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人教版高中英语必修一Unit3知识点详解


Part 1. Warming up 1、Which kind of transport do you prefer to use: bus or train? prefer 宁愿;更喜欢 用法: (1) prefer + n. / pron. The boy preferred a detective story. (2) prefer + v. -ing Do you pre

fer living abroad? (3) prefer + to do She prefers to live among the working people. (4) prefer sb. to do sth. She preferred him to stay at home. (5) prefer + n. / pron. / doing + to + n. / pron. / doing 喜欢……而不喜欢 I prefer the town to the country. While he was in the office he preferred doing something to doing nothing. (6) prefer to do...rather than do = would rather do ... than do... 宁愿……而不愿 I prefer to walk there rather than go by bus. (7) prefer + 从句(谓语动词用 should do,should 可省略) She preferred that he should do it in the kitchen. 2. Imagine that you plan to spend a holiday. imagine 的用法 ▲构词:① imagination n. [C / U] 想像,想像力,想像的事物 ② imaginative adj. 富有想像 力的 ▲搭配: imagine sth / doing sth You can imagine the situation there. I can’t imagin (my) marrying a girl of that sort. 【考例】 I can hardly imagine Peter ___across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A. sail B. to sail C. sailing D. to have sailed [答案与解析] C imagine 后接动词的-ing 形式,本句的 Peter 是这个动名词的逻辑主语。 Part 2. Pre-reading, reading and comprehending 1. Ever since middle school, my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed about taking a great bike trip. 从高中起,我姐姐王维和我就一直梦想做一次伟大的自行车旅行。 (1)ever sinde 从那以后 It is/has been+一段时间+since+一般过去时(从句中的动作不能延续)自从……至今已经 多久了。 eg: It’s five years since I left there. 我离开那里有五年了。 注意: 在―It’s +一段时间+since 从句‖, 如果 since 从句的谓语动词是延续性动词, 那么, 它所表示的时间是从那个动作结束时起算,意为―不做。。多久了‖。 。 eg: It’s five years since he smoked. 他戒烟五年了。 (2) dream about/of 梦见,梦想 2、Then she persuade me to buy one. (1)、说服; 劝服; sb 说服某人 persuade sb. (not) to do sth. sb. into / out of doing sth. eg:I persuaded him to do it. =I persuaded him into doing it. (2) 、使相信,使信服 persuade sb of sth 使某人信服某事 persuade sb that … 使某人相信…

eg:He has persuaded me of its truth. I am persuaded that such is the fact. persuasive adj. 有说服力的 persuasion n. 说服,信服 【注意】 如果―劝说‖不服, 不能直接用 persuade, 而应用 try to persuade sb to do 或 advise sb to do. 1. I __ him not to smoke, but he didn’t think it necessary. A.persuaded B. advised C. hoped D. suggested 2. I was able at last to ____ my mother to follow my advice. A.suggest B. advise C. persuade D. leave off 3. While shopping, people sometimes can’t help ____ into buying something they don’t really need. A.to persuade B. persuading C. being persuade D. be persuaded 3. Wang Wei soon got them interested in cycling too. (复习 get 用法, 详见 Unit1 知识点详解) 4. It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. 首先想到沿湄公河从源头到终点骑车旅游的是我的姐姐。 (复习强调 句,详见 Unit1 知识点详解) 5、Although she didn’t know the best way of getting get to places, she insisted that she organize the trip properly. (1)、although, though 引导让步状语从句不能再和 but, and, however 连用, 但可以和副词 yet, still 连用。although 从句多放在句首, though 从句可在主句前,中,后任何位置,而 且 though 可以作副词用于句末,作 ―但是,不过‖讲,而 although 无此用法。 Although/Though it was raining, (yet) they still worked in the fields. He said he would come; he didn’t come though. 【随堂练习】 ______ he has limited technical knowledge, the old worker has a lot of experience. A. Since B. Unless C. As D. Although (2) 、insist v.坚持认为,坚持主张 on/upon (one’s) doing sth 坚持做,坚决做 that +从句―坚持一种说法、看法或事实‖, 后接的从句用陈述语气,按 insist 需要选择时态 that sb (should) do sth 坚决主张做某事, 后接的宾语从句常用虚拟语气, 即 ―should +v.‖ eg:I insisted on/upon his coming with us. He insisted that he hadn’t stolen the girl’s handbag. Mary was ill. Her parents insisted that she (should) see a doctor. 【随堂练习】 The doctor insisted that I a high fever and that I a rest for a few days. A. had; had B. have; have C. had; have D. have; had The man insisted a taxi for me even if/though I told him I lived nearby. A. find B. to find C. on finding D. in finding I insisted that a doctor __ immediately. A has been sent for B. sent for C. will be sent for D. be sent for The doctor insisted that I a high fever and that I a rest for a few days.?

A.had;had B.have;have? C.had;have D.have;had The man insisted a taxi for me even if/though I told him I lived nearby. A.find B.to find? C.on finding D.in finding 6、 My sister doesn’t care about details. care vi.关心;介意 n.关心;照顾 care about (to be worried about/concerned with)忧虑;担心;惦念 care for(=like,love)喜欢; 照料;照顾(=take care of=look after) take care 小心;提防 派生:careful adj.细心的 carefully adv.细心地 carefulness n.细心 carelessly adv. 粗心地 carelessness n.粗心 careless adj.粗心的 ⑴ The only thing he cares __________ is money. ⑵ I don’t really care _____ red wine. ⑶Who will take care ___ your baby if you are out? ⑷ Many accidents are caused by ________ (care) driving. ⑤ They studied the question _________ (care) before they made the decision. 7、She gave me a determined look –the kind that she wouldn’t change her mind. (1) 、determine v. 决定, 下定决心, 确定 ① determine to do sth. =make up one’s mind to do sth. 下定决心 eg:He determined to learn French. ② be determined to do sth. 决心做 eg:She was determined to go to university. (2) 、change one’s mind 改变某人的主意 eg:No matter what you say, I won’t change my mind. determination n. 决心,毅力 determined adj. 坚毅的,下决心的 8. When I told her that our journey would begin at an altitude of more than 5000 meters, she seemed to be excited about it. 当我告诉她我们将在海拔 5000 米处开始旅程, 她好像对此很兴 奋。 本句中的 seem 后面跟了不定式结构,意 为― ……看起来好像…… ‖。 (1)seem 常常和不定式,形容词,分词,名词和介词短语搭配。如: 1).seem+不定式(短语) I seemed to hear a voice in the distance. I seem to have caught a cold . seem 后不定式的否定式习惯上用 don’t 来代替, (放在 seem 前) ,如: You don’t seem to be quite yourself today 2).seem +形容词 She seems quite happy today.=She seems to be quite happy today. 3).Seem+分词 The news seems exciting. They seems interested in the film. 4)、seem+名词 She seems a clever girl. It seemed a long time before my turn came. 5).seem+介词短语 They seemed in high spirits. (2)seem 常用于 it 作形式主语的―It seems/seemed that……‖结构,如: It seems that you were lying. It seems impossible that he will be here tomorrow. (3).seem 常用于由 as if/though 引导的从句中,如:

It seems as if it is going to rain. It seems as if he knew nothing about that. [注]在这种句式中,如从句所叙述的情实现的可能性比较大,从句谓语用陈述语气 若实现的可能性较小,或根本不可能实现,从句的谓语则用虚拟语气。 (4).seems 也常用在―there seem(s) to be‖句式中,用来代替 be,作句子的谓语。如: There seems to be no point in refusing. There seemed to be something the matter with him. at an altitude of = at a height of 在海拔……米处 e.g. The plane is flying at a height / altitude of 10,000 feet. 注意:at 在此处表 ―在……处/时, 以……‖后接年龄, 速度, 长宽深高, 价格, 费用等 在…岁时 at the age of 以..的价格 at a high / low price 在….深度\宽度处 at a depth/width of 在…距离处 at a distance of 9、When I told her the air would be hard to breath and it would be very cold… 主语 + be + adj.+ to do sth. 是一常用句式即不定式用主动形式表达被动含义。不定式 和主语之间是动宾关系, 应使用及物动词的主动形式, 若是不及物动词, 要加相应的介词。 常用的形容词有:easy, difficult, hard, interesting, pleasant, nice ,dangeroues, important 等; 该句型可以转换成―It + be + adj + to do sth.‖结构 eg:The problem is really hard to work out. = It is really hard to work out the problem. 还 有一 类 表 示心 理活 动 的 形 容 词 (surprised, moved, disappointed, pleased, happy, sad, delighted, sorry, interested, glad, worried, eager, anxious, angry 等) ,主动用 to do, 被动用 to be done, 也可接从句。 We were both surprised to learn that half of the river is in China. 我们惊奇地发现这条河有一 半是在中国境内。 We were disappionted to be told that the match had been put off. 10. Once she has made up her mind, nothing can change it. Finally, I had to give in.她一旦下 了决心,什么也不能使她改变。最后,我只好让步了。 once 作为连词,作―一(旦)……就……‖解,连接一个表示时间的状语从句。从句中常用 一般现在时,现在完成时表将来。 如:Once you have begin you must continue. Once printed,the book will be very popular once 用作副词,意为―一次;从前,曾经‖。 11、Finally, I had to give in. (1)、give in (to sb./sth.) 屈服于, 让步, 递交 eg:He had to give in to my views. 他只好顺从了我的意见。 (2) 、give in (sth. to sb.) 上交 eg:Please give your examination papers in to the teacher. 【拓展】give up 放弃, 认输 give out 筋疲力尽;分配 give away 捐赠, 泄露 give off 放出,散发(光、热、烟、气、味等) 运用:用适当的介词或副词填空。 (1) He gave ____ to her request. (2) If you give _____ smoking,you will save a lot of money every year. (3) His accent gave him _____ . So I knew he was from USA. (4)Our teacher gave ______ to the police station what he picked up from the ground. (5) His money soon gave ______ because he bought a lot of things. 12、It becomes rapids as it passes through deep valleys, traveling across western Yunnan

Province. 【辨析】 across,through 与 over across 表示从一定范围的一边到另一边或事物交叉位置,―横穿, 横跨‖表面 through 表达两边穿过或穿过空间内部 over 表示 ―越过‖ 是指越过较高的物体从一侧到另一侧 She swam across the river. 她游过河去。 The river flows through the city from west to east. 这条河从西往东流过城市。 The thief climbed over the wall and ran away. 小偷翻过墙逃走了。 Part 3. Learning about Language 1、 A determined person always tries to finish the job,no matter how hard it is. 有决心的人总是努力完成工作,而不管它有多难。 疑问词+ever,no matter+疑问词 (1)whatever,whichever,whoever,whomever 可以引导让步状语从句,也可以引导名词性从 句,引导让步状语从句时,可以换成 no matter what/which/who/whom,位置可以在主句前,也 可以在主句后。 Take whatever you want. 拿你想要的任何东西。 We will complete the work on time, no matter what happens. =Whatever happens, we will complere the work on time. (2)wherever,whenever,however 常引导让步状语从句,可以换成 no mattewhere/when/how, 可放在主句前或主句后。 Whenever he goes abroad, he will buy presents for his younger sister. =No matter when he goes abroad, he wil by presents for his younger sister. 2.except for, except, but, besides 表示―除了‖的词或短语有:except; but; except for; besides; except that /when...等。 (1) except 和 but 都表示―除了……之外。 没有‖, 二者大多数情况下可以互换; 但在 no, all, nobody, nothing, no one 等不定代词后多用 but。No one knows our teacher's address except / but him. (排除 him) (2) besides 除……之外,还……,有附加性。What other foreign languages do you know besides English? (English 与 other languages 都属于 know 的范围) (3) except for 只不过……,整体肯定,部分修正,用于排除非同类事物,for 表示细节上 的修正。 Your article is well written except for a few spelling mistakes. 当 except 用于句首时,后面往往要加上 for. Except for this, everything is in good order.= Everything is in good order except this. (4) except that /when...that 后接句子 I know nothing of that man except that he’s from Sichuan. We do morning exercises every morning except when it is raining. Part 4. Using Language 1. She was reliable and I knew I didn’t need to encourage her. reliable adj. 可信赖的;可靠的 rely vi.依靠;依赖(通常接 on/upon) 2. put 相关短语 put up 举起;挂起,张贴;建造,搭起; (为某人)提供食宿 He put up his hand to catch the teacher’s attention. A new notive has been put up on the board. They put up a new house here.

Will you put me up for the night? put up with 忍受 put away 放好,储存......备用 1). put something away: 把...收拾起来 Now, put your books away. 现在,把你的书收拾好。 2). put sb. away: 把... 送进监狱(或精神医院) The doctor wanted me to have him put away. 医生要我把他送进精神病院。 3.) put (money) away: 把钱储蓄起来 I've got $1000 put away for a rainy day. 我有 1000 元存在银行以备不时之需。 4.) put away (food or drink):大吃大喝 I had put away half a bottle of whisky. 我一下子喝了半瓶威士忌。 put down 写下,放下,镇压 Let me put down your telephone number lest I forget it. 让我先记下你的电话号码, 以免忘了。 Put down that book and help your mother with the dishes. 放下那本书, 帮你母亲洗餐具。 They had to call the police in order to put down the riot. 他们只得叫来警察以平定骚乱。 put forward 1).向前移 Why don't you put your chair forward to get a better view? 你为什么不把椅子往前挪一点, 以便 看得更清楚些? 2).将…提前 We shall have to put the meeting forward. 我们得把会议提前。 3).把...向前拨; 将钟拨快 Put your watch forward; it's five minutes slow. 将你的手表拨快些, 它慢了五分钟。 4).提出 He put forward a plan for the committee to consider. 他提出一项计划交由全体委员审议 put in 打断,插嘴,话费(时间) He put in a good word for me. 他插进来为我说了一句好话。 She put in eight hours behind a desk. 她在花了八小时办公。 put off 推迟,延期 The appointment was put off because of his illness. 由于他生病而推迟了约会。 put on 穿上,上演 They are going to put on Hamlet. 他们将上演《哈姆雷特》 。 put out 扑灭(火) ,伸出 The fire was soon put out. 火很快就扑灭了。 It's rude to put out your tongues at people. 对人吐舌头是不礼貌的。 put one’s heart into 全神贯注于...... 3. separate 的用法 separate 作动词时, 指―把原来在一起的人或物分开‖。 例如: Separate those two boys who are fighting, will you? (你)把那两个打架的孩子拉开,好吗? ▲ 构词:separation n. [U]分开,分离 ▲ 搭配: ① separate A from B 把 A 和 B 分开 ② A is separated from B by… A 和 B 为……所分开/阻隔 ③ separate sth (up) into… 把……分成(几分) 作形容词时,―个别的,独自的,分离的‖

We have separete rooms. 我们都有各自的房间。 4.schedule n.时间表;进度表 vt.为某事安排时间 according to schedule 按照计划;按照安排 on schedule 按时 behind schedule 晚点 be scheduled to do 被安排,定于 ⑴ 火车按时到达。 The train arrived ___ ___ ⑵ 总统定于明天发表演说。 The President is __________ (schedule) to make a speech tomorrow. 5........but I stayed awake. stay 为连系动词。 类似 stay 既能做行为动词又能作连系动词的还有: become, get ,grow, turn, look, appear, seem, feel, taste, smell, sound, keep 等。

课文原文 1.Two years ago she bought an expensive mountain bike and then she persuaded me to buy one . 2. It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. 3. Although she didn’t know the best way of getting to places,she insisted that she organize the trip properly. 4.:lWhen I told her that our journey would begin at an altitude of more than 5,000 metres,she seemed to be excited about it. 5. It makes wide bends or meanders through low valleys to the plains where rice grows. 高考连接 【例 1】The CDs are on sale!Buy one and you get completely free. (全国Ⅱ高考) A.other B.others C.one D.ones? 【例 2】—I’ve read another book this week.? —Well,maybe is not how much you read but what you read that counts.(浙江高考) A.this B.that C.there D.it? 【例 3】 the police thought he was themost likely one,since they had no exact proof about it,they could not arrest him. (湖南高考) A.Although B.As long as? C.If only D.As soon as? 【例 4】 building supplies to construct these energy-saving houses.It took brains, too. A.other than B.more than C.rather than D.less than? 【例 5】—What do you think of teaching,Bob?? —I find it fun and challenging.It is a job you are doing something serious but interestin A.where B.which? C.when D.that? 答案:1.解析 C 句意为:这些 CD 在廉价出售,买一赠一 用 one 代替 a CD。 2.解析 D 分析答语句子结构可知此处构成 It is...that...强调句型,被强调部分是 not how much you read but what you read。 3.解析 A 句意为: 尽管警察认为他最有可能, 但是由于没有确切的证据, 他们不能逮捕他。 表示让步用 although;as long as 表示条件,意为―只要‖;if only 表示条件,意为―要是……就 好 了‖;as soon as 表示时间,意为―一…… 就……‖。 4.解析 B 句意为:建造这些节能房屋,不仅仅要花 费建筑材料,还要付出智力。more than 在句中意为―不仅仅‖,修饰名词。other than 不同于,除了;rather than 宁可……也不愿,与 其……倒不如;less than 不到,少于。 5 解析 A where 在句中为关系副词,引导定语从句,修饰先行词 job。


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