语态(voice)是个语法范畴，它是一种动词形 式，表示动词的主语与该动词所表示的动作之 间的主动和被动关系。当主语是动作的执行者 时，动词用主动语态（Active Voice）；如果 主语是动作的承受者，动词便用被动语态 （Passive Voice）。 We cleaned the classroom yesterday. 昨天我们打扫了教室。 The classroom w
as cleaned by us yesterday. 昨天教室被我们打扫了。
动词的被动语态由“助动词be+及物动 词的过去分词”构成。当主动句变为被 动句时，原来的宾语变成了主语，原来 的主语变成了介词by 的宾语。主动句与 被动句的结构虽然不同，但动作的执行 者和承受者的关系并没有改变。
is regarded as a briliant. ? The book was written in 1969. ? The broken bike is being repaired now. ? He told us that the cat was being washed when we called him. ? The pen has been washed for several years. ? He said the factory had been opened. ? The work will be finished in three hours. ? The boy must be looked after well.
一般现在时： am / is / are done 一般过去时： was / were done 现在进行时： am / is / are being done 过去进行时： was / were being done 现在完成时： have / has been done 过去完成时： had been done 一般将来时： shall / will be done ; be going to be done 当句中含有情态动词时，句子结构为 can / must / have to…be done
在被动句中有时用by- 词组，有时不用。一般 来说，当动作的执行者为谁不甚清楚，不甚重 要或难以说出时，通常不用by。但有时为了强 调动作执行者或者由于上下和结构上的需要则 必须使用 by 词组。例如： Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. 《哈姆雷特》是莎士比亚写的。
(一) 主动句与被动句的转换 1．含有单宾语的主动句的转换： People speak English almost all over the world. 世界各地都有人讲英语。 English is spoken almost all over the world.
1) 用先行的it作形式主语，把宾语从句变成后置的 主语从句； 2) 把宾语从句里的主语变成被动句的主语，同时把 宾语从句中的谓语变成不定式短语。
People believe that he is an honest boy. 大家认为他 是个诚实的孩子。
It is believed that he is an honest boy. The boy is believed to be an honest one.
I gave the book to Mr. Smith yesterday. 昨天我给了史密斯先生一本书。
The book was given to Mr. Smith yesterday ( by me). Mr. Smith was given a book yesterday (by me).
3. 含有介词动词的主动句的转换。 They have never listened to him. 人家从不听 他的话。 He has never been listened to.
一. 主动形式表被动的含义: 1、 Need, want, require（要求，需要）, deserve (应 得，值得), be worth (值得），not bear (经不住) 后面 接doing主动表被动。 The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。
The old building requires repairing. 这座古建筑需要 修了。 These young seedlings will require/need looking after (=need to be looked after) carefully.? 这些幼苗将需要小心的照管。 Your hair wants/needs cutting (needs to be cut).? 你的头发该剪了。?
2、不定式作定语，放在被修饰词后面，与前面被修饰 的名词或代词有动宾关系，又在句子中与另一名词或 代词有主谓关系，不定式要用主动表被动含义。 I have much work to do. 我有许多要做的事情。 （与work有动宾关系，与I有主谓关系） Tom is looking for a room to live in. Tom在找一间住的房间。 （与room有动宾关系，与Tom 有主谓关系）
He has a family to support.? 他要维持一个家庭。 （与family有动宾关系，与he有主谓关系）
3、不定式修饰作表语和宾语补足语的形容词时，结构： 主语+系动词+形容词 + 不定式； 动词+宾语+形容词+不 定式。如果形容词是表示难易、利弊等含义，如 difficult, easy, comfortable, convenient, hard, cheap, expensive等，不定式用主动表被动。 The question is difficult to answer. 这个问题很难回答。 The work is easy to do. 这项工作很好做。 I found the car comfortable to ride in. 我觉得这种车很好坐。 That makes poetry difficult to write. 那就使得诗很难写。
4、在be to do sth结构中, 这种结构中的不定式通常应 用主动表被动。下列动词用不定式的主动形式表示被 动意义:? Who is to blame for starting the fire?? 这场火灾应由谁负责?? You are to blame for the accident. 你应为这事受动责备。 The house is to let. 此房出租。? ?
5、系动词没有被动形式,但有些系动词常表示被动意义。 常见的有taste(吃起来), sound (听起来), prove(证明 是), feel(摸上去感到), look(看起来)，smell(闻起来)等, 例如:? Your reason sounds reasonable.? 你的理由听起来很合理。? Good medicine tastes bitter to the mouth.? 良药苦口。?
7、一些动词如sell (销售) , wash (洗), clean (打扫), burn (燃烧), cook (煮)等与副词如well (好), easily (容 易地), perfectly (十分地)等连用 ,描会事物的特性，用 主动表被动，结构是主语+动词+加副词。例如:? The book sells well.?这种书很畅销。? These clothes wash easily.?这些衣服很易洗。? The pen writes well. 这笔很好写。 8、在“there be”句型中作主语的定语如果现在分词时， 所用的现在分词要用主动表被动意义。 There is nothing doing these days. 这些天没事干。 I see there’s a good idea planning. 我知道又在打好主意。
有些情况下动词的主动形式也可以表示被动意义。 一、表示“开始”；“结束”类的动词。常见 的这类动词有begin, start, open, close, end, finish, stop等。例如： School begins in September. The stores in this area open later at weekends than at weekdays. 二、主语是物，谓语是表示主语特征或属性 的动词。常见的这类动词有write, read, wear, wash, clean, sell, run, lock等。这些动词常 与副词或否定词连用。例如：
The machine runs well. This pen writes quite smoothly. The bookshelf hardly sells. 三、表示主语状态特征的连系动词：look, feel, smell, taste, sound, prove, appear等。 例如： —Do you like the material? —Yes, it ________ very soft. C A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt Your idea sounds reasonable. What he said proved to be correct.
1.It suddenly snowed while Mary ____for the bus. C
A.waited B.waits C.was waiting D.was waited
2.A big power station______in my home town now. B
A.has been built B.is being built C.has built D.is building .
3.Stamps______by people for sending letters. D
A.use B.using C.used D.are used. 4.Must old people_____to politely? D A.speak B.spoken C.be spoke D.be spoken
5.Bike mustn’t_____everywhere. B
A.be up B.be put C.put C.putting
A 6.The woman fell off the bike and ____on the road.
A.lay B.was lain C.lied D.has lain
7.The old man and the children_____in our country. D
A.must take good care B.must be take good care of
C.must take good care of Dmust be taken good care of
8.Granny Wang told the little children that the sun___ C From the east.A.has risenB.rise C.rises D.is risen
D 9.All trees must_____well when it is dry. A.be water B.watering C.water D.be watered 10.__I think the shop_____________. D __No,it’s open. It_____________at six. A. closed; closed B.closed ;will be closed C.closed;closes D. is closed;closes
D 11.This bike is made in America. It’s____for travelling.
A.use B.using C.to use D.used
1.The key B __for locking the classroom door. A.uses B. is used C.is using D.use 2.A new school B __over there in two years. A.may built B.may be built C. is built 3. He was made B __yesterday. A.cry B.to cry C.crying D.to be cried 4.The PRC__on C October 1,1949. A.was found B. is found C.was founded D.is founded 5.A talk on Chinese history__in C the school hall next week. A.is given B.has been given C.will be given D. will give
Exercises: 一.选择填空: C of glass. 1. Windows_____ A.be made B. is made C. are made D. been made C in 2004. 2. The house_____ A.is built B. is building C. was built D. used A for keeping warm. 3. A coat can_____ A.be used B. is used C. been used D. used
A Shanghai last long. Watches____ ? A. are made in B. is made ? C. are made from D. made A wood. ? 5. This desk is made _____ ? A. of B. from C. in D. by D the old days. ? 6. The things on show were ____ ? A. used B. used to C. used for D. used in ? 7. Silk _____ A in Suzhou and Hangzhou. ? A. is produced B. are produced ? C. produced D. is produces
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