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第二部分 第8讲 动词的时态和语态


第 8 讲

动词的时态和语态

2009-2011 年广东省卷考点一览表

年份

考点 现在进行时 含情态动词的被动语态
(mustn't be allowed) 现在完成时和一般过去时 一般现在时 现在完成时 一般将来时的被动语态(will be held)

/>题型
单项填空(31) 单项填空(35)

分值
1

2011

1
1 1

单项填空(39)
单项填空(35) 单项填空(39)

2010

1
1

单项填空(42)

现在完成时 2009 现在进行时 一般过去时的被动语态(was completed)

单项填空(34)

1 1 1

单项填空(39)
单项填空(45)

一、写出下列动词的第三人称单数、过去式、过去分词和

现在分词
1.play ______ ______ ______ ______ plays played played playing going goes gone 2.go ______ _______ _______ _______ went 3.study _______ ________ ________ ________ studies studied studied studying 4.have ______ ______ ______ ______ has had had having finding 5.find ______ _______ ________ _________ finds found found teaching 6.teach ______ ______ _______ ________ teaches taught taught

puts put put putting 7.put ______ ______ ______ _______ speaks spoke spoken speaking 8.speak ________ ________ ________ _________
9.learn _______ ________________ _____________ _______ learns learned/learnt learned/learnt learning felt felt feeling 10.feel ______ _______ ______ ______ feels 二、用所给动词的适当形式填空 is talking 1.Don't be noisy.Mum ________ (talk) with the guest in the sitting room. did buy 2.—When ___ you ___ (buy) the e-dictionary? —Last month. 3.—Why didn't you come and open the door for me, dear? was cooking —Oh, sorry.I ___________ (cook) in the kitchen.I didn't hear you.

4.He will join(join) us in the discussion tomorrow. ______ 5 .Henry speaks Chinese very well.He ________ (be) in China has been since ten years ago.

hates 6 . Cindy will never drive the car because she _____ (hate) driving.
is spoken 7.English _________ (speak) in many countries. be taken 8 . These magazines must not ________ (take) out of the reading room. will be laughed 9.You _____________ (laugh) at if you wear that dress. happened 10.What ________ (happen) in this area last night?

三、将下列主动语态改为被动语态 1.Someone will tell you how to prepare for the examination. __________________________________________________ You will be told how to prepare for the examination by _______ someone. 2.We must finish the work by six o'clock this afternoon. The work must be finished by us by six o'clock this afternoon. ___________________________________________________ 3.Do you often clean your room? Is your room often cleaned by you? _________________________________ 4.Could you carry out the plan on time? Could the plan be carried out on time? _________________________________ 5.They gave him a medal for his wonderful work. He was given a medal by them for his wonderful work./A ________________________________________________ medal was given to him by them for his wonderful work. ______________________________________________

动词的时态
常考的各种时态的用法及构成
时态 用法 表示现在的 状态;表示经 常性或习惯 构成 主语是第三 时间状语 sometimes, often, usually, always, never, in the 例句 He plays soccer on Sundays. 星期天他踢足 球。 Light travels faster than sound. 光速比音速快。

人称单数时
用动词的第

一般现 性的动作;表
在时

morning/afternoon/ 三人称单数 evening, at noon, 示主语具备 形式,其他 every day, on 的性格、特征 情况用动词 Sunday(s), at seven 和能力等;表 原形 等 示客观真理

表示过去曾 一般过 经发生的动 动词的过去

yesterday, last night I was at the (Monday, week, library yesterday afternoon.昨天

去时

作或存在的
状态



month, year), in
2010, three months ago, just now 等

下午我在图书
馆。 They are going

一般将 来时

表示将来发 生的动作或 存在的状态

shall/will+ tomorrow, next year, to have a sports 动词原形; in two years, from +动词原形 等 meeting in a 后要举行运动

be going to now on, in the future week.他们一周 会。

表示说话时

is/am/are+ now, at the moment, an English class 现在进 或现阶段正 动词的现在 at present, these days now.我们现在 行时 在进行或发 等 分词(v.-ing) 正在上英语课。 生的动作 表示过去某 过去进 行时 个时刻或某 was/were+ at this time yesterday, at 9 last night, then 等 分词 一阶段正在 动词的现在 进行或发生 They were watching TV at 7 last night.昨晚 七点他们正在 看电视。

We are having

的动作

表示过去发
生的某一动 作对现在造 成的影响和 already, just, yet, They have known each

ever, never, before,

for+时间段, since other since they 结果;表示过 have/has+ came to this 现在完 去已经开始, +时间点/一般过去 动词的过去 school.他们自 时的从句, ever 成时 一直延续到 分词 since, so far, in the 从来到这所学 现在并有可 past/last...years 等 校就相互认识 能继续延续 了。 下去的动作 或状态

注意:come, go, leave, arrive 等表示位置移动的动词可用现 在进行时表示即将发生的或计划好的事情。如: She is leaving for Hong Kong tonight. 今晚她将动身去香港。 动词的第三人称单数 1.一般情况直接加-s。如: look—looks read—reads stop—stops 2.以 s, x, ch, sh, o 结尾的动词加-es。如: miss—misses fix—fixes watch—watches wash—washes do—does 3.辅音字母加 y 结尾的动词,变 y 为 i 再加-es。如: carry—carries hurry—hurries cry—cries 4.be 动词的三种形式:am, is, are 5.特殊:have—has

动词的过去式和过去分词 1.规则动词: (1)一般情况直接加-ed。如: clean—cleaned rain—rained watch—watched (2)以不发音字母 e 结尾的动词,只加-d。如: like—liked live—lived move—moved (3)以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节动词,双写该辅音字 母,再加-ed。如: stop—stopped drop—dropped plan—planned (4)以辅音字母加 y 结尾的动词,应变 y 为 i 再加-ed。 如: study—studied carry—carried cry—cried 2.不规则动词:不规则动词过去式和过去分词的变化规律 性不强,只能分别记忆。(请参看九年级英语课本最后一页)

动词的现在分词

1.一般情况在词尾加-ing。如:
do—doing study—studying listen—listening 2.以不发音字母 e 结尾的动词,去 e 加-ing。如: have—having make—making

3.以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节动词,双写该辅音字
母,再加-ing。如: begin—beginning run—running get—getting 4.以字母 ie 结尾的动词,变 ie 为 y 再加-ing。如: die—dying lie—lying

现在完成时中的一些重要用法
1.短暂性动词和延续性动词 短暂性动词可用于完成时态,说明某个动作的结果还存在, 但不能与表示一段时间的时间状语连用,也不能用于 how long 引导的特殊疑问句中。如需使用,此时要将短暂性动词转换为 延续性动词。如: borrow—keep buy—have

die—be dead
join—be a member of/be in begin/start—be on

finish/end—be over come/go/arrive—be in/at

leave—be away (from)
become—be open—be open close—be closed sleep—be asleep marry—be married return—be back get up—be up

2.have/has gone to, have/has been to 和 have/has been in 的 区别 (1)have/has gone to 强调“在去某地的路上或在某地”,人 还未回来。如: Has he gone to Qingdao?他去青岛了吗? (2)have/has been to 强调“去过某地”,人已经回来了。如: She has been to Shanghai before. 她以前曾经去过上海。 (3)have/has been in 强调“一直待在某地”,常与一段时间 连用。如: He has been in Shanghai for ten years. 他在上海十年了。

3.现在完成时和一般过去时的区别 (1)现在完成时强调过去动作产生的结果对现在的影响,与 现在有关;一般过去时仅强调在过去某一时刻曾经发生的动作,

与现在无关。如: He has studied English for five years.
他学英语五年了。(说明他现在还在学) He studied English for five years.

他曾学过五年英语。(只说明他过去学过五年英语,但现在
学不学就不知道了) (2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时常

与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

被动语态 动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主 语是谓语动作的执行者;被动语态则表示主语是谓语动作的承 受者。中考考纲只要求考生掌握一般现在时、一般过去时、一 般将来时及含有情态动词的被动语态。 被动语态的构成

1.一般现在时的被动语态:
肯定句:主语+am/is/are+过去分词+?? 否定句:主语+am/is/are+not+过去分词+??

一般疑问句:Am/Is/Are+主语+过去分词+???

2.一般过去时的被动语态: 肯定句:主语+was/were+过去分词+?? 否定句:主语+was/were+not+过去分词+?? 一般疑问句:Was/Were+主语+过去分词+??? 3.一般将来时的被动语态: 肯定句:主语+will/shall+be+过去分词+?? 否定句:主语+will/shall+not+be+过去分词+?? 一般疑问句:Will/Shall+主语+be+过去分词+??? 4.含有情态动词的被动语态: 肯定句:主语+情态动词+be+过去分词+?? 否定句:主语+情态动词+not+be+过去分词+?? 一般疑问句:情态动词+主语+be+过去分词+???

被动语态的用法 1.当不知道或没必要说明动作的执行者时,用被动语态。 如:
Some new computers were stolen last night. 一些新电脑昨晚被盗了。 This bridge was founded in 1981. 这座桥于 1981 年竣工。 2.需强调或突出动作的承受者时常用被动语态。此时动作 的执行者由 by 引导且置于谓语动词之后,也可省略。如: The glass was broken by Mike. 玻璃杯是迈克打碎的。 This book was written by him.这本书是他写的。

3.当动作的执行者不是人时,多用被动语态。如:
The whole village has been washed away by the flood.整个村 庄都被洪水冲走了。 The window was blown open by wind. 窗户被风吹开了。 4.表示客观的说明常用“It is+过去分词+that 从句”句 型。这类句型有: It is said that...据说?? It is known to all that...众所周知?? It is reported that...据报道??

It is believed that...大家相信??

5.为了使句子简练,上下文紧凑、连贯,常使用被动语态。 如: Apples are good for health and are liked by almost everyone.

苹果对健康有益,几乎被所有人喜欢。 When he was five, he was taught how to swim.
五岁的时候,他就被教会如何游泳。

6.文章的标题、广告、新闻等用语也常使用被动语态。如:
Teachers Wanted.招聘老师。(省略 are) Road Blocked.道路堵塞。(省略 is) 注意:不及物动词(短语)happen/take place, appear, disappear,

come true, come out 等无被动语态。

主动语态表示被动意义 1 .系动词 look, sound, smell, taste, seem, turn, get, become 等的主动结构表示被动意义(系动词无被动式)。如: The idea sounds great.这主意听起来不错。 The flowers look beautiful.这些花看起来很漂亮。 2.动词不定式作定语时常用主动形式表示被动意义。如: I have a lot of homework to do every day. 我每天都有很多作业要做。 I have a letter to write.我有一封信要写。 3.need doing (=need to be done)用主动形式表示被动意义。 如: Our house needs painting. =Our house needs to be painted. 我们的房子需要粉刷了。

( C )1.(2011 年广东)—Alan, it's late.Why not go to bed? —Jenny hasn't come back yet.I ________ for her. A.waited C.am waiting 示现在,故用现在进行时。 B.have waited D.was waiting

解析:由题意可知是“正在等她”,且由“it's late”可知表

( D )2.(2011 年广东)People who drink wine ________ to drive after May Day. A.don't allow B.isn't allowed

C.mustn't allow
D.mustn't be allowed 解析:题意:“5.1”节之后喝了酒的人不(可以)被允许开车。

由题意可知应用被动语态,B 项主谓不一致,故选 D。

( D )3.(2011 年广东)Our math teacher ________ in our school for 20 years and he ________ here when he was 23 years old. A.has taught; has come B.taught; comes C.taught; came D.has taught; came

解析:题意:我们数学老师在我们学校教书 20 年了,当他
23 岁的时候他就来到这里了。由 for 20 years 可知,动作从 20 年前持续到现在,故要用现在完成时;由“when he was 23 years old”时间状语从句可知,动作发生在 23 岁时,故要用一般过去 时。选 D。

( C )4.(2011 年广东广州)Yesterday evening, I ______ along the street when I suddenly met my maths teacher. A.walk C.was walking B.walked D.am walking

解析:题意:昨天晚上我正沿着街道散步,突然遇到我的 数学老师。“散步”这个动作是遇到老师时正在进行的,故用 过去进行时。

( C )5.(2011 年广东佛山)The Chinese Culture Day ________ in New York City on April 20th, 2011. A.celebrated B.is celebrated

C.was celebrated
解析:“on April 20th, 2011”表示的是过去时间,celebrate 与 the Chinese Culture Day 是动宾关系,故用一般过去时的被动语 态。

( A )6.(2011 年 广 东 佛 山 )Most of the sandstorms in our country ________ in spring, from March to May. A.happen B.happens C.is happening 解析:由时间状语“in spring, from March to May”可知时态 是一般现在时,且主语为复数,故选 A。 ( C )7.(2011 年 广 东 佛 山 )The Guangzhou Tower ________

thousands of tourists since it was open to the public.
A.attracts 现在完成时。 B.attracted C.has attracted

解析:由时间状语“since it was open to the public”可知应用

( D )8.(2011 年广东深圳)—When should I hand in my paper? —Your paper must ________ as soon as the bell ________.
A.hand in; rings B.hand in; will ring C.be handed in; will ring D.be handed in; rings 解析:hand in 与 paper 之间是动宾关系,故第一空用被动 语态;as soon as 引导的时间状语从句中,从句用一般现在时表 示将来,故选 D。

( D )9.(2011 年广东梅州)The boss made him work 14 hours a day.That means, he ________ work 14 hours a day.

A.was made
C.was making

B.made
D.was made to

解析:由前一句可知“他被迫每天工作 14 个小时”,且前

一句的谓语动词 made 是一般过去时,故用一般过去时的被动
故选 D。

语态。make sb.do 的被动语态要加上省略的 to,即 be made to do。

( A )10.(2011 年广东肇庆)—Your classroom is very clean. —Yes, it ________ every day. A.is cleaned B.cleans C.is cleaning 解析:由时间状语 every day 可知要用一般现在时,且 it(即 your classroom)是 clean 这一动作的承担者,故用一般现在时的 被动语态,选 A。 ( B )11.(2011 年广东肇庆)You are too late.The film ________ since half an hour ago. A.has begun B.has been on C.began 解析:由时间状语 since half an hour ago 可知用现在完成时, 且 begin 为短暂性动词,不能与一段时间连用,故用 be on。选

B。

( D )12.(2011 年 广 东 清 远 )Echo ________ for half a month.She'll come back in two months.

A.left
C.has left

B.leave
D.has been away

解析:时间状语 for half a month 为一段时间,故谓语动词 要用延续性动词;且由后一句“她将两个月后回来”说明已经 离开,应用现在完成时态。故选 D。

( B )13.(2010 年广东)Robert with his two kids ______ to the beach for vacation every year.
A.go B.goes

C.went

D.are going

解析:由时间状语 every year 可知用一般现在时;句中的 “with his two kids”为伴随状语,主语为前面的 Robert,故谓语 动词只能用第三人称单数 goes。

( C )14.(2010 年广东)—Do you know her well?
—Sure.We ________ friends since ten years ago. A.were C.have been B.have made D.have become

解析:根据后面的 since ten years ago 可知用现在完成时, 且 make 和 become 均为短暂性动词,不能与一段时间连用,故 用 have been。

( D )15.(2010 年 广 东 )The 16th Asian Games ________ in Guangzhou in November, 2010. A.holds C.was held B.will hold D.will be held

解析:由时间状语“in November, 2010”可知要用将来时态,

且 Asian Games 是 hold 这一动作的承担者,故用一般将来时的
被动语态。选 D。

( A )16.(2010 年 广 东 深 圳 )—Have you ever ________ Australia? —Yes, I have.It's really interesting ________ with kangaroos. A.been to; to play B.gone to; played C.been to; play D.gone to; playing 解析:题意:“你曾经去过澳大利亚吗?”“是的。跟袋

鼠一起玩真的很有趣。”由题意可知表示“去过某地”,现在
已经回来了,故用 have been to;固定句型 it is interesting to do sth. 意为“做某事很有趣”。

( B )17.(2010 年广东梅州)—May I speak to John? —Sorry, he ________ Japan.But he ________ in two days. A.has been to; will come back

B.has gone to; will be back
C.has been in; would come back D.has gone to; won't come back

解析:由答语可知“去日本了还没回来”,可知要用 has
gone to;由时间状语 in two days 及题意可知要用一般将来时的 肯定式,故选 B。

( C )18.(2010 年 广 东 肇 庆 )According to the library rules, books ________ for two weeks at most. A.can be borrowed B.can keep C.can be kept 解析:borrow 是短暂性动词,不能与 for two weeks 连用, 故要用延续性动词 keep; keep 与 books 是动宾关系,故用被动 语态,选 C。 ( B )19.(2010 年广东广州)—Excuse me, what's this for? —It's a cleaner and it ________ to pick up dirt. A.uses B.is used C.is using D.used 解析:it(指 cleaner)与 use 之间是动宾关系,故用被动语态。

( A )20.(2010 年广东湛江)—I heard that Mr.Brown died last year. —Yes, he has ________ for a year, but we still miss him. A.been dead B.death C.died D.dying 解析:由 for a year 可知要用延续性动词,故用 been dead; death 为名词,dying 为现在分词,均不符合。 ( C )21.(2010 年广东佛山)I ________ my work today.Let's go
for a coffee. A.finish B.will finish C.have finished 解析:由后一句“我们去喝杯咖啡吧”可知“我已经完成 了工作”,故用现在完成时。

( B )22.(2010 年 广 东 佛 山 )Experts ________ to make suggestions to help the city develop. A.will invite C.have invited B.are invited

解析:experts 与 invite 之间是动宾关系,故用被动语态。


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