倒装句 英语的基本句型是主语 + 谓语。如果将主语与谓语调换, 称倒装句。倒装句分全倒装句和半倒装句。 一、 全倒装: 主语与谓语交换位置不需任何助动词, 叫全倒装。全倒装有以下三种情况: 1、当 here, there, out, in, up, down,off,away 等副词放在句首时, 句子需全倒装: There goes the bell!
铃响了！ There lived an old man. Here comes the bus. 注意①在这种情况下倒装仅限于不及物动词或 be 动词, 像 go, come, rush 等。 ②主语如果是代词时不需倒装如 Away he went. 他走远了。 2、方位状语在句首, 如: In front of the house stopped a police car. Under the tree sat a boy. 二、半倒装: 主语与谓语的助动词交换位置称半倒装, 有以下数种情况: 1、 否定意义的词在句首, 句子半倒装, 例如: little, never, not, no, hardly, rarely, seldom，by no means(绝不)，in no way(决不) Never shall I forget you. Little did I understand what he said to me at that time. 2、 几对并列连词如 not only?but also, hardly? when 等连接两个并列句, 连词在句首, 前句半倒装, 后句不倒 装: Not only was everything he had taker away from him, but also his German citizenship was taken away. No sooner had I got to the bus stop than the bus started. 注意: ①not only?but also 连接两个并列主语时不需倒装, 如: Not only you but also I like playing chess. ②neither?nor 在句首时, 前后两句都需倒装, Neither do I have a sister nor does my husband. 3、only 在句首强调状语, 主句半倒装: Only then did I realize that I was wrong. Only in this way can I learn from my fault. Only when the war was over in 1918, was he able to get back to work. 注意: only 强调主语不倒装: Only the teachers can use the room. 4、so?that 句型, so 在句首时, 主句倒装, that 从句不倒装: So easy is it that a clild can learn it. So hard did he work that he finally won the fame. I saw the film, so did he. 1、倒装句（Inversion） 英语的基本语序是“主语+谓语” 。如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前，这种语序称为“倒装” 。 一、倒装的类型 类型 例 句 说 明 完 全 Out rushed the students to welcome the foreign friends. 整个谓语移至主语 倒 装 学生们涌出去欢迎外国朋友。 之前。 部 分 Seldom does he go to school late. 倒 装 他上学很少迟到。 只把系动词，情态 动词，助动词或表 语放在主语之前。
二、倒装结构的基本用法 1、由于语法结构的需要而使用的倒装 情 况 疑 问 句 中 例 句 说 明 Have you got a dictionary? 你有一本字典吗？ Where did he go last Monday? 上星期一他去什么地方了？ Are you listening to the radio? 你在听广播吗？ Who told you the news? 谁告诉你那个消息的？ Which boy broke this glass? 哪个男孩子把这个玻璃打破了？ 用完全或部分倒 装， 但以疑问词或 疑问词修饰的名 词作主语的疑问 句要用正常语序。
“there be”There are three wells in our village. 结构中 我们村里有三口水井。 There stands a big paper making factory by the river. 河边有座大型造纸厂。 在 以 here, Here is a letter for you. there, now, 这儿有你一封信。 then, in, There goes the bell. 铃响了。 away, up Now comes your turn to play. down 等副 现在轮到你玩了。 词 开 头 的 Away went the crowd one by one . 句子中 人们一个一个地离去。 Look, there he comes! 看，他来了。 Down she went 她下来了。 使用完全倒装结 构。 但如果主语是代 词则用正常语序。
在 以 I can’t swim, nor (neither)can she . 表示??也不这 neither nor 我不会游泳，她也不会。 样， neither 和 nor 或 no more He hasn’t been to the countryside, neither does he 意思相同， 可以替 开 头 的 句 want to go there. 换使用，no more 子中 他没有去过农村，他也不想去那里。 表示动作的程度 He did not turn up. No more did his wife. 并不比前面提到 他没有来，他妻子也没有来。 的稍强。意为也 不?。 用在 as （尽 Proud as the nobles are ,he is afraid to see me . 管）引导的 尽管这些贵族很傲慢，他却害怕见我。 让 步 状 语 Young as he is, he knows a lot . 从句中 虽然他年轻，却知道很多东西。 从属连句 as 用于 特殊语序， 含义与 though, although 相同，但“as”这 种结构可表示非 常强烈的对照， 必 须用倒装 （表语提 前）
2、为了加强语气而使用的倒装。 （使句子更加流畅，更加生动） 情 况 例 句 说 明
含 有否 定 Never before have we seen such a sight. 常 用 否 定 词 有 ： never,not,hardly, 意 义的 副 以前我们从来没有见过这样的情景。 scarcely seldom, little, 词 或连 词 Little did I think that he could be back alive. 放 在句 首 我没有想到他竟能活着回来。 not until, not only?but Not until New Year’s Day shall I give you a gift. also, no sooner ? than, 时 我要到元旦那天才能给你礼物。 hardly (scarcely)?when Not only was everything that he had taken away 等。一般主句用部分倒 from him, but also his German citizenship. 装结构。 不仅他所有的一切被没收了， 而且连他的德国 公民权也被剥夺了。 副词 only Only then did he realize his mistakes . 放 在句 首 只有在那时，他才认识到自己的错误。 Only in this way can you learn maths well . 时 只有用这种方法，你才能学好数学。 Only Mother can understand me . 只有母亲最理解我。 Only three of us failed in the exam. 我们中只有三个人考试不及格。 only 起强调作用，其句 型为“only +状语+部分 倒装” 。 如置于句首的 only 修饰 主语， 则不用倒装结构。
虚 拟语 气 Were they here, they would help us . 把 从 句 中 if 省 略 将 条 件从 句 他们要是在这儿，他们会帮助我们的。 were，had 或 should 放 Had I been informed earlier. I could have done 在主语的前面。 中 something. 我要是早得到通知，我就能干事了。 Should you fail, take more pain and try again. 万一你失败了，就要更加刻苦，重新再干。 直 接引 语 “He is a clever boy”said the teacher. 主句主语和谓语次序颠 的 全部 或 老师说： “他是个聪明的孩子。 ” 倒，用完全倒装。 一 部分 放 “Go, Dick, go!”cried Tom,“Go home and get 但如果主句主语为代词 在句首时 help” “走，狄克，走！ ”汤姆呼喊着， “快回 时 或 谓 语 部 分 比 主 语 家去求援” 长，一般不用倒装。 “What do you think of the film? ”he asked. 他问“你认为这部电影怎么样？” “I’m leaving for Hongkong next month”Mary told me yesterday. 玛利告诉我“我下月要去香港” 。 表 示祝 愿 May you succeed! 祝你成功。 的句子中 Long live the Communist Party of China. 中国共产党万岁！ 副词 so 在 He is interested in pop-songs, and so am I . 句首 他对流行歌曲感兴趣，我也如此。
谓语动词或谓语的一部 分放在主语的前面。 表示前面所说的情况也 适合于另一个人或另一
情 况 例 句 说 明 They will learn chemistry next term, so will I . 他们下学期学化学，我也学。 I can drive a car, so can my younger brother. 我会开汽车，我弟弟也会开车。 —Tom won the first prize for the English competition. －So he did. 英语竞赛汤姆获得了一等奖。确实如此。 It was cold yesterday. So it was . 昨天天气冷。的确冷。 在 方式 状 Thus ended his life.这样结束了他的生命。 语 thus 开 So loudly did he speak that even people in the 头 的句 子 next room could hear him . 中 及程 度 他讲话的声音那样大， 连隔壁屋子里的人都听 状语 so 放 得见。 句首 介 词短 语 In the middle of the room stood a little girl. 作 状语 ， 在房间中央站着一个小女孩。 放在句首 In the distance was a horse. 马在远处。 【专项训练】 1、 that we all went out, lying in the sun. A．The weather so fine was B．So fine was the weather C．So the weather was fine D．So was fine weather 2、Under his arm a pair of shoes which he had bought from the shop a few days before. A．is B．are C．was D．were 3、 who had arrested him three times for carrying drugs. A．Before George stood the policeman B．Before George the policeman stood C．Before the policeman stood George D．Before George did the policeman 4、Then we had been looking forward to . A．came the hour B．the hour came C．comes the hour D．the hour is coming 5、Only when he started to explain the reason for this. A．she realized B．did she realize C．she had realized D．had she realized 6、 succeed in doing anything. A．Only by working hard we can B．By only working hard we can C．Only by working hard can we D．Only we can by working hard 7、Nowhere else in the world cheaper tailoring than in Hong Kong. A．a tourist can find B．can a tourist find C．a tourist will find D．a tourist has found 8、Mary doesn’t speak French, and does Joan. A．not B．neither C．either D．so 9、—Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother? —I don’t know, . A．nor don’t I care B．nor do I care C．I don’t care neither D．I don’t care also 10、Not until the early years of the 19th century what heat is.
如果后面的句子只是单 纯重复前句的意思，不 表示也适用于另一人或 事，则不用倒装结构。
A．man did know B．man knew C．didn’t man know D．did man know 11、 ,he doesn’t study well. A．As he is clever B．He is as clever C．Clever as he is D．As clever he is 12、Only save his life. A．can the doctor B．the doctor can C．will the doctor D．could the doctor 13、So well that the teacher praised her. A．she had done her homework B．her homework had been done C．did she do her homework D．she did her homework 14、Only when to know him will you get along with him. A．do you come B．will you come C．you come D．you will come 15、Out , gun in hand. A．did he rush B．rushed he C．he rushed D．had he rushed 16、Little about his own life at the meeting. A．did he talk B．he talked C．he was talking D．had he talked 17、Under no circumstances first use nuclear weapons. A．will China B．China will C．does China D．do China 18、 taken that examination, she could have passed it . A．Were she B．Had she be able to C．If she would have D．Had she 19、Look, here . A．Mr. Brown comes B．does Mr. Brown come C．comes Mr. Brown D．Mr. Brown has come 20、Not until I began to work how much time I had wasted. A．didn’t I realize B．did I realize C．I didn’t realize D．I realize 21、By no means look down upon the poor. A．we should B．we should not C．do we D．should we 22、Only when 30 years old to learn English. A．was he , did he begin B．he was , he began C．was he , he began D．he was ,did he begin 23、They arrived at the farmhouse, in front of which . A．sat a small boy B．a small boy sat C．is sitting a small boy D．a small boy sitting
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