Grammar and usage
Non-restrictive attributive clauses
指代人 指代事物 所属关系 指地点 指时间 指原因 who/whom/that which/that 关系代词 whose where when 关系副词 why
Finish the attributive clauses below: 1. The lesson which __________ / that we studied yesterday was hard to understand. 2. You can take any book ____ that interests you best. 3. People like to live in a place _____ where there’s fresh air and little noise.
4. The girl __________ whom / that you saw at the meeting is a well-known swimmer. 5. He is the very worker whose _____ picture we saw in the newspaper yesterday. 6. He was very happy on the day when ____ he entered the university.
7. I never really understand the reason
____ why he made such a serious mistake.
8. The young ladywho ___ wears a white blouse is my elder sister. 9.The tall boy, who ___ is sitting there, plays basketball very well.
What’s the difference between No. 8 and No. 9?
(restrictive)和非限制性定语从句 (non-restrictive)两种。限制性定语 从句紧跟先行词,与先行词之间一 般不加逗号；非限制性定语从句与 主句之间通常用逗号分开。
1. His father, who works in Beijing, came back yesterday. 2. Shanghai, which is in East China, is developing quickly.
当先行词是地名、人名、世界上独一无 二的事物或家庭唯一成员时，通常只用 非限制性定语从句修饰。
1. I have a sister who / that works in a hospital. 我有一位在医院工作的姐姐。
2. I have a sister, who works in a hospital. 我有一位姐姐，她在医院工作。
3. The magazines here which / that have nice pictures in them were written by him. 里面有漂亮图画的那些杂志是他写的。
4. The magazines here, which have nice pictures in them, were written by him. 所有的杂志都是他写的, 里面都有漂亮 的图画。
2. 非限制性定语从句是对先行词的补 充或说明,去掉它也不会影响主句的 意思。
1. This is the house (which/ that )we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。
2. The house, which we bought last month, is very nice. 这房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。
3. He seems not to have grasped what I meant,
which greatly upsets me.
Conclusion 3 1. 限制性定语从句可以由关系代词,关系副词来 引导，关系代词作宾语时可以省略。 2. 非限制性定语从句既可修饰先行词,又可修饰 整个主句,不可用that引导且关系代词不可以 省略。
1. The famous basketball star, ___ who comes from America, will visit our school soon. 2. In those days, she used to go to Mr. Black,with whom _____ she had a wonderful time. 3. I bought a car yesterday, _____ which cost me a lot.
which 4. Xi’an, ______I visited last year, is a nice old city.
5. He will come to see me next July, _____
he won’t be so busy. when 6. The school, where _____ I once studied, was built thirty years ago.
7. John said he’d been working in
which the office for an hour, _____ was
I. which引导非限制性定语从句, 代替整
1. He missed the show, which was really a great pity. 他错过了演出，这真是很大的遗憾。 2. He invited me to dinner, which made me very happy. 他请我吃饭，这使我很高兴。
which在引导非限制性定语从句时, which可代替整个主句，相当于and this或and that。
当先行词为前面的整个主句时，用关系代词 which引导非限制性定语从句，这时从句谓语 动词要用第三人称单数。
He seems not to have grasped what I meant, greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思，这使我心烦。 Liquid water changes to vapor, is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽，这就叫做蒸发。
关系代词as和which引导的定语从句 as和which引导非限制性定语从句，有相同之处也有 不同之处。具体情况是： 1．As和which都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语， 代表前面整个句子。 He was honest, as/which we can see. 2. as 引导非限制性定语从句，可放在主句之前，或 者主句之后，甚至可以切割一个主句；which引导的 非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。另外，as有 “正如……，正像……”的意思 (1) As is known to all, China is a developing country. (2) He is from the south, as we can see from his accent. (3) John, as you know, is a famous writer. (4) He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’t believe.
注意:当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时,常用which (5) Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry. 3.先行词前常被such,the same, so,as 修饰，即构成such…as , the same …as, so…as, as…as结构， (1) I have never heard such a story as he tells. (2) He is not such a fool as he looks. (3) This is the same book as I lost last week. 注意：当先行词由the same修饰时，偶尔也用that引导定 语从句，但是和由as所引导的定语从句意思不同 (4) She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在Mary婚礼上穿过的一条裙子。 (5) She wore the same dress as her young sister wore. 她穿 着和她妹妹所穿的一样的裙子。(两件相似的东西)
4 as引导非限制性定语从句常见结构有 as is well known/ is known to all as is said before as we all can see as is expected/ hoped/ supposed,. 5 当非限定性定语从句的谓语为be known(said, announced, reported, expected)等被动形式时，常用as引导
Washington was the father of America, is known to all.
1. Alice received an invitation from her boss, which _____ came as a surprise. 2. The weather turned out to be very good, _____ was more than we could expect. which 3. It rained hard yesterday, _____ which prevented me from going to the park.
II. all / some/ of + whom / which引导非
限制性定语从句 1. He has told us many stories, all of which are about the famous Long Match. 2. The students of Class 1, some of whom came from Japan, went camping yesterday.
在非限制性定语从句中,一些表达数量 或定位的数词或代词如 all/ some/ one/ both/ neither/ none/ any/ either/ any 等可 与 of 构成介词词组修饰限制先行词,此时 先行词在其后的定语从句中作介词的宾语, 关系代词不可用that。如先行词指人则用 whom，如先行词指物则用which引导从句。
1. Many students in this school, some of which are not overweight, are going on diets. whom 2. There are 54 students in my class and
ten of whom come from US. them
3. Half a million pairs of shoes are produced by the workers here every year, 80% of whom are sold abroad. which 4. I have many friends in this town, some of which are businessman. whom 5. I am doing different types of exercises, all of them are quite helpful to my health.
which 或 all 前加and
1. Helen was much kinder to her youngest
son than to the others, ____ made the
others envy him.
A. who C. what B. that D. which
2. The English play, ____ my students
acted at the New Year’s party ,was a great success. A. for which C. in which B. at which D. on which
3. There were dirty marks on her trousers ____ she had wiped her hands. A. where B. which C. when D. that 4. Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer what it was 20 years ago, ____ it was so poorly equipped. A. when B. which C. what D. that
非限制性定语从句中通常使用 下列关系代词和副词 关系代词：which / who / whom / whose /as 关系副词when / where/for which (非限制性定语从句中不用关系词 that；非限制性定语从句中关系词 不能省略)
形式上 不用逗号和主句隔 开 意义上 是先行词不可缺少 的定语，不能删除 用逗号和主句隔开
是对先行词的补充说 明，删除后意思仍完 整 通常翻译成主句的并 列句 A.做宾语时不可省略 B.不用that, why C.不用who代替whom
译法上 翻译成先行词的定 语，“…的…” 关系词 A.做宾语时可省略 的使用 B.可用that, why C.可用who代替 上 whom
1 He is the only one of the students who praised by the teacher. 2 He is one of the students who praised by the teacher 注意:定语从句中谓语动词与先行词的一 致性。 3 He has two sons, looks like him. 4 He has two sons, and looks like him. 注意:定语从句与并列结构。
例1: He’s got himself into a dangerous situation _____ he is likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. while D. why
析:先行词situation意为“处境”,表抽象地点且在定语从句中作地点状语, 所以应用关系副词where引导定语从句。 例2: I can think of many cases________ students obviously knew a lot of English words and expressions but couldn’t write a good essay. A. why B. which C. as D. where
析:many cases 意为“场合”,表抽象地点且在定语从句中作地 点状语,所以应用关系副词where来引导定语从句。 例3: Her illness will not develop to the point________ no medicine can cure her. A. where B. which C. that D. as
析:point意为“地步”,表抽象地点且在定语从句中 作地点状语,所以应用关系副词where来引导定语从 句。
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