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状语从句 1.when, while, as 引导时间状语从句的区别; 2.名词词组 the minute, the moment, the first time, each time, any time 等用作连词,引导的时 间状语从句; 3.before,和 since 引导时间状语从句的用法以及常见

的几个句型; 4.till 和 until 的用法; 5.although, though, as 以及 even if, even though 引导让步状语从句的用法; 6.结果状语从句中“so…that”与“such…that”的区别; 7.条件状语从句 unless, providing/provided, suppose/supposing 等引导词的用法; 8.“疑问词+ever”和“no matter+疑问词”引导从句的用法; 9. in case 引导的状语从句; 10.where 引导的状语从句; 11.once 引导的状语从句。 12.与祈使句、定语从句、名词从句、倒装句以及与强调句型的混合考查。 名词从句 1. that 和 what 引导名词性从句的区别; 2.名词从句的语序和时态; 3. it 作形式主语、形式宾语的几种情况; 4.宾语从句的否定转移; 5.whether 和 if 的用法区别; 6.what 在名词性从句中的使用; 7.doubt 后的名词性从句的使用; 8.Who / whoever, what / whatever 等的用法区别; 9.连接词 that 的省略; 定语从句 1.that 与 which 引导的定语从句的区别; 2.who、whom 与 whose 引导的定语从句的区别; 3.关系副词 where、when 与 why 引导的定语从句的区别; 4.对“as”引导定语从句的考查; 5. such…as 与 such…that 的区别;the same…as 与 the same…that 的区别; 6.对“介词+关系代词”的考查; 7.the way 作先行词时,定语从句的引导词作状语用 in which ,that 或者省略; 8.含有插入语的定语从句; 9.与并列句、状语从句、同位语从句以及与强调句型的混合考查。

I.句子的种类 复习主从复合句时,我们首先要对句子的种类有所了解,才能更深入地掌握主从复合句 的知识。 按用途分
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种 类 陈述 句

肯定句 否定句

We love our motherland. 我们热爱祖国。 They don’t go to work on Sundays. 他们星期日不 上班。 Are you a worker? 你是个工人吗? Haven’t you seen the film? 你没看过这部电影 吗? Who is the man? 这人是谁? When do you watch TV? 你什么时间看电视? What are they doing now? 他们现在正在干什 么? Do you want tea or coffee? Either will do. 你要茶 水还是要咖啡?哪种都行。 Does he learn Japanese or French? He learns French. 他学日语还是学法语?他学法语。 They are going to the airport, aren’t they? 他们要 去机场,是吗? You haven’t finished your homework, have you? 你没做完作业,是吗? Be sure to get there at eight. 务必八点钟到那儿。 Don’t worry. I’ll help you out. 别担心,我会帮助 你的。 What great changes we have had these years! 这几年我们有了多么大的变化啊! What a fine day it is! 多好的天气呀! How brave he is! 他多么勇敢呀! How hard they are working! 他们工作多努力呀! How time flies! 时间过得多么快呀! How nice a boy (he is) !=What a nice boy (he is)! 多好的孩子啊! 例 They disappeared. 他们消失了。 He likes swimming.他喜欢游泳。 We help each other. 我们互相帮助。 I told my friend the good news. 我把好消息告诉了我的朋友。 They sent us a telegram. 他们给我们拍了电报。 They named the boy Jack. 他们给孩子起名叫杰克。 I want everything ready by eight o’clock. 我要求一切都要在八点前准备好。 She is a university student. 她是一名大学生。 He has become a pilot. 他已成为一名飞行员。
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疑问 句 选择疑问句


祈使 句

肯定句 否定句

what + 名词 感叹 句

how + 形容词或副词 how +句子 How + adj.+a (an) + n.=What a(an)+adj.+n

按结构分 种类 类型 主+谓 主+谓+宾 主+谓+间宾+直接宾 句

简单 句



并列关系 and, not only…but also, neither …nor, both…and, not…but, 转 折 关 系 but,while (而,尽管) nevertheless(然而; 不 过) 选择关系 or, otherwise or else, either?or

Either you do it, or I ask for somebody else to do it. 要么你来做,要么我请其他人来做。 Neither Tom nor Jack has finished the homework. 汤姆和杰克都没有完成作业。 Not couldn’t they complete the task, but the task was too tough. 不是他们完不成任务,而是任务太重了。 John likes playing basketball, but he didn’t play it yesterday. 约翰喜欢打篮球,但他昨天没打。 We must hurry, or we’ll miss the train. 我们必须快点,否则会赶不上火车。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 或者你到我这儿来,或者我到你那去。 We had better stay at home, for it was raining. 我们最好呆在家里,因为天正在下雨。 He didn’t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 他学习不努力,因此这次考试不及格。 从句有: 名词性从句(主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句和同位语从句) 状语从句 定语从句 (详细请看以下内容)

并列 句

因果关系 for, so, thus, therefore, and so 由一个主句和一个 或一个以上的从句 构成的句子叫复合 句。在复合句中主句 是全句的主体,从句 是全句的一个成分, 不能独立。

复合 句

II.状语从句 状语从句是每年高考必考的内容,在高考试题中加上其它从句的干扰,以及倒装句,强调 句的介入,使得状语从句更为复杂。 1.时间状语从句 由 下 列 连 词 引 导 : when,while,as,before,after,once,till,until,since,as soon as,now that,hardly…when, scarcely…when,no sooner…than,有一些表示时间的副词(短语)或名词短语也可引导时间状 语从句。如:directly,instantly,immediately,by the time,the moment,the second,the minute,the instant,every time,each time,next time,the last time 等 重点内容如下: ①when,while,as 引导的时间状语从句 ▲as 表示“当??的时候” ,往往和 when/ while 通用,但它着重强调主句与从句的动作或 事情同时或几乎同时发生。 She came up as I was cooking.(同时) The runners started as the gun went off.(几乎同时) ▲when(at or during the time that )既可以表示在某一点的时候,又可表示在某一段时间内, 主句与从句的动作或事情可以同时发生也可以先后发生。 It was raining when we arrived.(指时间点) When we were at school, we went to the library every day.(在一段时间内)
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When we arrived there,the film had already begun.(先后发生) ▲while 意思是“当??的时候”或“在某一段时间里” 。主句中的动作或事情在从句中的 动作或事情的进展过程中发生,从句中的动词一般要用延续性动词。在 when 表示 a period of time 时,两者可以互换。 Please don’t talk so loud while/when others are working. He fell asleep while/when reading. Strike while the iron is hot.( 不可用 as 或 when,这里的 while 意思是“趁??”) ②before 状语从句的重点句型 ▲……之后……才:It was a long time before I got to sleep . ▲不多久……就:It wasn’t long before he told me about the affair. ▲不等……就:Before I could get in a word, he had measured me. ▲刚……就:He hardly entered the room before he heard the telephone ring. ▲先……再:You can have a few days to think about it before you make your decision. ③since 引导的从句用延续性动词的过去式(包括过去完成时) ,则从句的动作已经结 束,从句意思是否定的。如果从句的动词是延续性的用完成时态,从句意思是肯定的。 ▲He has never been to see me since I was ill.我病愈后,他一直未来看我。 (不在生病 了) ▲He has never been to see me since I have been ill.我病了,他一直未来看我。 ▲I haven’t heard from him since he lived here. 自从他这里搬走,我就没有收到他的信。 (不住在这儿了) ▲I know him very well since he has lived here near us.自他住在我们附近以来,我对他 很了解。 ▲It’s three years since I was in the army.我退伍已三年了。 (不在服役了) ▲It’s three years since I have been in the army=It's three years since he joined the army. 我入伍已三年了。 ④如果与 till 与 until 从句使用的主句是肯定的,则主句中谓语要用延续性动词如果与其使 用的主句是否肯定的,则主句中谓语要用短暂性动词。另 till 从句不可以置于句首,只 有 until 从句可以放在句首。not until 放在句首时主句要倒装。 2.原因状语从句 由下列连词引导: (由于) as ,because(因为), since (既然) ,now (that) (既然), considering that (顾及到), seeing that(由于) 。 I do it because I like it.因为我喜欢我才干。(because 不能与 so 连用) He couldn’t have seen me, because I was not there.他不可能见过我,因为当时我不在那儿。 Seeing (that) quite a few people were absent, we decided to put the meeting off. 由于好些人都没到会,我们决定延期开会 Now that/Since you are all here, let’s try and reach a decision. 既然大家都来了咱们就设法做一个决定吧 As she was ill, she didn’t come to the party. 由于病了,她没来参加晚会。 Considering that they are just beginners, they are doing quite a good job. 考虑到他们才刚刚学做,他们干得算很不错的了。 重点内容如下: ①because 语气最强,用于回答 why 的提问,可与强调词 only,just 以及否定词 not 连用。 但不可以与 so 连用。如 You shouldn’t get angry just because some people speak ill of you.
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另外注意与 not 连用时否定的转移。He didn’t do such a thing because he was afraid of his wife.他并不是因为怕他的妻子才做这样的事。 Cf:He didn’t do such a thing,because he was afraid of his wife.因为怕妻子,他没有做这样 的事。 because 引导的从句可以被强调: It was because she wanted to study abroad that she entered for TOEFL ②as 语气较弱,since 语气也较弱,但比 as 正式一些,所说明的原因比较明显或是已知的事 实,多用于口语中,所以不应该强调。常置于句首。 As all the seats were full,he stood there. Since you are going,I’ll go,too. ③for 虽解释为“因为”但只是一个并列连词,它引导的是并列句,不是原因状语从句。 The day was short,for it was December. 3.地点状语从句 由下列连词引导:where,wherever,anywhere,everywhere。 Anywhere he went,he got warm welcome. The girl takes the doll with her everywhere she goes. Wuhan lies where the Yangtze and the Han River meet.武汉位于长江和汉水汇合处。 Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者,事竟成。 You’d better make a mark where you have any questions. 哪儿有问题,你最好在哪儿做个记号。(这里 where 引导的从句不是定语从句) 4.结果状语从句 由下列连词引导: that, so…that, that 从句中不带情态动词) such…that, so ( , with the result that 等。 注意以下几种结构: ①so+adj/adv+that… ②such(a/an+adj)+n+that… ③so+adj+a/an+n+that=such a/an+adj+n+that… ④so many/much/few/little(少)+n+that… 注意以上结构与定语从句 so/such…as 的区别。 This is such an interesting/so interesting a film that/as everyone wants to see it/(it). He didn’t plan his time well so that/so he didn’t finish the work in time. 他没把时间计划好,结果没按时完成这项工作。 We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door. 我们走得匆忙,把门都忘了锁了。 The village is so small that it cannot be shown in the map. 这村子太小,所以这地图上没有。 Jenny is such a clever girl that all the teachers like her very much = Jenny is so clever a girl that all the teachers like her very much Jenny 是如此聪明的女孩,以至老师们都非常喜欢她。 I have had so many falls that I am black and blue all over. 我摔了许多跤,以至于浑身青一块紫一块 He has so few friends that he often feels lonely. 他朋友很少,所以经常感到孤独。 I had so little money then that I couldn’t afford a little present.
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我当时囊中羞涩连一份小小礼物都买不起 5.目的状语从句 由下列连词引导: that,in order that,for fear that 等。 so 目的状语从句的谓语动词常与情态动 词 can, could, may, might, should 连用目的状语从句的谓语动词常与情态 动词 can, could, may, might, should 连用。 (so that 也可用来引导结果状语从句,但从句中不带情态动词) Let’s take the front seats (so) that we may see more clearly. 我们坐前排吧,这样我们看得更清楚些。 School was closed early in order that the children might go home ahead of the storm. 早点儿放学是为了让孩子们在暴风雨到来之前回家。 He took the name down for fear that he should forget it. 他把名字写下省得忘了。 (该从句中一般用情态动词 should+动词原形,或省略 should) Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 最好多带些衣服以防天气会冷。 注意:so that 引导的目的状语从句只能放在主句之后,in order that 引导的目的状语从 句可以放在主句之前或之后。 6.条件状语从句 分为真实条件句和非真实条件句(用在虚拟语气中) 。 表示条件的状语从句可以由 if(如果),unless(除非), in case(万一), so /as long as(只 要), as/ so far as(就??而言), on condition that(条件是??)suppose(假设)supposing (假设) (仅用在问句中) 等词或词组引导。一般情况下当主句是将来时的时候,从句要用一般现在时。 As/So long as we don’t lose heart, we’ll find a way to overcome the difficulty. 只要我们不灰心,我们就能找到克服困难的方法。 Send us a message in case you have any difficulty.万一你有什么困难,请给我们一个信儿。 If you leave at 6 o’clock tomorrow morning, you’d better get to bed now. 如果你明早 6 点钟走,你最好现在就上床。 We’ll let you use the room on condition that you keep it clean and tidy. 只要你能保持整洁,我们可以让你使用这个房间。 As/So far as I know, he is an expert on DNA.据我所知,他是一个 DNA 专家。 He’ll accept the job unless the salary is too low/ if the salary is not too low. 他会接受这项工作的,除非薪水太少/如果薪水不太少的话。 Suppose/Supposing we can’t get enough food, what shall we do? 假设我们弄不到足够的食物,那我们怎么办? 7.让步状语从句 由 下 列 连 词 引 导 : although,though,as,even if, even though,while,whether…or,whoever,whatever,however, no matter+疑问词等。 We won’t be discouraged even if(=even though) we fail ten times. 我们就是失败十次也不泄气。 It was an exciting game, though / although no goals were scored. 那是一场精彩的球赛,尽管一个球都没进。 Whether you believe it or not, it’s true.不管你信不信,这是真的。 However (=No matter how) expensive it may be, I’ll take it.无论它有多贵,我也要买下它。
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Don’t let them in, whoever(=no matter who) they are.不管他们是谁,别让他们进来。 No matter what I say or how I say it, he always thinks I’ wrong.无论我说什么或怎么说, m 他 总认为是我错。 注意以下几点: ①although,though 引导让步状语从句时,主句前不能用 but,但可以加 yet,stil。 He refuses help although he has many friends who want to offer all kinds of help. ②as 引导让步状语从句时,必须用前置结构,通常是从句中的表语、状语或动词原形放在 句首,放在句首的名词前的冠词要去掉。 Child as(though)he is, he knows a lot.(注意在 child 前不要用冠词) Much as I like it, I won’t buy. Try as he would, he couldn’t lift the heavy box. 8.方式状语从句 由下列连词引导:as,as if,as though,the way 等。 Do it the way you were told. 注意以下几点: ①as 引导方式状语从句时意义为“按照”,“如同”,前面常用加强语势。 I did it just as you told me. ②as if 和 as though 引导的从句中,谓语常用虚拟语气,有时也用陈述语气。 ③连词 while 和 whereas 可表示对比。 Whereas he is rather lazy,she is quite energetic. 9.比较状语从句 由下列连词引导:as…as,not as…as,not so…as,than 等(详情请参见【专题三】形容词和副 词)。 10.注意状语从句中的省略现象 ①连接词+过去分词 Unless repaired, the washing machine is no use. ②连词+现在分词 Look out while crossing the street. ③连词+形容词/其他 常见的有 if necessary、if possible、when necessary、if any 等。 ④比较状语从句中的省略句。如:He arrived home half an hour earlier than (he had been)expected. III.名词从句 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses) 名词从句的功能相当于名词词 。 组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同 的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 引导名词性从句的连词可分为三类: ①that(不充当从句的任何成分,无词义。只起连接作用,因此往往可以省略。 ) whether, if(不充当从句的任何成分,均表示“是否”表明从句内容的不确定性。不可 以省略。 ) as if,as though(均表示“好像”,“似乎”) ②what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which ③when, where, how, why Who cleaned the blackboard is not known yet.谁擦的黑板还不知道。
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What he said is not true.他说的不是实话 That he’ll come to see us is really great.他来看我们真是太好啦。 I don’t know why he is absent.我不知道为什么他不在。 The question is whether he will join us next time.问题是下次他是否跟我们一起干。 It looks as if it is going to rain. 看上去天要下雨了。 1.主语从句 ①由从属连词引导的主语从句: Whether the country should build a nuclear power station is something we must discuss. 那个国家是否应该建立核电站…… That light travels in straight line is known to all .光以直线传播 ②由连接代词引导的主语从句: What we need is more time. 我们所需要的是…… Whichever book you choose doesn’t matter to me.无论你选哪本书…… Whoever comes will be welcome.无论谁来…… ③由连接副词引导的主语从句: When the plane is to take off hasn’t been announced.飞机什么时候起飞…… Where he has been is still a puzzle.他到过哪儿…… How much water is flowing can be measured easily.水的流量是多少…… ④关于形式主语 it ▲It + be +形容词+ that-从句 It is necessary that… 有必要…… It is important that…重要的是…… It is obvious that…很明显…… It is likely that….很可能 ▲It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句 It is believed that…人们相信…… It is known to all that…众所周知…… (注意该句型的变式:It is known to all that the earth goes around the sun.=As is known to all,the earth goes around the sun.=What is known to all is that the earth goes around the sun.) It has been decided that…已决定…… ▲It + be +名词+ that-从句 It is common knowledge that… ……是常识 It is a surprise that…令人惊奇的是…… It is a fact that…事实是…… 可应用于此句型的名词还有 fact / shame / honor / question/pity 等。 ▲It +不及物动词+ that-分句 It appears that…似乎…… It happens that…碰巧…… It occurred to me that…我突然想起…… It doesn’t matter whether he likes or not. 2.表语从句 可以接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等等。
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The problem is that millions of people die of illnesses caused by smoking. ……数百万人死于由抽烟引起的疾病 The question remains whether we can win the game…..我们是否能赢得这次比赛 That’s just what I want. ……我想要的 This is where our problem lies. ……我们的问题所在 The difficulty is how we can help smokers kick their habit……我们如何帮助吸烟的 人…… 注意: ①表语从句的表现形式除了用从属连词,连接代词和连接副词引导以外,还可以由 as, as if,as though 引导 Things were not as they seemed. It looks as though it is going to rain.好象要下雨了。 ②另外还要注意以下常用的两种结构:The reason why…is that … (而不用 because) It ( This, That ) is because… The reason why he was dismissed is that he didn’t work hard. 他为什么被开除是因为他

It is because the tobacco companies want to remain in business. 3.同位语从句 同位语从句一般由 that, whether 等连词引导, 常放在 advice, doubt, fact, hope, idea, information, message, news, order, possibility, problem, question, reason, truth, word, suggestion.等名词的后面,说明该名词的具体内容。 The news that he had landed on the moon spread all over the world. 登陆月球……. I have no idea when he will be back. ……什么时候回来 The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill……Mary 也许病了 He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not.……是否同意 4.宾语从句 宾语从句可以作及物动词的宾语,介词的宾语,某些形容词的宾语以及非谓语动词 的宾语。 ①及物动词后的宾语从句: She will give whoever needs help a warm support……任何需要帮助的人…… I wonder why she refused my invitation……她为什么拒绝了我的邀请 ②介词后的宾语从句: I always think of how I can improve my spoken English.我总是在思考如何提高我的 口语水平。 The teacher is satisfied with what she has said. 老师对他所说的话很满意。 ③某些形容词后的宾语从句: I am sure that you will make greater progress in English through hard work. ……通过努力工作,你将取得更大的进步 We are surprised that he has left without saying goodbye to us…….他没有告别就走 了 ④非谓语动词后的宾语从句: Realizing that it was just a difference in custom, the foreigner smiled and said nothing. On being asked whether he had had a good time in Australia, he answered “Terrible ”.
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⑤关于形式宾语 it We must make it clear that anyone who breaks the law will be punished. 我们必须清楚任何违犯法律的人都将受到惩罚。 I find it necessary that we should ask him for his advice.我发现我们有必要征求他的 意见。 5.名词性从句重难点 ①在名词性从句中,疑问句要用陈述句的语序。例如: ▲Can you make sure ____the gold ring ? A.where Alice had put B.where had Alice put C.where Alice has put D.where has Alice put ▲You can't imagine __when they received these nice Christmas presents. A.how they were excited B.how excited they were C.how excited were they D.they were how excited ②动词 doubt 用在疑问句或否定句中,其后宾语从句常用 that 作连接词;用在肯定 句中,连接词用 whether 或 if 皆可,而不用 that。 Do you doubt that he will win ? I don't doubt that your proposition is wrong . He doubt whether I know it . ③ 否定转移问题。 ▲将 think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, guess, imagine 等动词后面跟宾语从句时否 定转移 I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。 I don' t believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。 We don't expect he will come tonight , will he ? 注意:若谓语动词为 hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。 I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。 ▲将 seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移 It doesn't seem that they know where to go. 看来他们不知道往哪去。 It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow. 看来我们明天不会碰上好天 气。 ④主谓一致问题。 What he wanted to see was an end to all the armies of the world. What I bought were three English books. ⑤语气问题 ▲在含有 suggest , order , demand , propose , command , request , insist, desire, require, advise 等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,that 从句常用 “should+ 动词原形”的结构 I suggest we (should) set off at once. 我建议我们应该立刻出发。 ▲在 It is +过去分词+that 的主语从句中 decided,demanded,desired,insisted, ordered,proposed,suggested,recommended,requested, required 等。 It is desired that we(should)get everything ready this evening. ▲在表语从句或同位语从句中 The suggestion that the mayor (should) present the prizes was accepted by everyone.

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▲在 It is(was)+形容词+that 从句中要用虚拟语气,即(should +)动词原形, 表示建议或不满、惊奇等情绪。常用于此类的形容词有 essential,important, natural,necessary,possible,strange,等。 It is necessary that a college student ____at least a foreign language.(上海 1993) A.masters B.should master C.mastered D.will master ⑥What 引导名词从句的特殊含义: ▲What was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality. (what 为“所……的事”,相当于“the thing that…;all that…;everything that…”) ▲After ________ seemed a very long time,I opened my eye and found myself in bed.(M ET'93) A.what B.when C.that D.which (what 相当于“the time that”,表示“……时间”) ▲He is not what he was a few years ago. Who is it that has made Fred what he is now? (what 表示“……的人”,相当于“the person that…”) ▲What is now the North Sahara Desert was once a civilized world. (what 表示“……的地方”,相当于“the place that…”) ▲Our income is now double what it was ten years ago (what 表示“……的数目”,相当于“the amount /number that…”) ⑦不可省略的连词: ▲介词后的连词不可省略 Before I came downstairs I had prepared myself very carefully for what I must say. 下楼之前,我已经把我要说的认真准备好了。 ▲引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略 That she was chosen made us very happy.她被选上了,我们很高兴。 We heard the news that our team had won. 我们听到消息说我们队赢了。 ▲宾语从句有多个 that 引导时,从第二个及其后面的 that 不能省略 I believe(that)you have done your best and that things will get better. ⑧比较:whether 与 if 均为“是否”的意思。但在下列情况下,whether 不能被 if 取代: ▲whether 引导主语从句在句首 Whether she comes or not doesn’t concern me .她是否来与我无关。 ▲引导表语从句 His first question was whether she had arrived yet. 他问第一个问题就是她来了没有。 ▲引导同位语从句 Answer my question whether you are coming.回答我你是否来的问题。 ▲whether 从句作介词宾语 I worry about whether I hurt her feeling .我担心是否伤了她的感情。 ▲与 or not 连在一起 I don’t know whether or not he is going to Japan.我不知道他是否去日本。 大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it 充当形式主语。例如: It is not important who will go. 谁去,这不重要。 It is still unknown which team will win the match. 到底谁赢呢,形势尚不明朗。 IV.定语从句 (一)基本概念
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1.由一个句子作定语,修饰句中一个名词或代词,有时也可以修饰整个句子或句中的部分 内容,这样的从句就是定语从句,被其修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。 2.关系词分为两大类,即关系代词和关系副词,其作用一是引出一个定语从句,二是代替 其所修饰的先行词,三是在句中充当某个句子成分。 关系词的分类和基本用法 表一 分类 关系代词 指代 人 事物 人或物 (表所属关系) 地点 关系副词 表二 关系代词 who whom whose that as that which 事物 whose 人 指代 例句 The man who helped you is Mr White. That is the person(whom/who/that) you want to see. He is the father whose son studies very well in our class. I? not the fool that you thought me m to be. He is such a lazy man as nobody wants to work with. The only thing that we can do is to give you some advice. A dictionary is a useful book which tells us the meaning of words He lives in a room whose window faces south It is such a big stone as nobody can lift. As is known to all, he is the best student. 例句 Would you suggest a time when we can have a talk? The house where they live is not very large. This is the reason why he did not came to the meeting. 解释 在定从中作主语 在定从中作宾语,可省略 在定从中作定语 在定从中作表语 在定从中作宾语 在定从中作宾语 在定从中作主语 在定从中作定语 在定从中作宾语 在定从中作主语 时间 原因 引导词 who, whom, that, as which, that, as whose where when why

as 整句内容 表三 关系副词 when where why (二)定语从句的注意点 指代 时间 地点 原因

解释 在定从中作状语 在定从中作状语 在定从中作状语

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本部分的内容比较复杂,为便于考生一目了然,我们试图用表格的形式呈现给考生。 1.that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别 情 况 用法说明 ①先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时 ②先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few 等修饰时 ③先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修 饰时 ④先行词既指人又指物时 ⑤先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 ⑥句中已经有 who 或 which 时,为了 避免重复时 例 句 ① He told me everything that he knows. ②All the books that you offered has been given out. ③This is the best film that I have ever read. ④We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. ⑤He is the only man that I want to see. ⑥Who is the man that is making a speech? ① He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study. ② I like the person to whom the teacher is talking. ③ Those who respect others are usually respected by others.

只用 that 的情 况

只用 which, who, whom 的 情况

①在非限制性定语从句中,只能用 which 指代物,用 who/whom 指人 ②在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语 从句中,只能用 which 指物,whom 指 人。 ③先行词本身是 that 时,关系词用 which, 先行词为 those, one, he 时多用 who。

①Mary,there is one way that you could stop others talking about you and criticizing you. 只用 that,in which 或不用 关系词的情 况 ②I was struck by the beauty of the way in which she stood. the way 做先行词时 ③What surprised me was not what he said but _______ he said it. A. the way that C. in the way which 2.as、which 和 that 的区别 从句 限制性 定语从句中 区 别 B. in the way D. the way

名词前有 such 和 the same 修饰时, 关系代词用 as,不能用 which as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主 句。如果有“正如,象”的含义, 并可以放在主句前,也可以放在后 面,那么用 as;而 which 引导的从 句只能放主句后,并无“正如”的 意思。
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非限制性 定语从句中

例 句 He is not such a fool as he looks. Don’t read such books as you can’t understand. They won the game, as we had expected. They won the game, which we hadn’t expected. As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s.

the same... as 和 the same ...that

the same... as 指同类事物 the same ...that 指原物

That’s the same tool as I used last week.(同类工具,不是同一把) That’s the same tool that I used last week.那就是我上周用过的工具。 例 句 We’re just trying to teach a point___both sides will sit down together and talk. A. where B. that C. when D. which There was ________time ________I hated to go to school. A. a; that B. a; when C. the; that D. the ; when Do you know the reason why she was put into prison ? 你知道她坐牢的原因 吗?

3. where、when 与 why 引导的定语从句 关系副词 用


关系副词 where 引导定语从句时, 只 能在定语从句中作地点状语, 其修饰 的名词必须是表示(具体或抽象的) 地点的名词。 关系副词 when 引导定语从句时, 只能在定语从句中作时间状语, 其修 饰的名词必须是表示时间的名词。 关系副词 why 引导定语从句时, 只能在定语从句中作原因状语, 其修 饰的名词必须是表示原因的名词。



4.“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 当关系代词作介词宾语,且该介词不是和从句的谓语动词构成固定短语时,介词可以提前, 这 样 就 出 现 “ 介 词 + 关 系 代 词 ” 。 先 行 词 指 物 , 用 “ 介 词 +which/whose”, 指 人 则 用 “ 介 词 +whom/whose”, 且两个关系代词均不能省略。介词的选择要遵循两个原则: 原则 内 例 句 容 I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was,she had run back in the direction__________she had come. 根据定语从句中谓语动词 原则一 A.of which B.by which C.in which D.from 与先行词的搭配内容而定 which [解析]此题考查由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语 从句,根据句意用 from which 表示“所来的那个 方向”,故答案选[D] There are two buildings , _______ stands nearly a hundred feet high. A. the larger B. the larger of them 原则二 根据先行词而定 C. the larger one that D. the larger of which [解析] the larger of which 指代 the larger of the two buildings , which 在 定 语 从 句 中 指 代 building,作介词 of 的宾语,故答案为[D]。 5.定语从句与先行词被分割开来的现象 定语从句一般紧接被它所修饰的先行词; 但有时候它和先行词之间有可能插入其他成分, 使 它与先行词分隔开来, 这种定语从句叫作被分隔的定语从句, 在阅读文章时会经常遇到这种 情况,在阅读是要注意识别先行词的修饰对象。 现 象 例 句 ①---Is that the small town you often refer to? --- Right, just the one ________ you know I 在定语从句加中插入语, 常见的有: think ,I I used to work for years. suppose ,I guess ,I imagine 等。辨别的方法 A.that B. which C.where D.what 是: 去掉插入语后, 原句句法结构仍然完整。 [解析] work 是不及物动词, 先行词 one 在定语 从句中只能作地点状语,You know 在句中作
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插入语,所以答案选[C] 。 ②He made another wonderful discovery ,______of importance to science . A.which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think is [解析]这里 I think 是插入语, which 引导非限 制性定语从句,故选[A]。 There are many thousands of stars in the sky that are like the sun.在太空中有成千上万的象太阳 般的星星。 乍一看,that 引导的定语从句在名词 sky 的后 面,似乎应该是修饰 sky 的。但仔细一想,” 不对啊, 天空怎么能象太阳呢?“, 原来 that 引导的定语从句被 in the sky 这个地点 状 语分隔开来,修饰中心词 stars。 Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace? 你还记得吗, 十年前的一天下午, 我来到你家, 找你借了一条钻石项链? when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace 实际上是修饰 afternoon 而不 是修饰 years。ten years ago 实际上是定语后 置修饰 afternoon。


先行词与定语从句被谓语分隔开来。此时, A new master will come tomorrow who will 先行词通常是句子的主语,因定语从句较 teach you German. 长,主句谓语较短,为使句子平衡,常将定 语从句移至谓语之后 6.定语从句与其它从句(句型)的区别 类 别 区 别 例 句 ①Mr Li has three daughters,none of _____ is an 定语从句与并列句的主要区 engineer. 定语从 别在于: 并列句有像 and, but, ②Mr Li has three daughters, none of _____ is a but 句 so 等并列连词或两个句子用 dancer. 与 分号连接, 这时就不能再用引 从结构上看,①小题是定语从句,故填 whom; 并列句 导定语从句的关系词了。 ②小题有并列连词 but,是并列句,故填代词 them。 This is the place where we used to live a few years ago. 定语从句的前面有名词作先 这是几年前我们居住的地方。 (定语从句,先行 行词,而状语从句没有先行 词为 the place) Let’s go where we can find a better job. 定语从 词。 我们到能找到更好的工作的地方去吧。 (地点状 句 语从句) 与 状语从 Do you know the time when the class is over? 你 定语从句修饰、限制、说明名 句 知道下课的时间吗?(定语从句) 词,只能放在先行词的后面, It was already five o’clock when the class was over. 而状语从句说明动作发生的 =When the class was over, it was already five 情况, 并且可以放在主句的前 o’clock. 面。 当下课时己经是 5 点了。 (时间状语从句)
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When, where 和 why 在引导定 语从句时可以用“介词+ which”的结构来替换,在引 导状语从句时却不行。 定语从句中的关系词在从句 中充当某种句子成分, 因此去 掉它则从句成分不完整; 而结 果状语从句中的连接词在从 句中不作任何成分, 去掉后从 句的成分仍然完整。

定语从 句 与 同位语 从句

定语从句在复合句中相当于 形容词,对先行词起修饰、描 述或限制的作用, 与先行词之 间有从属关系。 同位语的作用 相当于名词, 对前面的名词给 予补充说明或进一步解释, 是 前面名词的具体内容,与先行 词之间是同位关系。

This is the factory in which (where) his father once worked. 这就是他的父亲曾经工作过的那个工厂。 (定语 从句) Put back the book where it was. 把书放回原处。 (状语从句) It is such an interesting book as we all like. 它是我 们大家都喜欢的如此有趣的书。 (as 用作动词 like 的宾语, 它引导的是定语从句) It is such an interesting book that we all like it. 它是一本如此有趣的书,我们大家都喜欢它。 (that 不充当句子成分,故它引导的是结果状语 从句) The news that she had passed the exam made her parents very happy. 她考试及格的消息使她父母亲很高兴。 (同位语 从句) 此 句 中 的同 位语 从 句 The news that she had passed the exam 可以改写成表语从句:The news is that he passed the exam. The news that he told us interested all of us. 他告诉我们的消息使大家都感兴趣。 (定语从句) The news that he told us 是定语从句, 此句不能改 写为:The news is that he told us. ①It is on the morning of May 1st _____ I met Liang Wei at the airport. ②It is the factory _____ Mr Wang works. 从结构上看: ①小题是强调句,故填 that。 ②小题则是定语从句,用上述方法转换便知 the factory 前差个介词 in,故填 where。

强调句的结构为“It is/was +被强调部分+that+从句” 。 被强调部分可以是除谓语以 定语从 外的任何成分, 当被强调部分 句 是人时, 还可用 who 代替 that。 与 这一句型中, 一定不能因为被 强调句 强调部分是表时间或地点的 词就用 when 或 where 代替 that。 此外还要注意下列两点: ▲定语从句与习惯句型

用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整与正确。 ①It is the first time _____ she has been in Shanghai. ②It was the time _____ Chinese people had a hard life. 解析: 这里①小题是一个习惯句型, 其结构为: is/was the first/second .. time + It . that 从句。故①填 that,其意为:这是她第一次在上海。②小题 the time 是先行词,其 后是表示时间的定语从句,故填 when。 ▲定语从句与简单句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整与正确。 ①The mother told the lazy boy to work,_____ didn't help. ②The mother told the lazy boy to work._____ didn't help. 解析:含有定语从句的复合句与两个单句的主要区别在于:前者有主句,有从句,必须
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有关系词;而后者则是两个单独的句子,不需要任何关联词。①小题两个句子用逗号连 接且没有并列连词,显然应是主从句关系,因此需用关系词 which,前面整个句子作先 行词;②小题则填 It,代替前面的整个句子。解题时,注意标点符号的运用。

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复合句详细讲解_英语_高中教育_教育专区。【专题八】主从复合句(状从、名从和定从)【考点分析】状语从句 1.when, while, as 引导时间状语从句的区别; 2.名词...


复合句讲解_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。什么是复合句: 什么是复合句: 从句子结构上来说,句子有三种:简单句、并列句和复合句。简单句有一个主语或多个 主语和...




复合句讲解_英语_高中教育_教育专区。复合句一.什么是复合句 1.复合句是由一个___和一个或者一个以上___所构成的句子,在英语书面语中应用广泛。 2.主句是...


复合句讲解_英语_高中教育_教育专区。并列句 1、基本概念:并列复合句是由两个或两个以上并列而又独立的简单句构成。两个简单 句常由并列连接词连在一起;但有时...


复合句讲解及练习 一、定语从句的概念 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句 一般放在先行词的后面。 二、定语...

复合句 讲解

复合句 讲解_英语_初中教育_教育专区。复合句—名词性从句在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句(Noun Clauses) 。 名词性从句的功能相当于名词 词组, 它在复合句...


复合句讲解: 一.概念: 复合句(Complex Sentence)分为并列复合句和从属复合句,并列复合句是有并列连词:and、 or、but 连接;从属复合句由一个主句(Principal ...


复合句讲解_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。2011 年专四备考讲义---复合句 复合句 考点一、定语从句 1.尤其要注意 whose 的用法 whose 在从句中做定语,修饰名词。...


高中非谓语动词讲解 8页 免费如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心;如要提出功能问题或意见建议,请点击此处进行反馈。 复合句讲解 讲解讲解隐藏>> 复合句就是由...
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