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语态(voice)是个语法范畴,它是一种动词形 式,表示动词的主语与该动词所表示的动作之 间的主动和被动关系。当主语是动作的执行者 时,动词用主动语态(Active Voice);如果 主语是动作的承受者,动词便用被动语态 (Passive Voice)。 We cleaned the classroom yesterday. 昨天我们打扫了教室。 The classroom w

as cleaned by us yesterday. 昨天教室被我们打扫了。

动词的被动语态由“助动词be+及物动 词的过去分词”构成。当主动句变为被 动句时,原来的宾语变成了主语,原来 的主语变成了介词by 的宾语。主动句与 被动句的结构虽然不同,但动作的执行 者和承受者的关系并没有改变。

? He

is regarded as a briliant. ? The book was written in 1969. ? The broken bike is being repaired now. ? He told us that the cat was being washed when we called him. ? The pen has been washed for several years. ? He said the factory had been opened. ? The work will be finished in three hours. ? The boy must be looked after well.

一般现在时: am / is / are done 一般过去时: was / were done 现在进行时: am / is / are being done 过去进行时: was / were being done 现在完成时: have / has been done 过去完成时: had been done 一般将来时: shall / will be done ; be going to be done 当句中含有情态动词时,句子结构为 can / must / have to…be done

在被动句中有时用by- 词组,有时不用。一般 来说,当动作的执行者为谁不甚清楚,不甚重 要或难以说出时,通常不用by。但有时为了强 调动作执行者或者由于上下和结构上的需要则 必须使用 by 词组。例如: Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. 《哈姆雷特》是莎士比亚写的。

(一) 主动句与被动句的转换 1.含有单宾语的主动句的转换: People speak English almost all over the world. 世界各地都有人讲英语。 English is spoken almost all over the world.

当主动句的宾语是that引导的宾语从句, 可转换为两种形式的被动句。
1) 用先行的it作形式主语,把宾语从句变成后置的 主语从句; 2) 把宾语从句里的主语变成被动句的主语,同时把 宾语从句中的谓语变成不定式短语。

People believe that he is an honest boy. 大家认为他 是个诚实的孩子。
It is believed that he is an honest boy. The boy is believed to be an honest one.

I gave the book to Mr. Smith yesterday. 昨天我给了史密斯先生一本书。
The book was given to Mr. Smith yesterday ( by me). Mr. Smith was given a book yesterday (by me).

3. 含有介词动词的主动句的转换。 They have never listened to him. 人家从不听 他的话。 He has never been listened to.

高考英语中主 动表被动现象

一. 主动形式表被动的含义: 1、 Need, want, require(要求,需要), deserve (应 得,值得), be worth (值得),not bear (经不住) 后面 接doing主动表被动。 The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

The old building requires repairing. 这座古建筑需要 修了。 These young seedlings will require/need looking after (=need to be looked after) carefully.? 这些幼苗将需要小心的照管。 Your hair wants/needs cutting (needs to be cut).? 你的头发该剪了。?

2、不定式作定语,放在被修饰词后面,与前面被修饰 的名词或代词有动宾关系,又在句子中与另一名词或 代词有主谓关系,不定式要用主动表被动含义。 I have much work to do. 我有许多要做的事情。 (与work有动宾关系,与I有主谓关系) Tom is looking for a room to live in. Tom在找一间住的房间。 (与room有动宾关系,与Tom 有主谓关系)

He has a family to support.? 他要维持一个家庭。 (与family有动宾关系,与he有主谓关系)

3、不定式修饰作表语和宾语补足语的形容词时,结构: 主语+系动词+形容词 + 不定式; 动词+宾语+形容词+不 定式。如果形容词是表示难易、利弊等含义,如 difficult, easy, comfortable, convenient, hard, cheap, expensive等,不定式用主动表被动。 The question is difficult to answer. 这个问题很难回答。 The work is easy to do. 这项工作很好做。 I found the car comfortable to ride in. 我觉得这种车很好坐。 That makes poetry difficult to write. 那就使得诗很难写。

4、在be to do sth结构中, 这种结构中的不定式通常应 用主动表被动。下列动词用不定式的主动形式表示被 动意义:? Who is to blame for starting the fire?? 这场火灾应由谁负责?? You are to blame for the accident. 你应为这事受动责备。 The house is to let. 此房出租。? ?

5、系动词没有被动形式,但有些系动词常表示被动意义。 常见的有taste(吃起来), sound (听起来), prove(证明 是), feel(摸上去感到), look(看起来),smell(闻起来)等, 例如:? Your reason sounds reasonable.? 你的理由听起来很合理。? Good medicine tastes bitter to the mouth.? 良药苦口。?

7、一些动词如sell (销售) , wash (洗), clean (打扫), burn (燃烧), cook (煮)等与副词如well (好), easily (容 易地), perfectly (十分地)等连用 ,描会事物的特性,用 主动表被动,结构是主语+动词+加副词。例如:? The book sells well.?这种书很畅销。? These clothes wash easily.?这些衣服很易洗。? The pen writes well. 这笔很好写。 8、在“there be”句型中作主语的定语如果现在分词时, 所用的现在分词要用主动表被动意义。 There is nothing doing these days. 这些天没事干。 I see there’s a good idea planning. 我知道又在打好主意。

有些情况下动词的主动形式也可以表示被动意义。 一、表示“开始”;“结束”类的动词。常见 的这类动词有begin, start, open, close, end, finish, stop等。例如: School begins in September. The stores in this area open later at weekends than at weekdays. 二、主语是物,谓语是表示主语特征或属性 的动词。常见的这类动词有write, read, wear, wash, clean, sell, run, lock等。这些动词常 与副词或否定词连用。例如:

The machine runs well. This pen writes quite smoothly. The bookshelf hardly sells. 三、表示主语状态特征的连系动词:look, feel, smell, taste, sound, prove, appear等。 例如: —Do you like the material? —Yes, it ________ very soft. C A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt Your idea sounds reasonable. What he said proved to be correct.


1.It suddenly snowed while Mary ____for the bus. C
A.waited B.waits C.was waiting D.was waited

2.A big power station______in my home town now. B
A.has been built B.is being built C.has built D.is building .

3.Stamps______by people for sending letters. D
A.use B.using C.used D.are used. 4.Must old people_____to politely? D A.speak B.spoken C.be spoke D.be spoken

5.Bike mustn’t_____everywhere. B
A.be up B.be put C.put C.putting

A 6.The woman fell off the bike and ____on the road.
A.lay B.was lain C.lied D.has lain

7.The old man and the children_____in our country. D
A.must take good care B.must be take good care of

C.must take good care of Dmust be taken good care of
8.Granny Wang told the little children that the sun___ C From the east.A.has risenB.rise C.rises D.is risen

D 9.All trees must_____well when it is dry. A.be water B.watering C.water D.be watered 10.__I think the shop_____________. D __No,it’s open. It_____________at six. A. closed; closed B.closed ;will be closed C.closed;closes D. is closed;closes

D 11.This bike is made in America. It’s____for travelling.
A.use B.using C.to use D.used

1.The key B __for locking the classroom door. A.uses B. is used C.is using D.use 2.A new school B __over there in two years. A.may built B.may be built C. is built 3. He was made B __yesterday. A.cry B.to cry C.crying D.to be cried 4.The PRC__on C October 1,1949. A.was found B. is found C.was founded D.is founded 5.A talk on Chinese history__in C the school hall next week. A.is given B.has been given C.will be given D. will give

Exercises: 一.选择填空: C of glass. 1. Windows_____ A.be made B. is made C. are made D. been made C in 2004. 2. The house_____ A.is built B. is building C. was built D. used A for keeping warm. 3. A coat can_____ A.be used B. is used C. been used D. used

A Shanghai last long. Watches____ ? A. are made in B. is made ? C. are made from D. made A wood. ? 5. This desk is made _____ ? A. of B. from C. in D. by D the old days. ? 6. The things on show were ____ ? A. used B. used to C. used for D. used in ? 7. Silk _____ A in Suzhou and Hangzhou. ? A. is produced B. are produced ? C. produced D. is produces
? 4.



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