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grammar and language points


Word study

1. 动词-ing形式是在动词末尾加 -ing ,

属于非谓语动词。如:do-doing,
write- writing , sit-sitting , etc.否定 形式:not+ v--ing 构成 2. 动词-ing形式作主语或宾语时,也 可称为动名词。

动词-ing形式作

主语 1. 动词-ing形式作主语表示抽象的或泛 指的动作, 谓语动词用单数。如: Reading aloud is very important for us to learn a foreign language. Going to bed early and getting up early is considered to be a good habit.

2. 动词-ing形式作主语时常后置, 用it作形 式主语,用形容词或名词作表语。常见 的作表语的名词或短语有:no use, no good, fun, hard work, a hard / difficult job, a wonder, a waste of time等。如: Is it worthwhile quarrelling with her? It’s no good waiting here. Let’s go home. It was a waste of time reading that book.

3. “There is + no”后可以用动词-ing 形式作主语,表示“没法……”。 如: There was no telling when this might happen again. 没法预料这样的事什 么时候会再发生。 There was no knowing what he could do. 他能做什么很难说。

动词-ing形式作宾语 1. 有些动词如admit, avoid, consider, escape, deny, risk, suggest等后能接 动词-ing形式作宾语,而不能接动 词不定式。如: We’re considering paying a visit to the Science Museum.

2. 有些短语如can’t help, be used to, end up, feel like, lead to, be busy, be tired of, be fond of, be afraid of, be proud of, think of / about, put off, keep on, insist on, be good at, give up等后常接名词、 代词或动词-ing形式作宾语。如: I have been used to living here. I’m fond of collecting stamps and coins.

3. need, require, want作“需要”解时, 后接动词-ing形式作宾语, 主动形式 表示被动意义, 相当于to be done。 如: The radio needs / requires / wants repairing / to be repaired.

常跟动词ing作宾语的动词歌诀:
consider, suggest / advise, look forward 考虑建议盼原谅, excuse, pardon to, 承认推迟没得想, admit, delay / put off, fancy

避免错过继续练, avoid, miss, keep /keep on, practise
否认完成停能赏, deny, finish, stop, enjoy / appreciate 不禁介意准逃亡, can’t help, mind, allow/ permit, escape

不准冒险凭想象。 forbid, risk, imagine

[注意] 1. 动词-ing形式的复合结构是指在动词ing形式前面加上逻辑主语来强调动作 的执行者,该逻辑主语常为形容词性 物主代词或名词所有格;当逻辑主语 不出现在句首时,可用人称代词的宾 格代替形容词性物主代词或用名词普 通格代替名词的所有格。如:

I’m annoyed about John’s forgetting to pay. I really can’t understand you treating her like that.

2. 动词-ing形式的否定形式是在其前面 加not,带有逻辑主语时not应在动词 -ing形式之前。如: Your schoolmate’s not coming home in time made her parents worried.

需要注意的问题: 以下的动词后面加动词的不定式作宾

语:
decide, hope, expect, seem, agree, afford, arrange, choose, offer, plan, promise, determine, demand, manage, fail, prepare, refuse, pretend

常跟不定式作宾语的动词歌诀: 三个希望两答应, 两个要求莫拒绝, 设法学会做决定, 不要假装在选择。 hope; wish; want; agree; promise demand; ask; refuse manage; learn; decide pretend; choose

想要拒绝命令, 需要努力学习, 期望同意帮助, 希望决定开始。

want; refuse; order need; try; learn expect; agree; help hope; wish; decide; begin; start

以下的动词后面既可接动词的不定式

又可以接动词的ing作宾语:
hate, love, prefer, remember, forget, regret, like, try, stop, begin, start

既跟动词ing又接不定式作宾语的动词歌诀: 双方一旦开始,不论喜欢与否,都得继 续下去。 不管记住与否,努力打算停止,后悔三 个需要。 begin, start, like, prefer, hate, dislike, continue. remember, forget, try, mean, stop, regret, want, need, require

[即时练习] 从 A、B、C、D四个选项
中选出最佳选项。

1. It’s necessary to be prepared for a
job interview. ____ the answers D ready will be of great help. A. To have had C. Have B. Having had D. Having

2. The parents suggested ____ in the C

hotel room but their kids were
anxious to camp out during the

trip.
A. sleep C. sleeping B. to sleep D. having slept

3. How I regret ___ so much time in B
the net bar! I should have studied

harder.
A. to waste B. wasting

C. wasted

D. being wasted

1.What do you think would happen if tomorrow there was suddenly no rice to eat? [点拨] 本句中使用了插入语do you think。 插入语经常插到一个语法结构完整的句子 里去,对句子的内容作一些附加说明,有 时表示说话者的态度和看法等,它不和句 子的成分发生结构上的关联,常置于句首、 句中或句末。把插入语去掉之后,句子的 结构和语义还是完整的。

[拓展] ①常用于插入语的动词有suppose, know, hope, believe, guess, find, say等。如:

You came by air, I suppose.
②用作插入语的主要有:副词、形容词、介词短

语、不定式、动词-ing形式短语和分句。如:

?Two middle-aged passengers fell into the sea.
Unfortunately, neither of them could swim.

?If she ran towards it, it might attack her. Worse
still, it could even carry off the baby in its mouth.

?Your performance in the driving test didn’t
reach the required standard — in other words, you failed. ?To be frank with you, I have no money on me. ?Judging from what he said to me today, his mind’s made up. ?It is so nice to hear from her. Believe it or not, we last met more than thirty years ago. What he did, to my surprise, has nothing [仿写] _____________________________________ _________________________ (令我惊讶的是, 他 to do with what he said. 说的话和所做的事没有任何关系。)

[真题再现] 从A、B、C、D四个选项中选出最 佳选项。 ① —What fruit is in season now? —Pears and apples, ____. (2008 全国卷I) B A. I know B. I think C. I see D. I feel ② —Have you got any particular plans for the coming holiday? —Yes, ____, I’m going to visit some homes D for the old in the city. (安徽 2008) A. If ever B. If busy C. If anything D. If possible

2. This special strain of rice makes it possible to produce one-third more of the crop in the same fields. make it +宾语补足语+动词不定式, it 做 形式宾语, 动词不定式是真正的宾语。 it做形式宾语, 通常和下列动词连用:

consider, think, make, find, believe, count, declare, deem, fancy, feel, guess, imagine, judge, prove, see, show, suppose, understand, take等。

?
? ? ? ?

We consider it our duty to support good leaders. The new method makes it possible to complete the task faster. Tom found it very embarrassing to be reminded of the long-standing debt. Susan deemed it advisable to keep the matter secret. We all feel it nice to be able to visit that distinguished university.

3. Using his hybrid rice, farmers are producing harvests twice as large as before. 英语中的倍数表达法共有三种形式: (1) 倍数 + 形容词/副词的比较级 + than... (2) 倍数 + as +形容词/副词的原级 + as...

(3) 倍数 + the + 名词+ of... This building is five times higher than that one.

这座楼比那座楼高出五倍。
This building is five times as high

as that one.
这座楼是那座楼的五倍高。

This building is five times the height of that one. 这座楼是那座楼的五倍高。 The new building is four times the size of the old one. It is reported that the United States uses ___ energy as the whole of Europe. A. as twice B. twice much C. twice much as D. twice as much

I. 根据下列各句句意及所给单词的首字 母或汉语提示,写出所缺单词的正确 形式。 struggled 1. She’s s________ to bring up a family
alone.

2. I regretted (后悔) not having worn a ________

thicker coat yesterday.

3. The sailors battled (搏斗) with the ______ winds and waves and finally landed the goods at New York. 4. This plant can grow in many parts of the globe g____. 5. He was down with the flu, and therefore ________
(因此) couldn’t come to the party.

II. 根据括号内的汉语提示, 完成下列句子。 1. _____________ (大声朗读) in the Reading aloud library is a bad habit. talking like this 2. It’s no use _____________ (像这样谈 话). attending the famous 3. university ____________________ In my mind, ________ (进入那所著名的大学) will be the only way to become a world-class writer.

4. Mary got well-prepared for the job
interview, for she couldn’t risk ________________________ (丢失这 losing the good opportunity 个好机会). 5. He remembered __________________ not having finished ____________ his homework (没有完成作业), so he got up early to do it the next morning.


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