Memory training 记忆训练
The importance of a good memory in interpreting Short-term memory & Long-term memory Short-term memory training A
t cocktail parties
The importance of a good memory in interpreting
The ability to process information is an essential part of successful interpreting. The ability to listen, comprehend, and retain information is necessary for processing information.
Theory: “Memory is no local function in the brain and definitely not a type of container. Memory is rather the entire body of thought which you retain,” and “memory is the lasting functioning of many mechanical, sensory, mental and physical moments.”
The duration of STM is very short. It is up 6 to 30 seconds. Memory in interpreting only lasts for a short time. Once the interpreting assignment is over, the interpreter moves on to another one, often with different context, subject and speakers.
Long-Term Memory occurs when you have created neural pathways for storing ideas and information which can then be recalled weeks, months, or even years later.
To create these pathways, you must make a deliberate attempt to encode the information in the way you intend to recall it later.
Long-term memory is a learning process. And it is essentially an important part of the interpreter's acquisition of knowledge, because information stored in LTM may last for minutes to weeks, months, or even an entire life.
Short-term memory training
Shadowing ? Parroting ? Chinese Whispers ? Simultaneous shadowing ? Lagging shadowing ? Multi--tasking
Long-term memory training
1.Information--Visualization 2.Encoding , storage and retrieval 3.Categorization, generalization and comparison
This is to visualize what the speaker is saying in interpretation. It is applicable to the retaining of information in such speech types as narration, description and introduction.
Categorization, generalization and comparison
use an outline Use the basic structure and logic relations between the main ideas, use outline to analysize the material in the source language. Interpreters memorize the main idea and logic relations.
During the next steps of memorizing and interpreting, interpreters should conclude all the minor information into the interpretation. Using an outline can make the content clear in the meaning and reasonable in the logic relations.
澳大利亚和中国在生态环境上有很大的差别，我认为 原因很多。首先是由于中国的人口密度较大，其次是 经济情况不同。澳大利亚的经济主要依靠第一和第三 产业，比如农业、旅游业，它们对环境的污染相对较 小；而中国的经济更依赖于第二产业（工业），第二 产业对环境污染最大。另外，澳大利亚是一个发达国 家，在经济上有能力制定比较严格的环境保护法规。 第三是历史的原因。虽然澳大利亚的土族居民有六万 多年的历史，但是他们是游牧民族，所以对生态环境 没有重大影响。澳大利亚重要的人类活动只有两百年 的历史。在中国，重要的人类活动已有几千年之久。 第四，中国的环境保护还没有受到应有的重视。第五 个原因是澳大利亚人和中国人的社会文明意识有所不 同。
澳、中生态环境差别原因： 1． 人口密度 2． 经济情况： 澳：第一、三产业（两例、结果） 中：第二产业（结果） 此外，澳：发达国（环保法规） 3． 历史：（重要人类活动史比较） 4．环保重视程度 5．文明意识
Use the predication to keep the structure into memory
On the basis of understanding, the interpreters can make clear the information and make predication of the logic relations. They link all the information unit into a larger information unit to increase the volume of short-term memory. This method can be used to memorize many details, boring material and discourse without coherence.
We have heard a lot of interesting points from the speakers who have gone before me about creating a supportive investment climate which takes into account the interests and concerns of foreign companies, while also helping Chinese companies and the various regions of China to realize their competitive advantages.
we have heard a lot interesting points from the speakers who have gone before me（在 我发言之前，我们已听到许多发言人很有意 义的见解） about creating a supportive investment climate（就创造鼓励性的投资环境）
which takes into account the interests and concerns of foreign companies（它照顾外国 公司的利益） while also helping Chinese companies and the various regions of China to realise their competitive advantages（同时，帮助中国公 司和各个地区实现其本身的竞争优势）。
Main reasons for failure to remember what has been heard:
Insufficient attention is paid to the speaker. ? Unfamiliarity with the topic under discussion. ? Incompetence in the foreign languages
How to improve active listening?
Enlarge background knowledge. ? Ask WH questions before listening. ? Listen to the main ideas of the speech.
Divide the sense of the sentence 意群切分
ear / listening span: each time that human being’s brain and ear can get the length of information. Listening span is larger, the information is more. The speed is high. The correct translation is more. Enlarge the listening span is one of the most efficient way.
Different people have different span in listening due to different English level and memory.
1、the relation in the sentence.
simple sentence coordinated sentence complex sentence
listen to simple sentences to practice Then listen to longer sentences Master the ability to divide the chunk of sense enlarge the ability of listening span listen to more complex exercise train to listen to a complex sentence as a chunk of sense.
2.The relation between sentences
The cohesion in sentences can be used in three aspects: Grammatical cohesion Lexical cohesion Context cohesion To put more sentences into one listening span
Ellipsis Reference Substitution linking
Some of the elements can be deleted which can avoid the repetition and give emphasis to new information. eg. Coastal cities rely on their geographic location to attract foreign investment and thus made a success. The cities in northwest cannot…
（2）reference Personal reference 人称照应 Demonstrative reference 指示照应
The US president George Bush peddled his theories of democracy and freedom in many areas in the world. Wherever he traveled, he would never forget to make some speeches for that. Some of his speeches served as catalyst to some revolutions.
Demonstrative reference 指示照应：
The right to be educated has been deprived of children in some countries. It is not an uncommon phenomenon in present world where some other countries are considering how to refine their education system.
（3）替代：use substitutes to replace some part in the text. Some of the words used as substitutes are:one, do , so/ not, same.
Eg. Recently China has raised its bar for income tax from 800 yuan to 1500. in fact, many people have been expecting so for many years.
Linking is to use one linking element to connect different parts in the text, showing clear the logic relations. There are additional linking, transitional linking, time linking and cause-effect linking.
besides, what’s more, moreover, in addition, apart from that
Eg. The company has decided to shorten staff’s working period. Besides, their salary and benefits will be improved.
Eg. Every businessman knows the importance of keeping their promises. However, it is not uncommon for us to see the promises.
now, then, or prepositional phrases Eg. Before 1949, what people concerned most was how to satisfy their stomach. Then, people tried to improve their housing. After 1990, people are paying more attention to how to entertain themselves.
therefore, consequently, thus, hereby, as a result
Chinese central government has adopted some cooling measures to the housing sector. Therefore, the overheating of the sector has been cooled down a little bit.
2）repetition: synonym, antonym, Hypernym上义词 hyponym下义词
In the summer, Hong Kong hosted a health seminar on AIDS prevention and control. At this seminar, some experts pointed out that migrant population in China’s mainland is the key issue to tackle. （repetition of the same word）
Counter-terrorism is one of the cards US always plays in its foreign policy. Fighting terrorists has helped it win the support of many countries.（repetition of the synonym）
In the old international economic and political order, developing countries suffered a lot economically and politically. That explains why many third world nations are now pressing ahead for a new rational international economic and political order. （repetition of the antonym）
Some developing countries are developing their economy at any cost, thus causing serious pollutions. Water pollution has been among the most serious ones and it is easily done but hard to clear away. Pollution caused by used batteries is always neglected. （pollution and two hyponym下义词 water pollution, pollution caused by used batteries)
common character or sense: many perspective to explain or illustrate
different character: make contrast explanation
Common character：Now there are still many problems in the economic development of the country. Low product quality, low profitability and high resource-consumption are among the most serious one. Terrorist attacks have been on the rise thus threatening its economic progress. Environmental pollution has also been acute enough to be addressed. Braindrain to other countries is becoming a popular trend followed by many young and promising talents. （以上从不同方面谈到了国家的问题，经济、 环境、人才流失、恐怖主义等，这些可以归为 统一方向，即“问题”）
However, the government is coming to realize all this. It has sent many teams of experts abroad for advanced expertise. It is also getting tougher with potential terrorists so as to guarantee a peaceful environment. Many environmental campaigns have been launched and some measures have been taken to clear the pollutants. （与上文形成鲜明对比，提出了多种问题解决 方法：国外取经、反恐、环保等）
1. One simple sentence 2. One complex sentence contains different relations: condition, time, place, cause and effect, Concessive and manner of clause 3. several sentences: contains grammatical cohesion, lexical cohesion and context cohesion
A business cocktail party
Rules of etiquette
If you've been invited to a business cocktail party, there are a few rules of etiquette to keep in mind to make a good impression and improve professional relationships. Adhering to proper etiquette is also important when preparing for the cocktail party.
1. Reply to invitations
When a guest receives an invitation to a business cocktail party, it's essential to respond to the invitation as quickly as possible. This shows courtesy and consideration, even before the guest attends the engagement.
Hosts of the cocktail part should include self-addressed envelopes in the invitation for guests to use to send their RSVPs--if an envelope is not included, attendance confirmation should be made by phone, or a hand-written note should be mailed to the host. 请回复 R.S.V.P. =Répondez s'il vous plait.（法 语）
2. Different cocktail parties require different attire服装.
A cocktail reception is usually a formal affair, which means women are expected to wear gowns, and men should wear tuxedos 礼服 .
If the event is a cocktail buffet, casual dress if often acceptable-men can wear slacks 宽松的长裤 and a button-down 领尖有钮扣的 shirt, and women can wear a skirt or slacks.
A "traditional" cocktail party, where appetizers are served and guests are standing for most of the event, is usually semi-formal.
For this occasion, it is best to wear a cocktail dress with heels--men can wear a sport coat and slacks, or a darkcolored suit. Guests should ask the host what the dress code will be to avoid looking inappropriate at the event, if the dress code is not indicated on the invitation.
3. fashionably late
While it is usually acceptable etiquette to arrive at a party "fashionably late," it's important to remember that a business cocktail party is still a professional event, and showing up on time will help business associates improve their reputations. However, arriving at the party early is not recommended, as this prompts the host to entertain before he/she is prepared.
4. make professional connections
The main purpose of a business cocktail party is to make professional connections that could lead to successful business mergers. It's important for businesspeople to know the purpose for attending the event before arriving, to stay "on task" during the night. Smiling and giving firm handshakes are great ways to get a potentially beneficial conversation going.
Professionals should have plenty of business cards to pass around during the party, as well as a way to keep up with business cards, email addresses, and numbers that are received. It is also acceptable to give and receive resumes at some cocktail parties, so business associates should bring a few copies to the engagement in case they are asked to provide their credentials 证件.
5. a social event
Even though a cocktail party is a business affair, it is also a social event, which means drinking alcoholic beverages is acceptable. However, it is not proper etiquette to drink too much--this can give both the businessperson and his/her corporation a bad reputation.
In order to maintain a professional demeanor风度 throughout the cocktail party, it is best to eat before drinking, and to drink a glass of water after each alcoholic beverage. Drinks should also be kept in the left hand, so that the right hand will be free for shaking hands with other guests.
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Do the interpretation on page 20,21 Group work: do the sentence interpretation
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