一、非谓语动词就是在句子中不作谓语的动词。常分为不定式（to do） 、动 名词(doing)、分词（现在分词 doing、过去分词 done）三种。 二、不定式的形式有：to do to be doing to have done to be done
to have been done 动名词或现在分词的形式有： doing h
aving been done 过去分词的形式有：done 三、如果非谓语动词是及物动词，主要看它与逻辑主语之间是主动或是被 动关系。如果非谓语动词是不及物动词，则主要看它是正在进行或是 已完成。 四、原则上，不定式表将来要进行或具体的一次动作；动名词表示正在发 生或经常发生的动作；过去分词表示已经完成的动作。 五、非谓语动词解题时，第一看它与逻辑主语的关系，确定该使用主动还 是被动；第二看它与谓语动词之间发生的时间先后顺序。如果非谓语 动词发生在谓语动词之前，用完成式；如果非谓语动词与谓语动词几 乎同时发生，用一般式；如果非谓语动词发生在谓语动词之后，用不 定式。 六、被动和表语形容词后常用不定式；非谓语动词后带有介词时常用过去 分词。 having done being done
具体用法讲解： （主要是非谓语动词在同一成分中的用法辨析） 做主语： （ doing / to do ） 一般来说，不定式和动名词都可以作主语。但动名词作主语时，表示客观 性、一般性、经常性的行为；而不定式作主语则表示一次性、具体性行为。 Looking after children is her job. To clean the classroom is his job today.
I like swimming, but I don't like to swim today because I don't feel well. 做宾语:（doing / to do ） (1)．有些动词只能接不定式做宾语，这些动词接上不定式，含有明显的主 观性和将来性意义。如：help，hope，ask，refuse，decide，promise，wish， pretend， expect， arrange， learn， plan， demand， dare， manage， agree， prepare， fail，determine，offer，choose，desire，elect，long，(happen，seem)，等等。 He refused to speak on the radio. He desired to see you．
(2)．有些动词只接动名词做宾语，这些动词接上动名词，含有明显的"依据 往事或经验来作出理解和判断"的意思。 mind， finish， enjoy， suggest， permit， appreciate，consider，miss，dislike，keep(on)，avoid，permit，imagine，risk， escape，admit，stand(忍受)，allow，forbid，excuse，等等。 短语动词：give up，put off，look forward to，feel like，insist on，object to， prevent…from，set about，can't help，be/get used to 等 短语：be worth doing，be no good doing，be no use doing，be busy doing 等 (3).有些动词后面既可接不定式，又可接动名词，其意义基本相同，区别不 大。如；like，love，hate，delay，continue，attempt(企图)，afford(提供)， prefer．omit(省略)，begin，start 等.
I prefer staying (to stay) at home on Sunday. 注意：begin 和 start 本身为进行时，或后面动词为心理变化意义的动词 时，须接不定式。 (4).有些词后面既可以接不定式．亦可接动名词，但其意义有很大区别，须 特别注意： A．remember，forget，regret 接动名词，表示完成意义(=having done)，接不 定式，表示将来意义： Please remember to bring me the book I want next time. I remember seeing her (=having seen her) somewhere before. B．mean：mean to do=want to do 打算，想要……；mean doing：意味着， C．stop：stop to do 停下来，要干另一件事，不定式作目的状语；stop doing 停止干……，动名词作宾语。 D．try：try to do，努力，试图干……事；try doing：试着干……事 E．want，need，require 接动名词表示被动意义，表示"需要、该……"；接 不定式，表示"想，要干……" F．go on：go on to do 继续干和原来不同的另一件事，不定式作目的状语。 go on doing 继续干原来同一件事，动名词作宾语。 G．动词 advise，allow，permit，forbid 后面接单宾语时用动名词，接复合 宾语时用动词不定式。如：advise doing / advise sb. to do 做宾补：(doing / to do / done ) 做宾补的不定式和现在分词与逻辑主语（就是宾语）是主动关系，不定 式表示一次性、具体性行为，以及将来意义的行为；现在分词表示当时正
在发生的进行意义的行为，亦可表示持续时间的延续性的行为动作。过去 分词与逻辑主语是被动关系，表示完成意义的行为或状态，及物动词的过 去分词有被动意义，不及物动词的过去分词仍是主动意义。 When I came in, I saw her dancing happily. I often hear her sing songs in English in her room. 做表语： （doing / to do / done ） 不定式和动名词做表语解释主语内容，且可以和主语颠倒，意思仍然 通顺，回答 what 的问题。它们有时存在经常性和一次性行为的区别，过去 分词做表语表明主语的性质、特征和状态，不能和主语颠倒，可以回答 how 的问题。Her job is cleaning offices.(What is her job?) (Cleaning offices is her job.) 做定语： （doing / to do / done） 不定式做定语与先行词有动宾、主谓和解释先行词内容等关系,在时态 上常是将来意义。现在分词做定语是现在时或进行时态意义；过去分词做 定语则是完成时态意义。此外，不定式做定语时只能后置，不可前置，而 单个分词做定语可前置，分词短语做定语则须后置。动名词做定语，须前 置，且要重读，它表明先行词的用途。而分词做定语表明先行词的性质、 特征和状态。 a swimming boy=a boy who is swimming a swimming pool=a pool for swimming The house to be built (=which will be built/which is to be built) next year will be our new library.
The house being built (=which is being built) now will be our new library. The house built (=which was built) last year is our new library now.
做状语： （doing / to do / done） 不定式和分词做状语各有不同分工。动词不定式多做目的、结果和原 因状语，且多放在句末；分词可以表示时间、原因、条件、让步、方式状 语，多置于句首，做伴随状语，多放在后面。单独的动名词不能做状语， 在介词后形成介词短语，从而做状语。 (1)．目的状语：通常有不定式表示，由于不定式的客观性和将来性特征。 不定式前还可加上 in order，so as 来加强说话的口气。但 so as to 通常不用 于句首。 The Smiths have gone to London to spend their holidays. I came here (in order/so as) to hear the report. (2)．时间状语：分词作时间状语相当于时间状语从句。现在分词作时间状 语一般位于句首，表示的动作和谓语动词的动作同时发生，有时现在分词 前可以加上时间连词。如果分词动作发生在谓语动词之前，用现在分词的 完成体形式。过去分词作时间状语与谓语动词构成同时性和被动意义。分 词前有时加上时间连词。 Arriving (=When he arrived) at the bus stop, he found his sister there. Having (=When he had) finished his homework, he went to bed. Seen (=When the town is seen) from the hill, the town looks more beautiful. When asked to make a speech, he said he was glad to do so.
(3)．原因状语：不定式作原因状语往往用于形容词之后,这些形容词通常是 happy, sorry, fortunate, angry, glad, ashamed, discouraged, delighted, frightened, shocked 等。分词作原因状语相当于原因状语从句。一般位于句首。 Being (=Since he was) ill all last year, he lived in a sanatorium. Having (=Since they had) been asked to stay, they couldn't possibly leave right away. Moved (=As he was moved) by the heroic deeds of the PLA man, he burst into tears. (4)．条件状语：通常用分词来表示，相当于条件状语从句。一般位于句首。 Given (=If he had been given) more time, he would be able to do better. (5)．结果状语从句：不定式作结果状语通常用于 so+形容词或副词+as to， such+名词+as to，too…to，enough to 和 only to 等结构。 现在分词作结果状语表示谓语动词的结果。 He arrived late to find the train gone. I worked late into the night, only to find I had not finished half of the job. (6)．让步状语：通常有过去分词来表示，而且前面通常有表示让步意义的 though。 Though wounded, the soldier managed to get to the village safely. Though warned of the danger, he still went skating on the thin ice. (7)．伴随或方式状语：分词作伴随状语通常位于句尾，表示谓语动词正在 所处主动或被动的状态。 They walked along the streets, talking and laughing.
He went into the house, followed by some children.
(78)1. I've heard him_____ about you often. A. spoke B. speaks C. speak (79)2. I'm hungry. Get me something_____. A. eat B. to eat C. eating D. for eating (79)3. There isn't any difference between the two. I really don't know_____ A. where to choose B. which to choose C. to choose what D. to choose which (79)4, The teacher told them_____ make so much noise. A. don't B. not C. will not D. not to (79)5. I saw him_____ out of the room. A. go B. had gone C. has gone D. goes (79)6. I'm going to have my radio A. fixed B. to fix C. fix D. fixing (80)7. The workers want us_____ together with them. A. work B. working C. to work D. worked (80)8. The officers narrowly escaped_____ in the hot battle. A. have killed B. to kill C. to be killed D. being killed (80)9. _____ the letter, he went out to post it, A. Writing B. Being written C. Having written D. Written (80)10. If you wave your book in front of your face, you can feel the air_____ against your face. A. moved B. moving C. moves D. to move 81)11. Don't you remember_____? A. seeing the man before B. to see the man before C. saw the man before D. to have seen the man before 注；第 11 题 A．D 答案均为正确 (83) 12. People couldn't help_____ the foolish emperor in the procession. A. laugh at B. to laugh at C. laughing at D. laughing on (83) 13. What's the language in Germany? A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak (83)14. We're looking forward_____ the photo exhibition. A. to visiting B. to visit C. to having visited D. visiting (83) 15. Our headmaster often told us _____ things for granted. A. not to have B. not to take C. didn't take D. not to make (83)16. The girl_____ under that tree is my sister. A. sitting B. sits C. is sitting D. sat (84)17. ___ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.
A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed by (84)18. Do you remember_____ me at a party last year? A. meet B. to meet C. meeting D. met (85)19. This sentence needs_____ A. an improvement B. improve C. improving D. improved (85)20. "What are you going to do this morning?" "I'm thinking of_____ to visit my aunt." A. go B. going C. having gone D. my going (85)21. _____ anything about the accident ,he went to work as usual. A. Not known B. Known not C. Knowing not D. Not knowing (85)22. "Have you decided when_____?" "Yes, tomorrow morning." A. to leave B. to be leaving C. will you leave D. are you leaving (85)23. I really enjoy_____ that kind of job. A. do B. doing C. to do D. to be doing (85)24. "There's a hole in your bag." "l know. I am going to have it_____." A. mend B. mending C. mended D. to be mended (86)25. The next morning she found the man in bed, _____ dead. A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying (86)26. Tell him_____ the window. A. to shut not B. not to shut C. to not shut D. not shut (86)27. Only one of these books is A. worth to read B. worth being read C. wroth of reading D. worth reading (86)28. He had his leg_____ in the match yesterday. A. to break B. broken C. break D. breaking (86)29. I can't imagine_____ that with them. A. do B. to do C. being done D. doing (87) 30. Most of the people_____ to the party were famous scientists. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. inviting (87)31. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed _____. A. catching B. to be caught C. being caught D. to catch (87)32. Though he had often made his little sister_____, today he was made_____ by his little sister. A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry (87)33. They would not allow him_____ across the enemy line. A. to risk going B. risking to go C. for risk to go D. risk going (88)34. She didn't remember_____ him before. A. having met B. have met C. to meet D. to having met (88)35. They knew her very well. They had seen her_____ up from childhood. A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow
(89)36. Do you know the boy_____ under the big tree? A. lay B. lain C. laying D. lying (89)37. Go on_____ the other exercise after you have finished this one. A. to do B. doing C. with D. to be doing (89)38.There was terrible noise______ the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed (89)39. "What do you think of the book?" "Oh, excellent. It's worth_____ a second time." A. to read B. to be read C. reading D. being read (89)40. She pretended_____ me when I passed by. A. not to see B. not seeing C. to not see D. having not seen (89)41. "Good morning. Can I help you?" "I'd like to have this package_____, madam." A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed (89)42. _____ your coat at once. We must hurry. A. Wear B. Wearing C. Put on D. Putting on (90)43. Most of the artists_____ to the party were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited (90)44. _____ more attention, the trees could have grown better. A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given (90)45. She reached the top of the hill and stopped_____ on a big rock by the side of the path. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest (90)46. Last summer I took a course on A. how to make dresses B. how dresses be made C. how to be made dresses D. how dresses to be made (91)47. The murderer was brought in, with his hands_____ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied (91)48. The secretary worked late into the night, _____ a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing (91)49. I can hardly imagine Peter_____ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A. sail B. to sail C. sailing D. to have sailed (91)50. --The light in the office is still on. --Oh, I forgot_____ A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off (91)51. John was made_____ the truck for a week as a punishment. A. to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing (92)52. Little Jim should love to_____ the theatre this evening. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking (92)53. --I usually go there by train. --Why not_____ by boat for a change. A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going (92)54. I would appreciate______ back this afternoon. A. you to call B. you call C. your calling D. you're calling
(92)55. There're so many kinds of tape- recorders on sale that I can't make up my mind_____ to buy. A. what B. which C. how D. where (92)56._____ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received (93)57, "Can't you read?" Mary said_____ to the notice, A.angrily pointing B. and point angrily C.angrily pointed D. and angrily pointing
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