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人教新课标必修二 Unit 5 Music语法讲解


Unit 5 Grammar “介词
制作:薛峰

Music
审批: 2010.12

+ 关系代词”引导的定语从句
审核:刘顺兴

“介词 + 关系代词”引导的定语从句是定语从句中较复杂的一种,多用于正式文体中。这类定语从 句的关系代词主要有 which, whom, whose 。它们

既可引导限定性定语从句,又可引导非限定性定 语从句。同学们在学习这种定语从句时要注意以下几种情况:

一、注意介词的选取 应根据如下几点:

“介词” + “关系代词”引导的定语从句中,介词的选取

1 .根据介词和定语从句中谓语动词的习惯搭配。如: ? Who is the man with whom you just shook hands? 刚才和你握手的人是谁? ? The two things about which Marx was not sure were the grammar and some of the idioms. 马克思不大 有把握的两个方面是语法和某些习惯用语。 [典型考例 1 ] In the dark street there wasn't a single person_____ she could turn for help. A. that B. who C.from whom D.to whom

析: 答案为 D 。 介词 to 和定语从句中的 turn 构成固定搭配 turn to sb. for help。 意为“向某人求助”。 2 .根据定语从句意思的需要,此时不但要注意其前的搭配也要注意其后的搭配。 如:? He had a bad cold, because of which he didn't attend the meeting. 他患了重感冒,因此未能参加会议。 ? The speed at which the car runs depends on the road condition. 这辆车的速度要根据路面状况而 定。 [典型考例 2 ] In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m.,_______ many people
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have got home. A. whose time B.that C. on which D. by which

析:答案为 D 。根据句意“到下午 5 : 30 时,许多人已经到家了”,且定语从句中又用了完成 时,故应用介词 by。 3。 根据意思也可用复杂介词,如 by means of ,as a result of, in front of, in the back of , all of , most of 等,如: (1) The instrument by means of which the temperature is measured is called thermometer. 用来测 量温度的仪器叫温度计。 ( 2 ) There are forty students in the classroom, all of whom are working hard at a problem in mathematics. 教室里有四十个学生,他们都在努力计算一道数学难题。

二、注意关系代词的选取
在“介词 + 关系代词”引导的定语从句中,如果关系代词指代事物就用 which; 如果指代人则用 whom; 若表示“……的”则用 whose。 如: 1. This is the classroom in which we studied last year. 这就是我们去年学习的教室。 2.There are sixty students in our class, twenty of whom are girls. 我们班有六十个学生,其中二十个是女生。 3.He lives in a house, whose door opens to the north. 他住的房子门是朝北开的。 [典型考例 1 ] He paid the boy $ 10 for washing the windows, most of _____ hadn't been cleaned for at least a year.(MET1990) A. those B. these C. that D. which [典型考例 2 ] The gentleman _____ you told me yesterday proved to be a thief. (上海 2000 春 招) A . who B. about whom C.whom D.with whom
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析:考例 1 中关系代词指代“窗子”,故用 which, 答案为 D ;考例 2 中关系代词指代人,故用 whom,它又和后面的 told 构成固定搭配 tell sb. about sb./sth. ,故答案为 B 。

三、注意关系代词的替换
1 .介词 in, on, at, for 等与关系代词 which 一起引导定语从句时,可与相关的关系副词 when, where, why 等替换。如: (1)America is the country in which George Washington was born. 美国是乔治?华盛顿出生的国 家。 (in which 用 where 替换 ) (2)I have forgotten the exact date on which this small country became independent. 我忘了这个国 家独立的确切日期了。 (on which 用 when 替换 ) (3)The reason for which he refused to go to the party was that they had not invited him to. 他拒绝 去赴宴的原因是他没受到他们的邀请。 (for which 用 why 替换 ) 2。 “名词 +of + 关系代词 ” 引导定语从句时,可与相关的关系副词“ whose + 名词”替换。如: (1)I will talk to those students the homework of whom hasn't been done. 我要和没完成作业的同学谈话。 (the homework of whom 用 whose homework 替换 ) (2)She lives in the house the windows of which face to the east. 她住在一栋窗户朝东的房子里。 (the windows of which 用 whose windows 替换 )

四、注意不能拆开的动词短语
并不是所有的动词短语都能拆开, 要注意有些动词短语不能拆开使用。 这样的动词短语常用的有: look after, look for, turn in, pay attention to, take care of, depend on, listen to 等。如: 1。 The babies (whom)the nurses are looking after are very healthy . 保育员照看的婴儿都很健康。 2。Is this the book (which/that)she was looking for ? 这是她正在找的那本书吗? 3。Where is the wallet (which/that)you turned in yesterday? 你昨天上交的钱包哪去了?
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4。These are the words (which/that)you should pay attention to.这些是你应该注意的单词。

五、注意“介词 +where ”引导的定语从句
有时我们可以见到“介词 +where ”引导的定语从句,此时要和“介词 +which” 引导的定语从句从 意思上加以区别。 如: 1。 His head soon appeared out of the window, from where he saw nothing but trees. 他的头很快从窗口露出来,从那儿除了树木他什么也看不见。 (from where 相当于 from out of the window. 而不是 from the window) 2。 They stood on the top of the building, from where they could see the whole city. 他们站在楼顶上, 从那儿能看到整个城市。 (from where 相当于 from the top of the building, 而不是 from the buiding)

六.介词+关系代词除后面加句子引导定语从句外,还可直接跟不定式作定 语,相当于一个定语从句。如:He has saved another thousand dollars with which
to support his family. =He has saved another thousand dollars with which he could support his family. 他又攒了一千块钱,用这些钱他可以养活他的家庭。 注:在这种结构中,若把介词移至句尾,whom 和 which 必须省略。比较: I have found a room in which to put my things. (正) I have found a room which to put my things in. (误) I have found a room to put my things in. (正)

语法要点整理:

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