中 国 矿 业 大 学
2011 级 硕 士研究生课程考试试卷
考试科目 硕士学科专题讲座 考试时间 学生姓名 学 号 2012 年 6 月 王婷婷 ZS11100033 外文学院 刘丰
ary of the Masters’ Lectures
1. Professor Zhao Hong
Here, Professor Zhao Hong gave us two lectures, one is about the studies on news discourse, and the other is about her doctor graduation dissertation. 1.1 Lecture One Studies on News Discourse 1.1.1 The Definition of Text and Discourse As for the first lecture, first, the definition and characteristics about text and discourse are analyzed: text is the actual work of poems, novels, etc. while discourse is the system of thoughts composed of ideas, thoughts, attitudes, as a form of social practice, which is from the view point of the critical discourse analysis. More specifically, discussion with a more sociological basis or aim tend to use the term “discourse”, whole those with a more linguistic basis or aim tend to use the term “text”. Where the materiality, form and structure of language are at issue, the emphasis tends to be textual; where the context, function and social significance of language are at issues, the study tends to be of discourse. 1.1.2 Basic Understanding about News When talking about studies on news discourses, we have to know what the news is. Somebody says that the word “news” can be spilt into four letters, “n”, “e”, “w”, “s”, which means north, east, west and south, so news can refer to events happening everywhere in the world. There is a famous and popular saying about the definition of news, “when a dog bits a man, it is not news; but when a man bits a dog, that is news”, which is the vivid expression of freshness and unusualness of news. Therefore, news can be regarded as the report of a event, including timely information gathered
or written by trained people. From the nature of occurrence point of view, news can be divided into hard news and soft news. As for the writing technique of news, we can divide news into straight news (or objective news), interpretative news and investigative news. As for the news values or the newsworthiness, Professor Zhao Hong provided us with detailed information. In a prefect news timeliness, proximity, conflict, eminence and prominence, consequence and impact, and human interest should be all involved. As for the elements of news, there is 5 W and 1 H, which means who, where, when, what, why, and how. 1.1.3 Research Perspectives of News Discourse Studies As the news studies have been a really hot field in the linguistic research, several points of views of previous studies are offered, something like the literature review. First, from the critical approach, we can apply the systemic functional grammar, such as Rogar Fowler does the research from the critical linguistics using the theories of systemic functional grammar, N. Fairclough and G. Kress make several studies from the critical discourse analysis. In this approach, CL and CDA are developed, we simply use language to express the experience of world, to reflect the relationship between or among people and to organize the text. In Halliday’s view, language performs three functions, simultaneously, serving respectively to ideational function, interpersonal function and textual function, which Halliday categorized as three metafunctions. Tian Hailong in language and control said, critical linguistics simply means an inquiry into the relations between signs, meanings and the social and historical conditions which govern the semiotic.
Second, from the structural approach, there are many famous scholars, such as T.A. Van Dijk, Allan Bell in the western and Xiong Dailiang in china. Third, from the social-cognitive approach, such as Van Dijk. Fouth, from sociolinguistic approach, there are also many excellent linguists, like Allan Bell, Zhou Xueyi, Duanmu Wanyi and Zhang Jian.
2. Lecture Two Professor Zhao Hong’s Doctor Graduation Dissertation
The second lecture of Professor Zhao Hong is about her doctor graduation dissertation, talking about the international breaking natural disasters from the perspective of register configuration which is proposed by Halliday in systematic and functional grammar. 2.1. Theoretical Background According to Halliday, each of the elements in the semiotic structure of the situation activates the corresponding component in the semantic system, and they create in the process a semantic configuration, a grouping of favored and foregrounded options from the total meaning potential that is typically associated with the situation type in question, and this semantic configuration is what is understood as register. Register can be divided into three parts, respectively serving as field, tenor and mode. Field here refers to a continuum of field; tenor refers to the role relationship between journalists and readers in the continuum, which are of equal power, occasional or even no contact and low affectivity; mode refers to the large special distance and large experimental distance. 2.2 Shining Points in Her Dissertation In here paper, she concluded the basic structure of the international breaking
natural disaster news, which will be showed as a figure in the following: Headling Dateling Lead Consequence description
Cauualties Disaster scene findings
Circumstances Cultural background Similar events
Rescue work Official response Relative response
Journalists’ judgments As for the theoretical background of her paper, Halliday’s context of culture, which includes institution and ideology are applied. In this paper, professor Zhao points out the journalistic orientations of China and America. The journalistic orientation is affected by the journalistic traditions and media functions of each country, so in China, our international breaking natural disaster news focuses on the positive reporting, brief work, man’s work and the official response to direct the public, while in America, they probably focus on the negative reporting, conflicts, man’s weakness, surveillance and interpretative reporting which emphasizes on the reasons, more background introduction and solutions. Clearly, China focuses on the static information, for example, we maybe more care about how many people are killed in the disaster, while America focuses on the dynamic information, they may care more about who killed people.
Xin Bin said, quotations in news reports are strategies used by journalists to enhance truthfulness, objectivity and impartiality. However, when the quotation is about am implicit one, the truthfulness can not be guaranteed. 2.3 Individual Rethought of CDA As for me, many of the studies of the news are based on the critical discourse analysis. In this theory, what I appreciate most and the most popular one is the three dimensional theoretical framework proposed by Fairclough. He sketches this three dimensional framework for convincing of and analyzing discourse. According to Fairclough, the first dimension is discourse-as-text, such as the linguistic features and organization of concrete instances of discourse. Choices and patterns in vocabulary (wording, metaphor), grammar (e.g. transitivity, modality), cohesion (e.g. conjunction, schemata), and text structure (e.g. episoding, turn-taking system) should be systematically analyzed. The use of passive verb forms in news reporting, for instance, can have the effect of obscuring the agent of political processes. This attention to the concrete textual features distinguishes CDA from germane approaches such as Michel Foucault’s. The second dimension is discourse-as-discursive-practice, discourse as something that is produced, circulate, distributed, consumed in society. Fairclough sees these processes largely in terms of the circulation of concrete linguistic objects (specific texts or text-types that are produced, circulated, consumed, and so forth), but keeping Foucault in mind, remarkably little time is spent on resourses and other “”macro conditions on the production and distribution of discourse. Approaching discourse as discursive practice means that in analyzing vocabulary, grammar,
cohesion, and text structure, attention should be given to speech acts, coherence, and intertextuality---three aspects that link a text to its context. Fairclough distinguishes between “manifest intertextuality” (overtly drawing upon other texts) and “constitutive intertextuality” or “interdiscursivity” (texts are made up of heterogeneous elements: generic conventions, discourse types, register, style). One important aspect of the first form is discourse representation: how quoted utterances are selected, changed, contexualized. The third dimension is discursive-as-social-practice, such as the ideological effects and hegemonic processes in which discourse is a feature. Hegemony concerns power that is achieved through constructing alliances and integrating classes and groups through consent, so that “the articulating and rearticulation of orders of discourse is correspondingly one stake in hegemonic struggle. It is from this third dimension that Fairclough constructs his approach to change: Hegemonies change, and this can be witnessed in discursive change, when the latter is viewed from the angle of intertexuality. The way in which discourse is being represented, respoken, or rewritten sheds light on the emergence of new orders of discourse, struggles over normativity, attempts at control, and resistance against regimes of power. In a word, critical discourse analysis , mainly studies public discourses and non-literature discourse. It attaches great importance to analyzing production, transmission and reception of discourse under social and historical background. It aims to disclose relations among language, power and ideology. Its methodology is built on Halliday’s systemic-functional linguistics.
3. Professor Huang Ying
Professor Huang Ying basically discussed on the corpus linguistics, which is his advantage. 3.1 What is Corpus and Several Types of Corpus Corpus is a large collection of texts, spoken or written. There are several types of corpus: first is specialized corpus, like Cambridge and Nottingham Corpus of Discourse in English and the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English; second is the general corpus, like the British National Corpus (BNC) and the American National Corpus (ANC); third is the comparable corpus, such as the International Corpus of English (ICE) which contains different varieties of English. Fourth is the parallel corpus, such as different translations of the same novel, like A Dream in the Red Mansions. Fifth is the learner corpus, the International Corpus of Learner English such as Chinese Learner English Corpus (CLEC), Spoken and Written English Corpus of Chinese Learners (SWECCL), and College Learners Spoken English Corpus (CLSEC); sixth is the visual and audio data, which has been a hot field for linguistic studies recently. Seventh is the historical and diachronic corpus, like the Helsinki Corpus. Strictly speaking, a corpus by itself can do nothing at all, being nothing other than a store of used language. Corpus access software, however, can rearrange that store so that observations of various kinds can be made. If a corpus represents, very roughly and partially, a speaker’s experience of language, the access software re-orders that experience so that it can be reexamined in ways that are usually impossible. A corpus does not contain new information about language, but the software packages process data from a corpus in three ways: showing frequency,
phraseology and collocation. 3.2 Basic Understanding about Corpus Linguistics Over the last three decades the compilation and analysis of corpora stored in computerized databases has led to a new scholarly enterprise known as corpus linguistics. It brings together some of the findings of corpus-based studies of English, the language which has so far received the most attention from corpus linguists, and shows how quantitative analysis can contribute to linguistic description. Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples or “real word” text. This method represents a digestive approach to deriving a set of abstract rules by which a natural language is governed or else relates to another language. Corpus linguistics adherents believe that reliable language analysis best occurs on field-collected samples, in natural context and with minimal experimental interference. In other word, corpus linguistic is more a way of doing linguistics, more computerized, more specialized and much larger. Corpus linguistics can be widely exploited in a variety of domains—most centrally in the design of syllabi and materials for language teaching, but also in dictionary work, the study of ideology and culture, translation, stylistics, forensic linguistics, and the provision of on-line assistance for writers in well-defined technical domains.
4. Professor Yang Shu
Professor Yang Shu delivered a detailed introduction of cross-cultural studies about modernism and postmodernism, the historical development of each period, and the characteristics of each period. 4.1 Definition of Modernism
Modernism applied to thw wide range of experimental and avant-grade trends from the late 19th to the early 20th century, including Symbolism, Futurism, Expressionism, Impressionism, Imagism, Surrealism, etc. 4.2 Modernism Literature Modernism literature is characterized chiefly by a rejection of 19 th century traditions. The writers sought to liberate themselves from the constrains and conventions with Victorianism. 4.3 Background of Modernism The WWI caused great destruction and staggering causalities, and at the same time, some ideologies rise such as Fascism, Nazism and Communism, which caused great influence in the field of thought, some scientific developments, like Quantum Theory, Principle of Uncertainty, Many-worlds Theory and Cozenhage interpretation, all these works of scientists and philosophers push forwards the development of modernism. The fast development of wholesale urbanization and industrialization gives this fragment of belief wheels to move fast. 4.4 Characteristics of Modernism Modernism implies a historical discontinuity, a sense of alienation, loss and despair. Modernist writing is marked by a break with tradition. Literature becomes the place where the one meaningful activity, the search for meaning, is carried out. It tends to revolve around the themes of individualism, the randomness of life, mistrust of institutions and the disbelief in any absolute truths, and to involve a literary structure that departs from conventionality and realism. 4.5 Definition of Postmodernism
Postmodernism is often characterized as a critique of Modernism and the project of modernity. It is best understood as part of a cultural shift which has been felt in science, philosophy and the arts. Postmodernism follows most of the same ideas as modernism with some exceptions. Emerged in the 1960s, after the world war two, it is related to art, literature or architecture that reacts against earlier modernist principles, by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremes. 4.6 Characteristics of Postmodernism Postmodernism characters in the rejection of rigid genre distinctions, in emphasizing parody, irony and playfulness, in favoring reflexivity and
self-consciousness, fragmentation and discontinuity, and in focusing on the de-structured, de-centered and dehumanized subject. 4.7 Differences between Modernism and Postmodernism All in all, modernism tends to present a fragmented view of human subjectivity and history, but presents that fragmentation as something tragic, something to be mourned as a loss, modernists uphold the idea that art can provide unity, coherence and meaning which has been lost in most of modern life; in modernism, knowledge is scientific. While postmodernism celebrates, not mourns the idea of fragmentation or incoherence, the idea of not to pretend that art can make meaning, knowledge becomes functional.
5. Professor Li Wenmei
Professor Li Wenmei focuses her attention on the studies of CA, AL and SLA. 5.1 Understandings of Conversational Analysis
As for CA, it is the short form of conversational analysis, which refers to the study of talk in interaction both verbal and non-verbal in situations of everyday life with a view to determining participants’ methods of communication and how conversation works in different conventional settings. As for the participant’s methods, they include the turning taking, constructing sequences of utterances across turns, identifying and repairing problems and employing gaze and movement. CA usually takes the naturally-occurring talk, such as the daily conversation and institutional discourse as the objects. CA aims to study the organization and order of social action in interaction from the participants’ perspective. In other word, CA aims at studying what happens in real and actual talk, to discover the ways by which people comprehend and deal with the world. As for the features of CA, different people hold different opinion: in participants’ eyes, CA is an emic perspective, it is context-shaped and context-renewing, it is goal-oriented, it is also the multi-layer analysis, which means that no order of detail can be dismissed, a priori, as disorderly, accidental or irrelevant. 5.2 Understandings of Applied Linguistics As for AL, it is the short form of applied linguistics. There are a macro definition and a micro definition. The macro-applied linguistics is the study of language and linguistics in relation to practical problems, whereas the micro-applied linguistics is the study of second and foreign language learning and teaching. Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary science, it is deeply related to linguistics disciplines (LD), education-related disciplines (ERD), and linguistics-related disciplines (LRD).
It can be described as a broad interdisciplinary field of study concerned with solutions to problems or the improvement of situations involving language and its users and uses. The emphasis on application distinguishes it from the study of language in the abstract, which is the general or theoretical linguistics. 5.3 The Relationship between CA and AL Nowadays, CA and AL are closely related with a natural link in the development of an applied dimension and its fundamental concern with language as a form of social action. There has been growing number of publications in AP in CA methodology. CA and AL are widely used in the teaching language for specific purposes, legal hearing, news interviews, help lines, mediation & counseling, psychiatric interviews and so on. And more over, three approaches,
ethnomethodological, sociocultural and linguistic CA are introduced into the studies of CA and AL. 5.4 Understandings to Second Language Acquisition Second language acquisition, also known as SLA, in the broad sense, refers to the process of learning another language after the native language has been learned, while in the narrow sense, it refers to the learning of a nonnative language in the environment in which that language is spoken. CA-for-SLA emerged as a challenge to mainstream SLA from the 1990s onwards, which refers to use CA as a methodological resource for analyzing and understanding SLA behaviours, and how learners actually deploy talk to learn on a moment-by-moment basis. There are three objections to CA-for-SLA, which are incompatibility meaning behaviourally oriented discipline for CA and cognitive discipline for SLA, CA is formulated to analyze
language use and acquisition, a turn is not suitable unit of analysis for SLA processes.
6. Professor Guan Jialing
Professor Guan Jialing makes her contribution in the introduction of metonymy. Metonymy is a figure of speech has to do with the substitution of the name of one thing for that of another. This substituted name may be an attribute of that other thing or be closely associated with it. In other words, it involves a change of names, the substituted name suggesting the thing meant. Nowadays, metonymy is a very useful and effective rhetorical device, because it compresses much into a single word or short noun phrase. Professor Guan Jialing makes some points of views relating metonymy to the cognitive linguistics, so here I have something to share about the cognitive linguistics and metonymy. In cognition, metonymy can be seen as a very powerful cognitive tool for our conceptualization of abstract categories. Sometimes we may feel confused with metaphor and metonymy, actually, metaphor and metonymy have some differences and combinations in the cognitive view. To begin with, it should be emphasized that the min claims made by cognitive linguistics in the description of metaphor also apply to metonymy, both are seen as being conceptual in nature, both can be conventionalized, both are means of extending the resources of a language and both can be explained as mapping processes. However, the main difference between the two is that while metaphor involves a mapping across different cognitive models, metonymy is a mapping within one model. One category within a model is taken standing for another category within the same model. The main function of a metonymic expression is to activate one cognitive category by referring to another
category within the same model, and by doing that, to highlight the first category or the submodel to which it belongs.
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