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阅读理解之主旨大意题
一、 阅读技巧“tips” 题型特点 考查学生对一篇文章或一段文字的深层理解程度及在速 读中准确把握文章主旨大意的能力。一般针对某一语段或某一语篇的主 题,标题或目的设题。 (二) 题干表现形式
1. What would be the best title of the passage?

(一)

/>2. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? 3. What is the passage mainly about? 4. What does the text mainly talk about? 5. What is the (main) purpose of this article? 6. The purpose of the passage is ___ . 7. What’s the topic of the article? 8. What is the main idea of the passage? 9. The passage is intended to _____. (三) 1. 应试技巧 主旨大意题属于归纳概括题。找准文章的主题句是关键。“ 主题句定位法”是一种行之有效的方法。在答题时,我们可以: 读首句抓大意;读尾句抓大意;读首尾段抓大意 2. 无明显主题句时高频信息词 一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的,有的文章中最明显的特点之一 是有一个反复出现的中心词,即高频词,也叫做主题词。 Exercises. Text 1 People have different tastes in food. Some feel that they haven't eaten a meal unless they have had steak or other red meat. Some prefer chicken or fish and eat one or the other at every meal. Others prefer vegetables and fruits or grains and would enjoy a meal of spaghetti, eggplant, and fresh fruit. Others could live on what were called fast--foods: a hamburger or hot dog, French fries and a soft drink. 主题句在__________________________________________________ Text 2 Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time. 主题句在__________________________________________________ Text 3

Shu Pulong has helped at least 1000 people bitten (咬) by snakes. “It was seeing people with snake bites (伤口) that led me to this career,” he said. In 1963, after his army service, Shu entered a medical school and later became a doctor of Chinese medicine. As part of his studies he had to work in the mountains. There he often heard of people who had their arms and legs cut off after a snake bite in order to save their lives. “I was greatly upset by the story of an old farmer I met. It was a very hot afternoon. The old man was pulling grass in his fields when he felt a pain in his left hand. He at once realized he had been bitten by a poisonous snake. In no time he wrapped a cloth tightly around his arm to stop the poison spreading to his heart. Rushing home he shouted ?Bring me the knife!? Minutes later the man lost his arm forever.” “The sad story touched me so much that I decided to devote myself to helping people bitten by snakes,” Shu said. 主题句在__________________________________________________ Text 4 Nothing is as useful as a flashlight on a dark night if a tire goes flat. Few inventions are so helpful to a child who is afraid of the dark. In fact, the modern flashlight brings light to many dark situations. Finding something in the back of a closet is easy with a flashlight in hand . A camper also needs one after the light of the campfire has been out. 主题句在__________________________________________________ Text 5 A new eight-kilometer road is under construction that links the port area with motorway system… As part of the project, two four-kilometer road tunnels are being built below the central area of the city, … The two tunnels are about 20 meters below the surface and are 12 meters wide, providing for two lanes of traffic in each direction. In the upper part of the tunnel two air-conditioning pipes remove the waste gas of trucks and cars and keep the quality of air inside the tunnel. The lighting is at the top of the tunnel, … The wall is made up of four main elements, which include a waterproofing covering and, on the inside of the tunnel, a concrete lining. Each tunnel is roughly round and the lower part of the tunnel is somewhat flat. … along the length of the tunnel. The fire main is at the side of the tunnel and at the level of the road surface. Other systems in the tunnel will include emergency phones. The passage is mainly about _____.

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A. the construction of a road B. the design of a road C. the construction of two railways D. the design of two tunnels 4.注意标志词 文章或段落的主题句常常会出现在一些标志性的提示后。如: 1)关注一些表强调转折关系的连词 but, yet, however, in fact, indeed 等 2) 关注一些表征总结性,结论性的词: on the whole, in brief/short, above all, after all, all in all, in conclusion, in a word, in short, as a result, therefore, thus 等 3) 如果主题句有 show, indicate 和 suggest 等词, 重点看其后的宾语从句。 (四)错误干扰项选项的特点: ? ? ? 以偏概全。只是文中某个具体事实或细节,或是一句没有展开论述的评 论。 主观臆断。读者往往根据自己的常识或从文中某些(不完全)的信息片 面退出的结论而忽视了作者的见解。 无关信息。既在文章中没有提到或找不到语言依据的信息。 Exercises. Text 6 Lung cancer is the worst cancer killer in America . About 160,440 Americans die each year from it. More than 87 percent of lung cancers are smoking related, according to the Lung Cancer Organization. The main idea of the passage is ___.
A.Lung cancer is the No.1 cancer killer B. Smoking is a bad habit C. LCO advises people to stop smoking D.Why did people die of Lung cancer?

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Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. Experiments show that cigarette smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease(illness), cancer, cigarette smoking also can cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker?s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it? What is the main idea ? A.Smoking can cause cancer. B. Smoking is a terrible killer

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C. Smoking is harmful to our health. D.An experiment on smoking.

二、限时阅读 词数:364 标准时间:6 分钟 People do not analyze every problem they meet. Sometimes they try to remember a solution from the last time they had a similar problem. They often accept the opinions or ideas of other people. Other times they begin to act without thinking. They try to find a solution by trial and error. However, when all these methods fail, the person with a problem has to start analyzing. There are six stages in analyzing a problem. First the person must recognize that there is a problem. For example, Sam?s bicycle is broken, and he cannot read it to class as he usually does. Sam must see that there is a problem with his bicycle. Next the thinker must define the problem. Before Sam can repair his bicycle, he must find out the reason why it does not work. For instance, he must determine if the problem is with the gears, the brakes, or the frame. He must make his problem more specific. Now the person must look for information that will make the problem clearer and lead to possible solutions. For instance, suppose Sam decided that his bike does not work because there is something wrong with the gear wheels. At this time, he can look in his bicycle repair book and read about gears. He can talk to his friends at the bike shop. He can look at his gears carefully. After studying the problem, the person should have several suggestions for a possible solution. Take Sam as an illustration. His suggestions might be: put oil on the gear wheels; buy new gear wheels and replace the old ones; tighten or loosen the gear wheels. Eventually one suggestion seems to be the solution to the problem. Sometimes the final idea comes very suddenly because the thinker suddenly sees something new or sees something in a new way. Sam, for example, suddenly sees that there is a piece of chewing gum between the gear wheels. He immediately realizes the solution to his problem: he must clean the gear wheels. Finally the solution is tested. Sam cleans the gear wheels and finds that afterwards his bicycle works perfectly. In short , he has solved the problem. What is the best title for this passage? A. Six Stages for Repairing Sam?s Bicycle B. Possible Ways to Problem-solving C. Necessities of Problem Analysis D. Suggestions for Analyzing a Problem

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【参考答案】 【Part One:阅读全攻略(reading strategies)】 一、 (三)2.(1)A 二、 1-4 ACDB 三、BDCAC (2) C (4) D

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