个完形秘诀之后,您的分数会怎么样呢? 请再看下面的例子, 它是辽宁卷 2010 年真题阅读理解题的第 56 题, 在此我只写出它 的题干和四个选项.也试试看,只是比较选项,你是否能够在 5 秒之内选出正确答案? 56. From Paragragh 1 we learn that the villagers A.worked very hard for centuries B.dreamed of having a better life C.were poor but somewhat content D.lived a different life from their forefathers 正确答案是 C, 选项中表述的内容前后相互矛盾的是答案! 思路很简单,如果你掌握 了其中的秘诀,抛开文章,你也可以很快选出正确答案. 掌握此类瞬间解题秘诀,不仅缩短 了答题时间,还能保障近乎 100%的准确率!请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈 阳英语家教吴军"查询! .

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in two languages. My aunt even goes so far as to give you the 49 47. A. words B. names

meaning of a word in English! C. ideas

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请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询! 很简单,选 A,勿须有任何的犹豫,为什么?复现法则! 吴军英语高分密码会告诉你具体原因以及更多的解决“难题”的秘诀,都是非常的简单和 直接.请记住!遇到“难题”,即使“猜”答案,也要“猜”的有理有据,切勿盲目的“猜”! The moment he was about to 47 the hospital, he saw on the desk the 48 new book ,just as he had left it one 49 ago. 48. A much B still C hardly D quite 很简单,选 B,为什么?答案高频词汇倾向归纳让你笑逐颜开! 高频形容词 \ 副词: suddenly, even, finally, first, last, again, also, however, though, although, yet, instead, even though, but, still 等. 吴军英语高分密码真的有这么神奇吗?是!一点儿没错!效果是绝对的真实!作为一种 标准化考试,选择题本身是有很多缺陷的,这些缺陷就是暗示点,就是解题的突破口!吴军英 语高分密码通过对历年真题的长时间的研究,对这些暗示点进行了全面、深入、细致的挖掘 和整理,将其转化为超级解题秘诀! 每一个秘诀的准确率都在 95%以上,甚至是 100% 吴军英语高分密码,真正做到了立竿 见影!甚至是一剑封喉!单选 280 个考点,42 个诀窍; 阅读 16 大满分攻略; 完形 36 绝招; 七 选五 6 大原则; 改错 36 个规律;作文 4 大模板 6-8 页;不想考上一本、 二本都很难!马上用吴军 英语高分密码对照历年所有的高考真题进行逐一的验证吧! 遇到吴军老师,您太幸运了!请 上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳英语家教吴军"查询!

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