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高考英语语法填空与完形填空(技巧+练习 )


高考英语语法填空与完形填空(技巧+练习 )

高考英语语法填空题 1,语法填空主要考查哪方面的内容 2,语法填空命题特点是什么
①语法和词汇(考试重点) ②上下文连贯性(语境) 共 10 个小题 每题 1.5 分 满分 15 分 须在 10 分钟内完成 短文长度 150 词左右 设空间距 15 词左右 每格不一定 1 个词(特别是谓语或非谓语动词形式

)

侧重语境加语法 语 法 占 关 键
1,名词; 2,代词; 3,数词; 4,介词和介词短语; 5,连词; 6,形容词; 7,副词; 8,冠词; 9,动词; 10,时态; 11,被动语态; 动词; 13,构词法; 间接引语; 21,省略; 14,句子种类; 15,句子成分; 16,简单句基本句型; 17,主谓一致; 22,倒装; 23,强调; 24,虚拟语气. 18,并列复合句; 12,非谓语 19,主从复合句;20,

语法填空考哪些语法项目
1,阅读/理解语篇的能力; 2,分析句子结构的能力; 3,熟练运用语法的能力.

语法填空题—能力要求
重在基础语法和句子结构分析: 从语法角度去考虑,填的是语法词,包括功能词和词形变换两个方面.不限定一个词. 句子方面,要学 会正确分析句子的结构,如主谓宾等;还要会区分主从句的层次. 特别是动词的成分,是否谓语动词. 语法填空题—解题方向 1. 章法 4. 惯用法 2. 句法 3. 词法 语 法

语法填空题型的解题思路 语法填空解题技巧("由大到小" )
1,通读全文,了解大意,把握特征,弄清文脉.2,巧用已知,连线画图,降低难度,铺平道路.3,理解句意,分析结构,大胆猜测,各个击破. 4,重 读全篇,仔细核查,语法正确,语意贯通.5,拼写正确,书写规范,大小写准确(注意三写).根据语法知识进行填充 根据逻辑关系进行填 充

高考英语语法填空与完形填空技巧
技巧一:名词形式变化。名词的形式变化主要有单数、复数、所有格的变化。
例 1:There are many students living atschool,the(child)housesare all far from schoo1. 由 students(是一个复数形式的单词,后面要和他保持一致)可以判断出横线处应填复数,且作 为 houses 的定语,意思是孩子们的房子,所以应用其所有格形式,故答案为 child 的复合 变化形式—— 复数的所有格 children’s。

技巧二:动词形式变化。动词的形式变化比较多,有谓语的变化(时态、语态、 语气),有非谓语的变化(不定式、动名词、现在分词、过去分词)。
例 2:A talk——(give)tomorrow is written byProfessor Zhang.句中的 is 是整句的谓语,所 以横线所在的动词应当用作非谓语。从 tomorrow(明天)可以看出,报告是“将来”作的,

故用不定式(用不定式表将来);且报告是 give 动作的承受者,故可以判断出横线所在处 用 give 的不定式被动式——to be given。

技巧三: 代词形式变化。 代词形式变化通常是与人称变化有关的三大类五小类, 即人称代词(主格和宾格)、物主代词(形容词性和名词性)、反身代词。另外还有 几个不定代词的形式变化,如 no one/none、other/another 等。
例 3:The king decided to see the painterby——(he). 由介词 by 可以看出,横线处应填反身 代词 himself。(一般像这样的句子,看到 by 并且括号里面给出一个代词就要想到用 反身代词 )且 by 后面要加名词或(动名词 v+ing)或者加反身代词。

技巧四:形容词、副词比较级变化。英语中大部分形容词和表方式的副词都有 原级、比较级和最高级的变化。构成比较级和最高级的方式,或通过加后缀一 er 和 est,或在词前加 more/less 和 most/least,且形容词的最高级前面还要 加 the。
例 4:I am——(tall)than Liu Wen.He is the tallest students in myclass. 此题后句交代 了 Liu Wen 是班上最高的学生,那“我”肯定比他矮,所以不能用 taller,只能用表示程度不 如的“less tall”。 看到句子里面含有 than 就到想到用比较级

技巧五: 数词形式变化。 数词的形式变化包括基数词、 序数词, 或加后缀一 teen、 ty 的变化,甚至还有作分母用的序数词的单复数形式,以及 one/two 的特殊变 化形式 once/twice
例 5:To my three sons I leave myseventeen horses.My eldest sonshall take a half,my second son shall take a(three)... 从上下文连续起来理解,这是一个分马的计划,大儿子分得 a half,也就是“一半”或“二分之一”, 那么二儿子应该得“三分之一”,所以要填入作分母的序数 词“third”才能命中目标。

技巧六:词的派生。词的派生现象在英语单词中是很常见的,派生现象主要发 生在名词、动词、形容词、副词四种词中。这种题型还有可能检测学生对词根、 前后缀、派生词的掌握。
例 6:Lious lost his wallet yesterday,SO he was very____(happiness). 在这道题中, 学生很容易判断出该用形容词,由此可知将 happiness 变成 happy;钱包丢了,人应该是不开 心的,所以要再加个前缀 un,就成了 unhappy(不开心的)。(一般 very 后面一定加形容词) 二、未给单词提示题型的技巧 此类题难度较大,但也是有方法对付的。

技巧七:固定短语结构。根据句中横线前后及整句来判断横线前后是否构成一 个固定短语,但有时要对横线前或后的几个单词“视而不见”才能命中答案。
例 7:The children were playing on theground,enjoying____,dirty but happy. 从句中的 happy 可以 猜出孩子们是开心的,所以应用 enj0y oneself 短语,故其答案为 themselves。(由句子里面的 were 是 are 的过去式,所以主语 the children 是复数,所以后面的反身代词要用复数形式,并且 enjoy 后面加反身代词是玩得开心的意思) 例 8:. 如果“跳过”横线后面的 angry,就可以发现这里用到一个关联短语 so as to,所以,so 是正解。(so as to 是一个固定 搭配,要看你自己做题的时候小不小心,有没有发现)

技巧八:从句引导词。从句是此题型最为常见的一个方向,主要检测学生对引 导词的掌握程度。
例 9:He did not done _____ his fatherhad asked him to do. 审题可知,横线所在为宾语从句的引导词,此引导词在从句中充当宾 语,且指物,所以是 what。(一般用 what 来引导宾语从句,关于宾语从句你的书里有,你去问老师,他会解释得比较清楚) 例 10:Those _____ want to go to thevillage must sign here. 经过观察可以判断横线所在为定语从句的引导词,进一步观察可知先 行词为 those,且指人,所以只能填入 who(以后如果你看到 those 那它的后面一定填 who)。

技巧九: 短语动词结构。 短语动词是以动词为中心的两个或多个词构成的短语, 此类短语中往往是动词与介词或副词连用的多些。

例 11:The US consists ____ fifty states. 根据常识可知,美国由 50 个州组成,故横线处与前一词组合,表示“由??组成”,所 以答案是 of。(consist ? of 是一个固定搭配)由。。。。组成 例 12:Mrs. Baker was ill,so her daughter had to ask forleave to take _____ of her. 生病需要人照顾,所以答案是 care,与前后词 构成 take care of 是照顾的意思。

技巧十: 短语介词结构。 短语介词即多个词的组合 起介词作用的短语, 如: except for 期望,due to 由于。
例 13:Mr. Smith took a plane to London ____ of taking atrain. 此题中说到两种交通工具,所以可以理解此句有“坐??而不是坐? ?”的意思,故答案为 instead,以构成介词短语 instead of 是而不是的意思。 例 14:Just then,he saw a blackboard in _____ of him.细心观察,可以看出填入 front 即可构成 in front of 是在。。。前面的意思, 此题得解。

技巧十一:连词、关联短语结构。常用的连词有 and,or,but,so,for,while 等, 常用的关联短语有 both??and, either??or, neither??nor, not only??but also 一定要记得,考试时看句子有没有这样的结构,有的话就填进去等。
例 15:Little Wang Jun could not go toschool,_____hisfamily was too poor. 此处表示原因,引导的分句其实是一种解释说明,不 是必然的因果关系,且前面有逗号隔开,所以填 for。 例 16:____Marrie and Jannie like going tothe theatre. 横线处的词与后面可以构成 both and,故答案为 Both。(以后如果看到这 样的句子,句子里面有 and 那么就填 both,因为 both?and 是。。。两者都的意思)

技巧十二:冠词、介词和常用的副词。冠词只能是在 a,an,the 之间判断;常 用的介词有 in,at,on,before,during 等,通常考查固定搭配;副词的量还是 比较多,如:however 然而,never 从不,yet 还没。。。,much 很多 等,但一 般不会考查.1y 形式的方式副词(见技巧六——形容词派生副词的情况)。 (一 般形容词后面加上 ly 就变成副词,副词用来修饰动词或者形容词来做状语,就 是在句子中动词+副词,看到动词,接着后面给了一个形容词的这些题,你就把 那个形容词变成副词)
例 17:Jackie likes to drive at____ highspeed.这里考查的是不定冠词的习惯用法,答案为 a,构成 at a highspeed,“以高速”开 车。 例 18:Old Tom’s grand daughter used to visit him_____ Saturday afternoon.Saturday afternoon 是指定的某天下午,所以不用介词 in,而用 on 才是正解。指定具体的哪一天一定要用 on) 例 19:Though Liu Qiang did the same work____ Zhang Wen did,he got a lower pay_比较级_____ Zhang Wen. 第一条横线可由前 面的 the same 断出用 as(the same ?..as 就是。。。和。。。一样),第二条横线则可由 lower(更低的,是比较级)断出比较 意义,故答案为 than。 例 20:It was only one day left,_____,his father had no idea to answerhim. 观察上下句,可以看出是转折关系,且横线与前后用 逗号隔开,排除 but,所以答案是 however 然而。

技巧十三:上下文中出现的相关词。这一招是最为灵活的,但也是最难的。学 生可以根据上下文关系和自己积累的知识, 填入某个已出现的词, 或其反义词, 或其同类的某个词。 答案的线索可能在本句,可能出现在上下相连的一句,还 可能出现在比较远的地方——上下段中与此段位置大体相当的句子。如果该横 线出现在某段的首句,则线索可能在上下段的首句;如果横线出现在某段的末 句,则线索可能在上下段的末句,以此类推。
例 21:Tony _注意前后谓语保持一致___ traveling abroad,but dislikes staying home watchingTV. 由第二句话中的 dislikes(不喜 欢)可以判断,此横线处应该是填其反义词 likes 用一般现在时。 做题时要注意观察句子,因为很多句子都要求前后的谓语保持 一致 (一)纯空格题 1、缺主语或宾语,一定是填代词或名词(多考代词)。

例 I can send a message to Kenya whenever I want to, and __38_ getsthere almost in a second. (茂名一模) 解析:and 连接前后两个句子,and 后面的句子缺主语,应填名词或代词;结合前一分句,不难推知,“马上可到达那里”的是 themessage,替代 the message 用代词 it(用 it 做形式主语)。 2、 名词前是空格, 若该名词前没有限定词, 很可能是填冠词 his, their 等形容词性物主代词, 或 some, any, other(s), another 等限定词。 It is said that a short-tempered man in the Song Dynastywas very anxious to help __33 rice crop grow up quickly. (2008 年广东高考)

解析:名词 rice crop 前还没有限定词,应当填限定词;根据句意,这个急性子人当然是急于 使“他的”禾苗长得快, 故填形容词性物主代词 his。 (就是你看到名词前面有一个空要你填, 这时你就要想到物主代词 his 他的 her 她的 their 他们的 its 动物的它的或 some, any, other(s), another 等限定词) the head of the village was tyingup his horse to my car to pull it to__35_small town some 20 kilometers awaywhere there was a garage. (2007 年广东高考) 解析:因单数可数名词 town 前还没有限定词,应填限定词;根据句意,是指将车拉到离那 里大约有 20 公里远的一个小镇上去修理,表示“一个”,用不定冠词,故填 a。 3、 名词或代词前面是空格, 而该名词或代词在句中不作主语、 表语, 也不作动词的宾语时, 很可能是填介词。 [例 4] The little boy pulled [33]________ right hand outof the pocket ? (his) [例 5] ? who should have the honors of receiving me 33 a guest in their house. (2007 年广东高 考) 解析:因 a guest 在句中不作主语、表语、动词的宾语,前面一定是填介词,使其成为该 介词的宾语;又由句意可知,他们“把我当作客人”来接待,表示“当作”,用介词 as(as 是作 为或者当做的意思例如 as a student 作为一名学生)。 4、若两个或几个单词或短语之间没有连词,可能是填连词。 two world-famous artists, PabloPicasso 34 Candido Portinari, which are worth millions of dollars. 解析:因与 Pablo Picasso (毕加索)与 Candido Portinari (坎迪多?波尔蒂纳里)这两个名词之间 没有连词,一定是填连词;两者是并列关系,应填 and。 All I saw was this beautiful girl,whose smile just melted me 36 almost instantly gave me a completely new senseof what life is all about. (2008 年深圳一模) 解析:因 melted me 和 gave me 两个动宾短语之间没有连词,一定是填连词;两者是并列关 系,故填 and。(注意:用 and 的话,要注意前后的句子或短语的谓语动词时态保持一致) 这道题里面的 melted me 和 gave me 就保持一致。 5、若两句(一个主谓关系算一个句子)之间没有连词,也没有分号或句号,一定是填连接词 I wanted to see as much of the city as possible in the two days 32 I was toreturn to Guangzhou. (2008 年广州一模) 解析: 因 I wanted to?是一个句子, I was to return?也是一个句子, 这两个句子之间没有连词, 也没有分号或句号,一定是填连词;根据句意和两句之间的逻辑关系,可知“参观这个城市 的尽可能多的地方”应是在“返回广州”之前,故填 before。 [例 9] He was very tired after doing this for a wholeday, 37 he felt very happy? (2008 年广东高 考) 解析:因 He was very tired?是一个句子,he felt very happy?也是一个句子,这两个句子之 间没有连词,也没有分号或句号,一定是填连词;根据句意和两句之间逻辑关系,可知“干 了一整天活累极了”与“感到非常高兴”是转折关系,故填 but。 6、 若结构较完整, 空格后的谓语动词是原形, 特别是与上下文时态不一致或主谓不一致时, 很可能是填情态动词或表示强调或倒装的助动词(do, does, did 等)。

[例 10] What is acceptable in one country 31 beconsidered extremely rude in another. (珠三角五 校联考) 解析:句中 What is acceptable inone country 是主语从句,空格后的 be considered 是谓语;因 其中的 be 是原形(只有情态动词或表示强调或倒装的助动词(do, does, did)加动词原形), 故空格处必定是填情态动词或助动词 does(由语境可知是一般现在时, 主语是第三人称单数); 由句意及作者的语气可知,需填表示“可能”的情态动词 may。 He had no time or energy to playwith his children or talk with his wife, but he ________ bring home a regularsalary. 解析:这是一个由 but 连接的并列句,由前一分句的谓语动词 had 是一般过去时可知,后一 分句的谓语动词 bring 也应用一般过去时;可 是,bring 却用的是原形,既与语境的时态不 符,也与主语 he 不一致,该句不是倒装句,因此,此处必定是填情态动词或表示强调的助 动词 did;由句意和 作者的语气推测,应当填对谓语动词表示强调的助动词 did(的确)。 (用 did 的原因是句子的 had 是过去时) 7、若缺状语,一定是填副词(在纯空中考的可能性不大)。(例句略) 8、由特殊的句式结构来判断空格应填的词。 (1)由 it is?that?强调结构形式,判断填 it 还是 that。(或者 it was…that…) [例 12] ?and 40 was onlyafter I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn’t eat MSG (味精)! (广州一模) 解析:由句式结构可知,本句为强调句,应填 it。 (2)由倒装句式判断, 是填构成倒装的条件的 only,so, neither, nor, never, hardly, seldom, not, until, had 等,还是填 do, does, did 等。 [例 13] _______with hardwork can you expect to get pay rise. 解析:由 can youexpect to?可知,这是倒装句,根据构成倒装的条件可知,应填副词 only, 因为“only +状语(with hard work)”放在句首,句子要用倒装。 (3)由 it 作形式主语或形式宾语的句式判断,空格处是否填 it。如: ? as 32 took them justthree minutes to steal paintings by two world-famous artists? (2008 年佛山 二模) 解析:由句式结构可知,这是 ittakes, sb. some time to do sth.句型做某事花费某人多少时间, 本句的不定式 tosteal paintings 是真正的主语,空格处填形式主语 it。 例: Dating sitesalso make 36 easy to avoid someone whom you are not interested in. (2008 年惠 州二模) 解析:由句式结构可知,toavoid?是真正的宾语,easy 是宾补,空格处应填作形式宾语的 it。 (it easy to do sth 做某事狠容易) (4)so /such?that?句型。如: [例 16] This made the goatso jealous___34___it began plotting against (付) thedonkey. (2007 年 惠州二模) 谋划对 解析:由句式结构可知,这是 so?that?句型(如此…以致于…),应填 that。 (5)more?than? (与其说??不如说??,比??更??)句型。 Cynthia is story showsvividly that people remember more how much a manager cares 40 how much he pays.(深圳宝安期末) 解析:由句式结构可知,这是 more?than?句型,故填 that。句意是与经理所给的报酬相比, 雇员更铭记于心的是他的关心。 (二)给出了动词的试题
1、动词不在主语或宾语的位置

首先,判断要填的动词是谓语动词还是非谓语动词。然后按以下两点进行思考。 若句中没有别的谓语动词(主语后面加谓语),或者虽然已有谓语动词,但需填的动词与之是并列关系时,所给动词就是谓语动 词;若是谓语动词,就要考虑时态语态。 例 His fear of failure ____36____(keep) him from classroom games thatother children played with joyous abandon. (2008 年深圳一模) 解析:因主语 His fear of failure 后没有别的谓语动词,需填的动词应为谓语动词;因主语与 keep 是主动关系,应用主动语 态;由从句谓语动词 played 可知,要用一般过去时,故填 kept。 That was definitely not an attractive idea so I politelydeclined her invitation, 40 (close) my book and walked away. (2008 年广州一模) 解析:虽然句中已有谓语动词 declined,但由 and walked 可知,所填词与 declined 和 walked 是并列关系,所以也用一般过去 式 closed。(你看到句子里面有 and 的话,记得前后谓语保持一致,所以 close 是动词,而 walked 也是动词,但是它们的时态 要保持一致,所以填 closed) 例 In Logan, three people __38__ (take) to a hospital, while otherswere treated at a local clinic. ( 梅州二模) 解析:因主语 three people 与 take 是被动关系,即三个人被送进医院,故用被动语态;由 were treated 可知,要用一般过去 时,故填 were taken。

若句中已有谓语动词,又不是并列谓语时,所给动词就是非谓语动词。若是非谓语动词就 要确定用—ing 形式、—ed 形式,还是用不定式形式,确定的方法主要有: 2、作主语或宾语,通常用—ing 形式表示习惯或一般情况,用不定式表示具体的情况。 [例 21] ?but it is not enough only 35 (memorize) rulesfrom a grammar book. (佛山一模) 解析: 因 it 是形式主语,后面用不定式作真正的主语,故填 to memorize。 [例 20] _______ (speak) out your inner feeling won’t makeyou feel ashamed, on the contrary? 解 析:句中已有谓语 won’t make,所以 speak 应为非谓语动词;(这是判断非谓语动词的方法) 谓语前面应为主语,作主语,表示一般情况,要用动名词短语,故填 Speaking。一般用动词 ing 形式做主语 3、作目的状语或者在形容词后作状语,一般用不定式。如: [例 22] _______ (complete) the project as planned, we’llhave to work two more hours a day. 解析: 因句中已有谓语 will haveto work,所以 complete 应为非谓语动词;因“(为了)按计划完成这 项工程”是“我们每天不得不额外多工作两小时”的目的,作目的状语,用动词不定式,故填 To complete。(记住:用不定式作目的状语) 例 Some people say thatoldest children, who are smart and strong-willed, are very likely ___33(succeed). (2008 年佛山一模) 解析:因在形容词 likely(很可能的)后作状语,要用动词不定式,故填 to succeed。 固定 搭配 likely to do sth 很可能做某事 4、作伴随状语,常用分词,与逻辑主语是主动关系,用现在分词,是被动关系,用过去分 词。这样的题一般要特别注意空格前的逗号。 [例 24] He saw the stone, 37 (say) to himself: “The nightwill be very dark.” (2008 年东莞一模) 解 析:句中已有谓语 saw(所以所给的 say 是非谓语动词),所给动词与 saw 不是并列关系, 应当是非谓语动词;又因 He 与 say 是主动关系,故填 saying 作伴随状语。 [例 25] The headmaster went into the lab, ________(follow) by the foreign guests. 解析: 句中已有谓语 went, 而 follow 又不是与之并列的, 故为非谓语动词; 又因 the headmaster 与 follow 是被动关系,故用过去分词作伴随状语。 5、不论非谓语动词在句中作何种成分,若判断需要用分词,与逻辑主语是主动关系用—ing 形式,是被动关系用—ed 形式。

[例 26] There will be a meeting, __40__ (start) laterthis year to review the film. (2008 年广州二 模) 解析:因 a meeting 与 start 是主动关系,用现在分词短语作定语,补充说明 a meeting, 故填 starting。 [例 27] Lessons 39 (learn) in sports can help us in ourdealing with other people. (广东考试说 明) 解析:因句中已有谓语 can help,所以 learn 应为非谓语动词;又因 lesson 与 learn 是被 动关系,要用过去分词短语作定语,故填 learned。 特别提醒 有时给出的动词可能既不是谓语动词也不是非谓语动词,而是要求词类转换。 如: [例 28] But Jane knew from past experience that her ___36___ (choose) ofties hardly ever pleased her father. (2009 年广东) 分析:括号中所给词 choose 虽然是动词,但在句中作主语,且在形容词性物主代词后,应 当填 choose 的名词形式 choice。(her 是形容词性物主代词,后面加名词。记住 choose 是动 词而 choice 是名词,即选择的意思)

(三)词类转换题
根据该词在句子所作句子成分确定用哪种形式。 ①作表语、定语或补语,通常用形容词形式。如:

例 The youngster immediately fell________ (silence) as tears flew down from his big blue eyes. 解析:因在系动词 felt 后作表语,用形容词,故填 silent。 (系动词后面一定加形容词构成系表结构)

[例 30] In a ________ (danger) part of the seaoff the coast of New Zealand, they learnt to? 解析:在冠词与名词之间,要用形容词,作定语,故填 dangerous。 (这道题里面 a 是冠词 thesea off the coast of New Zealand 是 名词)

例 Teachers must try their best tomake most of their students ________ (interest) in the subject. 解析:因所填词在句中作宾语 most of their students 的补足语,用形容词;表示“感兴趣”,填 interested。(be interested in 对? 感兴趣)

②作主语,或在及物动词或介词后作宾语,用名词形式。

Whenchina’s ancient scientific andtechnological 是形容词后面加名词________ (achieve) are mentioned,the nation will generally refer to the Four Great Inventions. 解析:在时间状语从句中,要求填的词作主语,China’s ancient scientific and technological 是主语的定语;作主语要用名词,又 由 are 可知,主语是复数,故填 achievements。

[例 31] These people have made great __39(contribute) to China with their work. (茂名二模) 解析:在句中作及物动词 have made 的宾语,要用名词形式;表示作贡献,其前面没有不定冠词时,习惯上用复数,故填 contributions。 Great 是形容词,后面加名词

③在形容词性物主代词后, 或者在 “冠词(+形容词)” 后, 用名词形式。 如:?the remains date from this periodbecause of their __38__ (similar) to those found elsewhere. (2008 年广州二模) 解析:在形容词性物代词(their)后应当用名词,故填 similarities。

例 With the large numbers ofstudents, the ________ (operate) of the system does involve a certain amount ofactivity. 解析:在冠词后,要用名词,故填 operation。(不定冠词 a an 定冠词 the)

④修饰动词、形容词、或整个句子,作状语,用副词形式。

如: [例 34]As I looked 32 (close) at this girl, I fount that?(2008 年深圳一模) 解析:修饰动词 looked,作状语,用副词,故填 closely。

[例 35] There must be something 40 (serious)wrong with our society. (2008 潮州期末) 解析:要求填的词修饰形容词 wrong,作状语,用副词,故填 seriously。副词修饰动词,形容词,句子,做状语

例 Singles are flocking(涌向) to the Internet 33 (main) because theirbusy lifestyles leave them little time?(2008 年惠州三模) 解析:修饰 because 引导的原因状语从句,修饰整个句子,作状语,用副词,故填 mainly。

⑤有可能是词义转换题,词类不一定要变,主要是考查具有与词根意义相反的派生词,需根据句子意思及前后逻辑关系,在词 根前加 un—, im—等,在词根后加—less 等。如:

例 People certainly have a varietyof reasons for going back to school but one important thing to know is, noknowledge is ________ (use). 解析:作表语要用形容词;又由句意可知,作者是表达“没有什么知识是无用的”,故填 useless(无用的)。

[例 38] Your mistake caused a lot of ________(necessary) work in the office. 解析:在名词前作定语,仍用形容词形式;但根据句意,“错误引起了许多不必要的麻烦事”,故填 unnecessary。 (of 后面加 名词或者动名词)

⑥括号中所给词为动词时,也不一定是考动词的时态语态或非谓语动词,而是考词类转换;若是形容词或副词,有可能是考查 其比较等级。

例 ?therewas a lot of information about the city’swell-known tourist 34 (attract)?(2008 年广州一模) 解析:尽管 attract 是动词,但这是考查词类转换的;在句中作介词 about 的宾语,用名词,故填 attractions。(about 后面加名词 或者动名词)

[例 40] The other frog went on jumping as hard ashe could?He jumped even __36_ (hard) andfinally made himself out. (2008 年期末) 解析:联系前句,又有 even(更加)的提示,可知这里用比较级,故填 harder。

四、点睛技巧

语法填空要求考生阅读一篇短文,然后按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求完成 10 道语法填空题。做题要求:一是在空 格处填入适当的词;二是使用括号中词语的正确形式填空。 1.语法填空的考查范围 (1)语境测试(上下文);

(2)语法测试:动词、名词、代词、冠词、介词、固定搭配、情态动词、复合句、形容词和副词的比较级与最高级及构词法、倒 装等。

①动词:时态、语态、主谓一致、非谓语动词等;

②引导词:一些从句的使用, 如定语从句、名词性从句、状语从句等;

③形容词、副词、名词、动词之间的词型、词性转换, 形容词与副词的比较级、最高级等; ④介词:一些常用介词的基本用法、 介词短语的用法;

⑤名词、冠词:注意名词的单数、复数、可数、不可数以及冠词的特殊性用法; ⑥代词:注意代词所指代的对象和前后对应的 关系;

⑦并列词:and, so, or, otherwise 等表示并列、对比的词,以及表示承接、转折的副词 therefore, however 的用法;

⑧句型:要求归纳整理, 并且牢固掌握一些基本常用句型, 如: not...until...; not only...but (also)...; so...that...;not...but...; as...as...; either...or...;more...than...; neither...nor...;such...that...;hardly...when...; nosooner...than...

例 2 The ______ why I was sad wasthat he didn't understand me.

解析:因为 why 引导的定语从句,前面的先行词一定是 reason。

记住:why 前面一定填 reason

例 5 It would be ______ (believe)that such an honest fellow should have betrayed his friends! 解析:因为在系动词 be 后作表语,要用 believe 的形容词形式 believable;由句意“这样一个老实人竟会出卖朋友,关注奇速英

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难以置信!”可知,还要在前面加上表示相反意义的前缀 un,答案为 unbelievable。(系动词后面加形容词构成系表结构,be 是系 动词)

4) 根据固定词组进行填充, 熟练掌握一些常见的词组, 如 as a matter of, be proud of, bythe way, come from, congratulate?on?, devote ?to?, earn one’s living, keep one’s word, make up one’s mind 等,对解题很有帮助。

5) 根据句型搭配进行填,就是根据一些常用的句型搭配,如 so/such?that?, it is?(for sb.) to do sth., There is no doubt that?, there is no sensein doing sth.等来解题。

完型填空

1 know 知道;熟悉 learn 听说;认识到;了解 notice 注意到

2 sound 泛指各种声音 cry, voice, shout 一般都指人的声音 noise 指噪音 3 take place 预料中的发生; happen 意料外的发生 ; occur 两 者兼有

4 anxious 渴望的(eager);担心的(worried)hurried 匆忙的 nervous 神经紧张的 5 admire oneself 自我欣赏 enjoy oneself 玩得高兴

6 fun 和 joke 都有开玩笑之意, fun 不可数, joke 是可数名词、 前面要加不定冠词 a play /a joke on sb. 开某人的玩笑; a practical joke =atrick 恶作剧;play a trick on sb. 捉弄某人。

7 wonder 想知道 ;imagine 想象; notice 注意到;examine 考查

8 means[常用作单]方法;手段,工具; a means to an end 达到目的方法;method 方法、办法,与 way 可以替换使用。

9 path 小路;人行道 road 公路 way 道路 the way to the station

10 idea 主意;意见 opinion 意见;见解 suggestion 可数 advice 不可数 tip n.告诫,提示;劝告 11 examine 检查;诊察;审查,目 的在于想了解有关的情况;check 核实,检查,目的在于判断正误或是否正常;search 搜查

12instead/however 都作副词时,instead"而是"含有某种对比,however"可是""仍然 "含有"转折""让步"的意思。

13journey 长途旅行 travel 广义的旅行 trip 旅行(一次来回)a round trip 14 courage 勇气 spirit 精神 strength 力气

15 、introduce sb. to sth. 把某事介绍给某人 explain sth. to sb. 向某人解释某事 help oneself to 擅自带走;自用

16 参加 take part in join /join in attend competein/ for/against 控告 accuse sb. of charge sb. With

建议 advise suggest recommend urgepropose demand( persuade 说服 ) 花费 sth/doing sth+cost sb+spend+ in doing sth Sb+afford +n/to do sth

高考重大信息解读 语篇型语法填空题的形式为:在一篇 200 词左右的语篇(短文或对话)中留出 10 处空白,部分空白的后面给出单词的基本形 式,要求考生根据上下文填写空白处所需的内容或所提供单词的正确形式,所填写词语不得多于 3 个单词。考生须灵活运用语 法知识,如单词词性、动词时态、名词单复数、连接词、代词、冠词等判断各空白处应填写的内容。

语法填空练习(附答案) 阅读下面短文, 根据上下文填入适当的词语, 或使用括号中的词语的适当形式填空, 并将答案填写在答题卡上标号的相应位置。

一、 The Internet has become part of young people’s life. ____1____report shows that 38% of students often use the Internet . Most of them get_____2____ (use) information on the Internet ____3____ use the Internet to helpin their studies. But many students don’t use it _____4____ a good way. Someplay games too much, some visit websites ____5____ shouldn’t look at. So badthings may happen ____6___ students spend too much time on the Internet.

_____7____ isimportant for students to use the Internet properly. Now we have a textbook,_____8____ uses many examples to teach students some good ways to use theInternet. It gives useful advice. Some studentsalso make ____9____ on the Internet. But if you want to have a face-to-face____10_____ (meet) with your online friends, let your parents know and meet ina proper place.

二、 Rivers are oneof our most important natural resources. Many of the world’s great _____1____are located on

rivers, and almost ____2_____ country has at least one riverflowing through it that plays _____3_____ important part in the lives of itspeople. Since thebeginning of history, people _____4_____ (use) rivers for transportation. Thelongest one in the United Statesis the Mississippi, and the lifeline of Egypt is the Nile._____5_____ transportation, rivers give water to drink, water for crops, andchances for fun and recreation for the people _____6___ live along their banks. However, largecities and industries that are located on rivers often make problems. As thecities grow ____7_____ size and industries increase in number, the water in therivers becomes _____8_____ (pollute) with chemicals and other materials. Peopleare learning the _____9_____ (important) of doing more to keep their riversclean ____10______ they want to enjoy the benefits of this natural resource.

三、 Liu Xiang wasthe first Asian ______1_____ (win) the men’s 110m hurdles at the Olympics in Athens. ______2____that he became an idol(偶像) to the young people. “I neverthought I would run under 13 seconds and break the Olympic ____3____.”said LiuXiang in tears, “I am very very excited. I’m proud not just for myself and forChinese ____4____ for Asia. My race went______5_____ (wonderful) from start to finish.” Liu added. “It is _____6_____amazing experience being the Olympic champion. I want to thank my coach and myfriends for _____7____their help. I think today we Chinese have showed theworld we ____8_____ run as fast as anybody else.” Since hisreturn from Athens,Liu Xiang has been at the center of a media circusand he has been to many pressappearances and meetings. ____9____ Liu thinks 2004 is just the beginning, andhe expects to be at his peak in the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Liu said, “For someplayers, it’s just a job. For me, it’s ____10____ I love.”

四、 Will _____1____ matter if you don’t take your breakfast? Recently a test_____2_____ (give) in the United Sates. Those tests included people ofdifferent _____3_____ from 12 to 83. During the experiment, these people were givenall kinds of breakfasts, and sometimes they got ______4______ breakfast at all.Special tests were set up to see ______5_____ well their bodies worked and whenthey had eaten _______6_____ certain kind of breakfast. The results show thatif a person eats a proper breakfast, he or she will work with better effect_____7______ if he or she has no breakfast. This fact appears to be______8______ (especial) true if a person works _____9____ his brains. Forexample, if a student eats fruit, eggs, bread and milk before going to school,he will learn more quickly and listen with _____10____ (much) attention inclass.

五、 Enough sleep isimportant to health. The amount of sleep needed _____1_____ on the age of theperson and the conditions in ______2____ sleep takes place. The young may needmore sleep than _____3_____ old, but usually eight hours are enough for thehealth of grown-ups. Some can do with _____4_____ than this amount, but othersmay need more. Every person knows his own need. _____5_____ is then a matter ofgood judgment to satisfy his need. Sleep _____6_____ always be enough to makeone bring back his ______7____ (strong) and get ready for a day’s work. Fresh air isnecessary to sound sleep. So it is not ______8_____ reason for some people to thinkthat it is practicable to sleep in the open air. A bath at bedtime, _____9_____hot nor cool but of body temperature, may be helpful to sleep. Sleepproducingdrug(帮助睡眠的药物) should never be taken except when_______10_____ (suggest) by a doctor.

六、 Snake disheshave become popular _____1___ recent years. Snake meat in various flavors (风味)is often seen in restaurant ads. Eating snake seems to be now in vogue(盛行),and if you haven’t eaten snake yet, you ____2___(consider) “out of date”. But Iwonder______3___ all the trends are worth following. Some people maydefend themselves ____4_____ saying that snake meat is nutritious. But thesepeople don’t realize that many parasites(寄生虫),____5_____do harm to our health, are found inside snakes. According _____6____a survey, about 1000 tons of snakes are eaten every year in China andsometimes as ______7____ as 10 tons of snakes are served on dinner tables inShenzhen in a single day! These figureswarns us that if no action is taken, _____8____ number of snakes will drop andmake an increase in mice and worms population, which will ____9_____ in adecrease(减产) of crop output. Who will see suchtragedy happen? So let’s startnot to eat snakes any more because “to protect the snake is to protect_____10_____.”

七、 A few yearsago, SARS ____1____ out in the mainland of China, causing some people_____2_____ (kill) or nearly got close to death. The situation was so severethat there was_____3___ time to debate who is to blame. The most importantthing for the government to do is to find out the ______4____ of this deadlydisease. They invited all the most _____5______ (experience) experts in thisfield to discuss and quite a few suggestions were put forward. Some of the topexperts then tested them to see _____6____ they were available. Doctor ZhongNanshan chose one patient who was seriously ill and had little hope_____7____picking up and had the new medicine tested on him. _____8_____ his great joy,this patient recovered! He made his way to his office and telephoned the topofficial, _____9____ (tell) him this exciting news. For convenience, he movedto live in his office. His method did make sense. Not soon after that, the____10____ hospitals also controlled this terrible disease and kicked it outfinally.

八、 I asked myuncle, who plays ____1_____ piano well, _____2____ he would assess (评定)the tone of a second hand piano I was hoping to buy. We arrived _____3____ thehouse and Uncle Frank looked the piano over, then _____4____ (sit) down andplayed a mixture of honky-tonk numbers and classical pieces. When he finished,we told the family that we would call _____5_____ in 15 minutes. Outside, UncleFrank said that ______6_____ the wood was battered (坏掉的),thesound was good and we should buy it. When I phonedthe woman back, she sounded as if she was crying. ______7____ (concern), Iasked, “What’s the matter?” “We didn’t knowthe piano _____8______ play like that,” she replied. The piano wasn’t_____9_____ sale, and her daughter had to resume(重新开始) taking piano _____10_____.

九、 In NorthAmerica people are always in ____1____ hurry. Children have special lessons orsports activities _____2_____ school. Parents often work late and ______3_____get home until 7 or 8 o’clock at night. Most North American families don’t havetime to prepare a meal. That is ______4_____ fast food is so popular in North America. People _____5_____ about 40% of theirdollars on fast food. People usuallybuy fast food from restaurant chains such as Pizza Hut, McDonald’s, or KFC,_____6____they can

enjoy pizza, sandwiches, fried chicken, and so on. Fast food saveswork and time, but it is not ______7_____ (nutrition). Fast food ispopular in many countries. American fast-food companies now have restaurantsall over the world. But not _____8_____ is happy about the spread(扩展)of North American fast food. A group of people in Italy want to fight _____9____ thespread of American fast food. They don’t like the idea of more fast food chains______10______(open) restaurants in their country.

十、 Many peoplekeep small fish ____1____ pets. They keep them in a tank of water. The tank ismade of glass. People can _____2____ through it. They can see inside the tankand watch the fish. The fish needroom. They mustn’t be crowded. They need ____3____ to breathe. ______4____ mustbe enough water for all fish. So the size of the tank is very important. In thetank people put small plants _____5_____ are good for fish. They give oxygen tothe water. Plants help in other ways, too. They can hide _____6____ the plantsand sleep, lay eggs there. The fish ____7____ be kept in water all the time.Some can jump high. So the tank should be covered. This keeps the fish_____8_____ (jump) out. The fish needfood and should be fed every day. But ______9____ you give them too much food,it is very bad, for the extra food will fall to the bottom and make the waterdirty. So the fish should get just enough food and finish _____10____ in tenminutes. Nothing should be left.

参考答案 一、 1 A 2 useful3 and 4 in 5 they 6if 7 It 8 which 9 friends 10 meeting 二、 1 cities 2 every/each 3 an 4 have used 5 Besides 6 who 7 in 8 polluted 9 importance 10 if 三、 1 to win 2 After 3 record 4 but (also) 5 wonderfully 6 an 7 all 8can 9 But 10 what 四、1 it 2 was given 3 ages 4 no 5 how 6 a 7 than 8 especially 7 9 with 10 more 五、1 depends 2 which 3 the 4 less 5 It 6 should 7 strength 8 without9 neither 10 suggested 六、1 in 2 are considered 3if/whether 4 by 5 which 6 to 7 many 8 the 9 result 10 ourselves 七、1 broke 2 to be killed 3 no 4 cause 5 experienced 6 whether/if 7of 8 To 9 telling 10 other 八、 1 the 2 whether/if 3 at 4 sat 5 them 6 though/although 7Concerned 8 could/should 9 for 10 lessons 九、 1 a 2 after 3don’t 4 why 5 spend 6 where 7 nutritious 8 everyone/everybody 9 against 10opening 十、 1 as 2 look 3 oxygen 4 There 5 that/which 6 among 7 must/should 8jumping 9 if 10 it


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