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John Snow Defeats King Cholera Reading


Unit 1

Great scientists
Warming up

Guessing game

Who are they?

Who is he?
He has made a famous kite experiment.

He learned a lot from it and invented lightning rod (避雷针). He is … Benjamin Franklin
Never leave that until tomorrow, which you can do today.


Who is he?
He is called the greatest scientist in the 20th century. He is famous for the Theory of Relativity.

He is … Albert Einstein
Imagination is more important than knowledge

Who is he?
He made the first telescope in the world. His observations show that the earth moves around the sun. He is …Galileo Galilei
You cannot teach a man anything. You can only help him find it within himself. 你不可能把一切都教给一个人,你只能帮助 他从内心去发现(和了解)事物。

What do you know about great scientists? Try this quiz and find out who knows the most.

1.Which scientist discovered that objects in water are lifted up by a force that helps them float?

Archimedes (287-212 BC) an ancient Greek mathematician & physicist

2. Who wrote a book explaining how animals and plants developed as

the environment changed? Charles Darwin (1808-1882) British author of The Origin of Species

3. Who invented the first steam engine?

Thomas Newcomen

4.Who used peas to show how physical characteristics are passed from parents to their children?

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Czech (捷克人)

5. Who discovered radium?
Nothing in life is to be feared. It is only to be understood.
生活中没有什么可怕的东西, 只有需要理解的东西。

Marie Curie

The power of radium

6. Who invented the way of giving electricity to everybody in large cities? Thomas Alva Edison
Genius is one percent inspiration and ninetynine percent perspiration.
天才就是百分之九十九的汗水加上 百分之一的灵感。

The Inventions of Thomas Edison

Phonograph (留声机)


Motion Pictures(电影)

7.Who was the painter that studied dead bodies to improve his painting of people?

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Italian artist

Mona Lisa

Last Supper

8.Who invented a lamp to keep miners safe underground?

Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829)British

Miniature(小型的) Miner's Safety Lamp

the Safety Lamp

9.Who invented the earliest instrument to tell people where earthquakes happened?


Zhang Heng

10.Who put forward a theory about black hole?

A Brief History of Time

Stephen Hawking (1942---)British

made a great contribution. made great achievements. succeeded in their scientific career. overcome many difficulties.

enthusiastic Co-operative


common characteristics



Match the names and what they famous for.
遗传学 电 浮力定理 镭 进化论 画家 蒸汽机 矿工安全灯 黑洞理论 地动仪

阿基米德 Archimedes 达尔文 Charles Darwin 纽可门 Thomas Newcomen 孟德尔 Gregor Mendel 居里夫人 Marie Curie 爱迪生 Thomas Edison 达芬奇 Leonardo de Vinci 汉弗来.戴维爵士 Sir Humphry Davy 张衡 Zhang Heng 斯蒂芬.霍金 Stephen Hawking

Language Points 1. discover & invent invent v. 发明, 发明原先不存在的东西 Who invented the steam engine? 谁发明了蒸汽机? discover v. 发现, 探索或揭示早就客观 存在着事物 Columbus discovered America in 1492. 哥伦布于1492年发现了美洲。 Who discovered radium? 谁发现了镭?

2. explain explain sb. sth. (F) explain sth. to sb. (T) 3. characteristic n./adj. Some genetic characteristics are not obvious. The two groups of children have quite different characteristics. Forgetfulness is often characteristic of aged people. 特有的,典型的

4. pass sth from… 从…处传来, 传下 pass by 路过, 经过… pass down 把…传下来 pass on 传递, 传授 passed from their ancestors. 1)The tradition is ___________ 2) This spirit should be passed ______ down from

generation to generation.
3) Pass the letter ___ on to the person next to you . by and never notice 4) So many people pass ___ the change.

5.Who invented the way of giving electricity to everybody in large cities? 是谁发明了把电带给大城市中的每个人的办法? the way of doing sth.= the way to do … “做…..的方法” She showed us the way of cleaning it.= She showed us the way to clean it. 她给我们示范清洗它的办法. the way引导的定语从句的引导词有三种, 可以用that; 可以用in which; 还可以省略.

I don’t like the way _______________ (that/ in which) you speak to your father. 我不喜欢你跟你父亲讲话的方式. 与way相关的短语: by the way 顺便说 by way of … 通过…的方法 lose one’s way 迷路 no way (俚语)没门, 别想 feel one’s way 摸黑走, 谨慎从事 on one’s way to… 在去…的路上 in this way=by this means=with this method 用这种方法

6.Who put forward a theory about black holes? 谁提出了黑洞的理论? put forward (1) 提出(建议等) (2) 推荐某人或自己任职位; 提名 我能否提名你当我们的班长? May I put your name forward as our monitor? The match has been put forward to 1:30.


他在会议上提出了一个计划。 He put forward a plan at the meeting. 他们把婚礼的日期提前了一周。 They put forward the date of their wedding by one week. 我们将把讲座的日期提前/延期到9月9号。 We’ll put forward/put off the date of the lecture to September 9th.

Their wedding has been called off(取消).

put away 抛弃;舍弃 put down 写下来; 记入名单 put on 穿上; 戴上; 增加 put off 耽误; 延期 put out 熄灭(灯); 扑灭 (火) put up 建立; 建造 put up with… 忍受… You can take anything from the shelf and read, but please ______ the books when C you’ve finished with them. A. put on B. put down C. put back D. put off


Unit 1

Great scientists


1.What impresses you most in 2003?

Which person impresses you most during the SARS?

What other infectious diseases do you know?
For example: When you eat some food that is not fresh……

You may feel……

Maybe you have got ________. Cholera

How to prove a new idea in scientific research?

find a problem make a question

draw a conclusion think of a method collect results make a question find a problem analyse the results find supporting evidence

think of a method
collect results analyse the results

find supporting evidence
draw a conclusion

John Snow defeats “King cholera”

John Snow defeats “king cholera”
What can you learn from the title? 人物: 事件:

defeats cholera

Who is John Snow?

attended her as her personal physician

Queen Victoria

John Snow 约翰.斯诺(1813 ~ 1858), 英国麻醉学家、

预防霍乱的措施。1854年, 伦敦霍乱流行, 斯诺通过研究


关系, 由于及时切断了二者 的联系, 有效制止了霍乱的


Four outbreaks of cholera in the 1830s and 1840s killed many people in England. In 1854, “the most terrible outbreak of cholera which ever occurred in the kingdom” began. It was so violent and sudden that 127 people died in the first three days.

The terrible cholera

Bacteria / germs of cholera

Name of illness Symptom(症状)

cholera (霍乱) severe vomiting (呕吐) and diarrhoea (腹泻) die quickly from a loss of liquid


What was the cause of this illness? How did John Snow find it out?

Skim the text and find the main idea of the text. The passage is mainly about: _______________________________ How John Snow found the cause of the cholera and defeated it. ________________________


Read the passage quickly and find the number below and the relevant happenings

in the passage.

The first suggested that…multiplied Two theories

in the air; The second suggested…
absorbed this disease into their bodies

with their meals. In 1854
Another outbreak hit London.

500 , 10

More than 500 people had died in 10 days.

16, 37, 38 and 40 20, 21; 8, 9

These numbers in Broad Street near the water pump had many of the deaths
20 and 21 Broad Street and 8 and 9 Cambridge Street had no deaths…. They didn’t drink the water from the Broad Street pump. These families worked in the pub at 7 Cambridge Street.


John Snow's Cholera Map
16 pump 37 38 40

7 8 9

What is the problem?
The cholera was the most deadly disease of its day. Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood.

What caused cholera?

Make a question: Which theory to believe in?
Cholera multiplied in the air without reason. A cloud of dangerous gas would float around until it found its victims. People absorbed it with their meals.

Which one do you believe more? What about John Snow?

What method did he use?
Public house

Many deaths happened here. A map of Broad No death happened here.


It seemed the water from the pump was to blame. What did he do next?

(Para 5) He looked into the source of the water…
(Para 6) What was another supporting evidence?

John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus.

Read the passage and number these events in the order that they happened.


John Snow began to test two theories.

1 An outbreak of cholera hit London in 1854. 4 John Snow marked the deaths on a map. 7 He announced that the water carried the disease.

3 8 5 6

John Snow investigated two streets where the outbreak was very severe.
King Cholera was defeated. He found that most of the deaths were near a water pump. He had the handle removed from the water pump.

Fill in the blanks.
Paragraph Stages in an experiment Example in this investigation

1 2

Find a problem
Make a question Think of a method

What cause cholera? Which theory is correct? Collect data on those who were ill or died and where they got their water.


4 5 6

Collect results Analyse results find supporting evidence Draw a conclusion

Plot information on a map to find out where people died or did not die.
Analyse the water to see if that is the cause of the illness. Find other evidence to support the analysis. The water is to blame. The source of all drinking water should be examined so that it is safe.


Match them
Para 1 Para 2 Para 3 Para 4
Para 5

find a problem make a question
think of a method

collect results
analyse the results repeat if necessary draw a conclusion
Prevention of Cholera

Para 6
Para 7

Read and answer the questions. 1. John Snow believed Idea 2 was right. How did he finally prove it?
KEY: John Snow finally proved his idea because he found an outbreak that was clearly related to cholera, collected information and was able to tie cases outside the area to the polluted water.

2. Do you think John Snow would have solved this problem without the map? Give a reason.
KEY: No. The map helped John Snow organize his ideas. He was able to identify those households that had many deaths and check their waterdrinking habits. He identified those houses that had no deaths and surveyed their drinking habits. The evidence clearly pointed to the polluted water being the cause.

3. Cholera was a 19th century disease. What disease do you think is similar to cholera today?
KEY: Four diseases, which are similar today, are SARS, AIDS, TB(肺结核) and bird-flu, because they are both very serious, have an unknown cause and need public health care to solve them.

Choose the best answer. 1. The passage mainly tells us that ____. D A. the cause of cholera was polluted water B. John Snow was a well-known doctor in London C. the source of all drinking water should be examined D. John Snow did some research and helped to solve “King Cholera”

2. What was the key help for John Snow’s discovery? D A. The government. B. The woman moving away from Broad Street. C. The water company. D. The map made by himself.

John Snow was a well-known ______ doctor in 19th century. He wanted London in the _____ to find the ______ cause of cholera in order

to ______ defeat it. In 1854 when a cholera
______ broke out, he began to gather information.

He _________ marked on a map where all the dead

people had lived and he found that many
people who had drunk the dirty water from pump died. So he decided that the polluted the ______ water carried cholera. He suggested that the

_______ source of all water supply be __________ examined
and new methods of ________ dealing with polluted

water be found. Finally, “King Cholera” was

Drink boiled water Wash hands often What should we pay attention to in our daily life in order not to get infected cholera? Keep with away from flies choose fresh sea food

Keep the kitchen clean
Cook raw food thoroughly Dispose rubbish properly.

Heal the food left overnight

Language points
1. know about 了解有关….的情况 know of 听说过

1)有些事我想了解一下。 There is something I want to know about.
2)我听说过那件事, 但不很清楚。 I know of it , but I didn’t know it well.

2. conclude: v. 作结论, 断定 The jury concluded that he was guilty. 陪审团认定他有罪。 to conclude: 总而言之, 总之 To conclude, I want to thank you for your help. conclusion: n. 结论
得出结论 arrive at draw/reach come to

a conclusion

1) 那些都是事实, 你能从中得出什么结论?

Those are the facts; what do you conclude from them? 2) 我得出结论你在说谎。
I came to/drew /reached the conclusion the conclusion that you were lying. 3)根据这些事实, 我们能对金字塔是如何 建成的得出一些结论。 From these facts, we can draw some conclusions about how the pyramids were built.

3. defeat v./ n. 击败, 战胜 He defeated the champion in three sets. His words completely defeated me. 使困惑 The Party faces defeat in the election. win / beat /defeat

win “赢得, 获胜”, 后接奖品, 奖金, 名誉, 财产
beat “击败, 战胜”, 后接竞争队伍或者对手, 敌人

defeat “击败,战胜”, 后接竞争队伍或者
对手, 敌人, (此用法同beat), 疾病等。

1) Mary _____ won the first place in the competition. beat / defeated their school 2) Our school _______________ at football. beat / defeated John at chess yesterday. 3) I ________________ 4. John Snow was a famous doctor in London-so expert, indeed, that be attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician. 约翰.斯诺曾经是一位著名的医生--他的确 医术精湛,因而成了维多利亚女王的私人大夫。

1) expert n. 专家; 高手; 权威 an agricultural expert 农业专家 an expert with the computer 电脑高手 expert 也可以作形容词, “熟练的; 老练的;

an expert rider 熟练的骑手 an expert opinion 内行的意见

2) attend v. ①注意, 留意 如: We’ll attend to the solution of that problem later. ②照看, 照料 如: The doctor attended (on / upon) the patients. 医生照看病人。 ③出席, 到场 如: attend school 上学 attend a lecture 听讲座 attend church 去教堂 attend (at) a wedding 出席婚礼

attend to ①处理, 办理 我有许多事情要处理。 I have some important things to attend to. ②照顾, 照料 先生, 有人接待你吗? Are you being attended to ? If you go out, I’ll attend to the baby. ③专心, 注意 If you don’t attend to the teacher, you’ll never learn anything. attendance n. 照顾, 出席

5. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. exposed to cholera 在句子中是过去分词用作 后置定语, 表示被动, 意为 “患霍乱的”。如: The book written by LuXun is very popular. 鲁迅写的书是很受欢迎的。 The man seen by us yesterday is Professor Smith. 昨天我们看见的那个人是史密斯先生。


adj. 暴露的, 暴露于风雨中的, 无掩蔽的
exposedness n. 暴露, 显露 开放思维: expose to 使易受, 使受 expose sth to the light of day 把某事暴露于光天化日之下 expose a fraud 揭穿骗局

1) Miles of sand are exposed at low tide.
to make suffer to uncover

2) The people of some Asian countries were exposed to the tsunami in 2004. 3) He exposed the crime to the police.
to make known

4) He exposed the plan to the newspsper.

5) The wolf opened its mouth

to ______ expose a row of sharp
teeth. expose your skin to 6) Don’t ______

the sun; your skin will be hurt.

6.This was the deadly disease of its day. die (v.) dead (adj.) death (n.) deadly adj. (1)dangerous; likely to cause death 危险的; 致命的 a deadly disease / weapon (2)highly effective against sth. or someone 强有力的; 致命的 a deadly remark 击中要害的评论

(3) aiming to kill or destroy 意在杀死的; 不共戴天的: a deadly enemy 不共戴天的敌人 deadly adv. (1)very 极度; 非常; 十分 deadly serious 十分认真 (2)like death 死一般地 deadly pale 死一般苍白

7. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. every time 在这里是连词, 引导时间状语 从句, 意为“每次, 每当”。 e.g. Every time I meet him, I always think of the things happened between us.

每次见到他, 我就想起发生在我们之间的 事情。

注意: immediately, the moment, directly, instantly 等与 every time一样, 都可以 用作连词引导时间状语从句, 意为 “一…..就”。如: I will give the letter to him immediately I see him. 我一见到他就把这封信给他。 I came directly I got your letter. 我一接到你的信就来了。

8. The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals . absorb…..into 吸收 如: e.g. The big company has gradually absorbed these small companies into its own organization. 这家大公司逐渐将这些小的公司吞并了。

absorb v. (1) 吸收(液体)
Water absorbs oxygen. (2) The clever boy absorbed all the knowledge his teacher could give him. (3) The book absorbed his attention.
吸引(注意力, 兴趣等) 理解, 接受

(4) The surrounding small towns have
been absorbed into the city.
使并入, 吞并

be absorbed in … 被…吸引; 专心于; 全神贯注于某事 如: He is absorbed in his book.

The little girl was absorbed in
reading a tale.

suggest 经常有“建议”的意思, 但在这个句子 里的意思是“暗示间接表明”。如: The disorganized meeting suggested bad preparation. 混乱的会场表明准备工作很差。 suggest 还有 “建议”的意思, 在后文中有体现: “To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined.” 为防止这种情况再度 发生, ……

I suggested that he should give up smoking.

The chairman suggested the meeting be put off until next week.
主席建议会议延迟到下周举行。 suggest 后面还可以接-ing形式或名词。如: She suggested a picnic at the weekend. 她提议周末去野餐。

Kane suggested leaving early for the airport.

9. In two particular streets, the cholera
outbreak was so severe that more than 500

people had died in 10 days.
他发现在两条街道上霍乱流行的特别厉害, 在十天之内就死去了五百多人。 severe adj. (1)unsparing or harsh, as in

treatment of others; strict
严厉的; 苛刻的; 严格的. 如:

The severe trainer has gone abroad. You can breathe freely again. 要求苛严的教官已经出国, 你可以完全放心。 (2)causing sharp discomfort or distress; extremely violent or intense; very serious. 剧痛的, 剧烈的, 严重的, 难熬的 如: a severe attack of toothache. 牙痛的剧烈发作。

10. This gave him a valuable clue about the cause of the disease. 这张地图提供了一条说明霍乱起因 的很有价值的线索。 valuable

(1) adj. worth of a lot of money
值钱的, 贵重的 如: The watch is valuable. 这表很值钱。 a valuable diamond. 贵重的钻石。

(2) adj. having great usefulness or value 如:
valuable information 重大的消息 (3)n. (常用复数形式)

sth that worth a lot of money 如:
Cathy kept her valuables in a safe. 凯西把她的贵重物品藏在保险箱里。

11. pump

泵 (油泵; 气泵), 抽水机, 打气筒

12. It seemed that the water was to blame. 看来霍乱的流行要归罪于饮水了。 受到责备, 主动表被动 be+动词不定式, 可以表示该做或不该做的 事情, 相当于must, should, ought to 等。 如:
No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police. 没有警察的允许谁也不准离开这栋楼。

You are not to drop litter in the park.

13. Next, John Snow looked into the source of the water for these two streets.

其次, 约翰.斯诺调查了这两条街的水源。
look into 往…...里面看; to investigate 检查; 了解。 如: We’ll look into this matter together. 我们将一起调查这个问题。

开放思维: look on look out 观看, 面向, 旁观, 看待 面朝, 留神, 照料

look over

从上面看, 察看, 检查

look around 环顾, 观光, 察看

look through 看穿, 审核, 浏览, 温习
look up and down 仔细打量, 到处寻找 look after 寻求, 照顾, 关心

14. handle n. 柄, 把手

handle v. Choose the correct explanations.
A. 操作; 运用 B. 经销; 买卖 C. 管理 D. 对待 E. 应付 F. 控制; 管理
1) Ms Hawkins, the chief accountant of the company handles the company's accounts. C 2) The children are so naughty that I can't handle them. F

3) She handled a difficult argument skillfully. E 4) Handle children kindly, if you want them to trust you.
5) This shop handles paper and stationery. 6) He learnt how to handle the axe.




15. In another part of London, he found supporting evidence from two deaths that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. 在伦敦的另一个地区, 他从两个与宽街 爆发的霍乱有关联的死亡病例中又发现了 有力证据。
link…to... 把…与…连接; 联系 如: Fingerprints linked the suspect to the crime. 指纹证实了嫌疑犯的犯罪事实。 be linked to 连接 如: The two towns are linked by a railway.

link n. 联系, 关系

Researchers have detected a link between smoking and heart disease.

16.With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus. 有了这个证据, 约翰.斯诺就能够肯定的宣布, 这种被污染的水携带病毒。 announce v. to make known publicly 如: The captain announced that the plane was going to land.
机长宣布飞机就要着陆了。 announce sth. (to sb.) announce that + 从句 It is / was announced that + 从句 据宣传

17. instruct v. (to teach; to order)
1) -- Who instructs your class in history? -- Mr Black. He is our instructor.

2) She instructed me in the use of this

3) I've been instructed to wait here
until the lecturer arrives.


n. detailed directions on procedure; an order; teaching

1) The boss gave me so many instructions at one time that I got muddled up. 2) We forgot to read the instructions. (an instruction book) 3) Under Berry’s instruction, I slowly mastered the art of glass blowing.

Fill in the blanks.
1. Not _______ expose (暴露)your skin to the sun for too long.
2. _________ Neither you _______ nor (既不…也不) he is right.

Every time (每当)I meet him, I always think of 3. ___________
the things having happened between us.

4. ________________ It seemed that (好像) she was lying.
5. Who is _____________ to blame (责备) for the mistake?

suggested (暗示) that it was going to rain. 6. It ____________
7. I suggested that he __________________ (should) give up (戒烟) smoking.

1. Surf the internet to find out more information about John Snow and cholera.

2. Do Exercise 3, 4 on P3.


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