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化学工程与工艺专业英语练习参考答案


Key to Exercise Unit 1 Chemical Industries chemicals) 1. the Industrial Revolution 9. synthetic fibers 2. organic chemicals 10. pharmaceutical 3. the contact process 11. research and developm

ent 4. the Haber process 12. petrochemical 5. synthetic polymers 13. computers(automatic control 6. intermediates equipment) 7. artificial fertilizers 14. capital intensive 8. pesticides (crop protection Some Chemicals Used In Our Daily Life

Food Health Clothing

artificial fertilizers, pesticide, veterinary products antibiotics, β -blockers synthetic fibers (e.g. polyesters, polyamides), synthetic dyes synthetic polymers (e.g. urea-formaldehyde, polyurethanes), plastics plastics and polymers (e.g. nylon) additives (e.g. anti-oxidants, viscosity index improvements), polymers, plastics 12. technical support 13. process improvement 14. effluent treatment 15. pharmaceutical 16. sufficiently pure 17. Reaction 18. unreacted material 19. by-products 20. the product specification 21. Product storage

Shelter

Leisure Transport

Unit 2 Research and Development 1. R&D 2. ideas and knowledge 3. process and products 4. fundamental 5. applied 6. product development 7. existing product 8. pilot plant 9. profitbility 10. environmental impact 11. energy cost

Unit 3 Typical Activities of Chemical Engineers 1. Mechanical 14. cooling water 2. electrical 15. an economical 3. civil 16. to improve 4. scale-up 17. P&I Drawings 5. commercial-size 18. Equipment Specification Sheets 6. reactors 19. Construction 7. distillation columns 20. capacity and performance 8. pumps 21. bottlenecks 9. control and instrumentation 22. Technical Sales 10. mathematics 23. new or improved 11. industry 24. engineering methods 12. academia 25. configurations 13. steam Unit 4 Sources of Chemicals 1. inorganic chemicals 11. raw material 2. derive from (originate from) 12. separation and purification 3. petrochemical processes 13. food industry 4. Metallic ores 14. to be wetted 5. extraction process 15. Key to success 6. non-renewable resource 16. Crushing and grinding 7. renewable sources 17. Sieving 8. energy source 18. Stirring and bubbling 9. fermentation process 19. Surface active agents 10. selective 20. Overflowing Unit 5 Basic Chemicals 1. Ethylene 2. acetic acid 3. Polymerization 4. Polyvinyl acetate 5. Emulsion paint

High-volume sector
Production scale Products / a plant Operation manner Price or profit

Low-volume sector

tens to hundreds of tens to a few thousands thousands tons per year tons per year single product continuous fairly cheap multi-products batch very profitable

Usage Challenges

intermediates reduced demand, environment pollution sulphuric acid, phosphorus-containing compounds, nitrogen-containing compounds, chlor-alkali, petrochemicals, commodity polymers

end-products

Products in the sector

agrochemicals, dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, speciality polymers

Unit 6 Chlor-Alkali and Related Processes 1. Ammonia 5. NH4Cl 2. ammonia absorber 6. Rotary drier 3. NaCl & NH4OH 7. Light Na2CO3 4. Carbon dioxide 8. Water

Product

Raw material

Major steps or Principal reactions
ammoniating, carbonating, precipitating, filtering, drying, calcining

Uses

Soda-ash

brine, limestone

raw material for glassmaking, sodium silicate; as an alkali

Chlorine

brine

as water purification, 2Na+ + 2Cl - +2H2O → bleaching of wood NaOH +Cl2 +H2 pulp; production of vinyl chloride, solvents, inorganic chlorine-containing products for paper-making, manufacture of + 2Na + 2Cl +2H2O → inorganic NaOH +Cl2 +H2 chemicals, syntheses of organic chemicals,

Caustic soda

brine

production of alumina and soap S +O2 → SO2 Sulfuric acid elemental sulphur SO2 + O2 → SO2 SO3 + H2O → H2SO4 feedstock for fertilizers; production of ethanol, hydrofluoric acid, aluminum sulphates

Unit 7 Ammonia, Nitric Acid and Urea 1. kinetically inert 9. energy 2. some iron compounds 10. steam reforming 3. exothermic 11. carbon monoxide 4. conversion 12. secondary reformer 5. a reasonable speed 13. the shift reaction 6. lower pressures 14. methane 7. higher temperatures 15. 3:1 8. capital 1787 1903 1909 1909-1914 1913 1919 1920s 1931 C. Berthollet Fritz Haber Fritz Haber C. Bosch, A. Mittasch in BASF Fritz Haber in Britain and America C. Bosch discovers the composition of ammonia synthesizes ammonia drives the optimum reaction conditions scale-up the process build a pilot plant receives the Noble price Introduce the Haber process receives the Noble price

Unit 8 Petroleum Processing 1. organic chemicals 2. H:C ratios 3. high temperature carbonization 4. crude tar 5. pyrolysis 6. poor selectivity

7. consumption of hydrogen 8. the pilot stage 9. surface and underground 10. fluidized bed 11. Biotechnology 12. sulfur species

Unit 9

Polymers

Abbreviatio n
LDPE HDPE LLDPE PET or PBT

Name of polymer
Low density polyethylene High density polyethylene Linear low density polyethylene Poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) 低密度聚乙烯 高密度聚乙烯 线性低密度聚乙烯 聚对苯二甲酸乙二 醇酯 聚对苯二甲酸丁二 醇酯 聚氯乙烯 聚苯乙烯 聚甲醛 聚丙烯 聚碳酸酯 聚苯醚 聚四氟乙烯 酚醛树脂 聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯 脲醛树脂

PVC PS POM PP PC PPO PTFE PF PMMA UF

Poly vinyl chloride Polystyrene Polyoxymethylene Polypropylene Polycarbonate Polyphenylene oxide polytetrafluoroethylene phenol-formaldehyde resins poly (methyl methacrylate) urea-formaldehyde resins

Name of polymer
Phenol-formaldehyde resin Urea-formaldehyde resin Alkyd resin Poly(styrene-butadien e) Poly (acrylonitrile-butadie ne) Poly (vinyl chloride)

Company or Inventor
Baekland

Year introduced
1909 1929 late 1920s

Germany Germany

Germany

Polystyrene polyethylene Nylon Polyacrylonitrile Terylene Epoxy resins polypropylene LLDPE Unit 10

Germany ICI Du pont Du pont ICI Du pont Montecatini 1938 1941 1948 1949 1955 1956 late 1970s

What Is Chemical Engineering Microscale ? ? ? (≤10-3m) Atomic and molecular studies of catalysts Chemical processing in the manufacture of integrated circuits Studies of the dynamics microstructured fluids (10-3-102m) of suspensions and

Mesoscale ? ? ? ? ? ?

Improving the rate and capacity of separations equipment Design of injection molding equipment to produce car bumpers made from polymers Designing feedback control systems for bioreactors (>10m) Operability analysis and control system synthesis for an entire chemical plant Mathematical modeling of transport and chemical reactions of combustion-generated air pollutants Manipulating a petroleum reservoir during enhanced oil recovery through remote sensing of process data, development and use of dynamic models of underground interactions, and selective injection of chemicals to improve efficiency of recovery

Macroscale

Course

Course content

Science and Math. Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Material Science, Mathematics, Computer Instruction

Chemical Engineering

Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Catalysis, Rector Design and Analysis, Unit Operations, Process Control, Chemical Engineering Laboratories, Design / Economics

Other Engineering

Electrical Engineering, Mechanics, Engineering Drawing

Humanities and Social Science

Understand the origins of one’s own culture as well as that of others

Unit 12 What Do We Mean by Transport Phenomena? 1. density 8. velocity fluctuations 2. viscosity 9. solid surface 3. tube diameter 10. ideal fluids 4. Reynolds 11. viscosity 5. eddies 12. Prandtl 6. laminar flow 13. fluid dynamics 7. turbulent flow Unit 13 Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering 1. physical 8. filtration 2. unit operations 9. material balance 3. identical 10. equilibrium stage model 4. A. D. Little 11. Hydrocyclones 5. fluid flow 12. Filtration 6. membrane separation 13. Gravity 7. crystallization 14. Vaccum Unit 14 Distillation Operations 1. relative volatilities

2. contacting trays

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

reboiler an overhead condenser reflux plates packing stripping section rectifying section

10. energy-input requirement 11. overall thermodynamic efficiency 12. tray efficiencies 13. Batch operation 14. composition 15. a rectifying batch

Sieve plate Cost Capacity Operating range Efficiency Pressure drop
low high low

Bubble-cap plates
high low high

Valve plates
middle middle middle

same low

same high

Same middle

1 < 2 < 3 Unit 15 Solvent Extraction, Leaching and Adsorption 1. a liquid solvent 14. H+ or OH– 2. solubilities 15. regenerant 3. leaching 16. process flow rates 4. distillation 17. deterioration of performance 5. extract 18. closely similar 6. raffinate 19. stationary phase 7. countercurrent 20. mobile phase 8. a fluid 21. distribution coefficients 9. adsorbed phase 22. selective membranes 10. 400,000 23. synthetic 11. original condition 24. ambient temperature 12. total pressure 25. ultrafiltration 13. equivalent numbers 26. reverse osmosis (RO). Unit 16 Evaporation, Crystallization 1. concentrate solutions 5. 2. solids 6. 3. circulation 7. 4. viscosity 8. and Drying heat sensitivity heat transfer surfaces the long tube multiple-effect evaporators

9. vacuum 10. condensers 11. supersaturation 12. circulation pump 13. heat exchanger

14. swirl breaker 15. circulating pipe 16. Product 17. non-condensable gas 18. barometric condenser

Dryer type
Tray dryers

General features
Batch operation, Close control of drying conditions and product inventory Continuous circulation, High drying rates, Good product-quality, High thermal efficiencies, High initial and maintenance cost Continuous operation, High throughput, High thermal efficiency, Low capital cost and labor costs Non-uniform residence time, Dust generation, High noise levels Continuous or batch operation, Rapid and uniform heat transfer, Short drying times, Good control of the drying conditions, Low floor area requirements; High power requirements Short contact times, Low thermal efficiency

Application
Drying valuable products

Conveyor dryers

Drying materials that form a bed with an open structure

Rotary dryer

Drying free-flow granular materials

Fluidized bed dryers

Drying granular and crystalline materials

Pneumatic dryers

Drying fine and heat sensitive materials

Spray dryers

Short contact times, Good control of the product particle size, bulk density and form, High heat requirements An alternative choice to spray dryers

Drying liquid and dilute slurry feeds as well as heat sensitive materials Drying liquid and dilute slurry feeds

Rotary drum dryers

Unit 17 Chemical Reaction Engineering 1. design 11. more valuable products 2. optimization 12. harmless products 3. control 13. serves the needs 4. unit operations (UO) 14. the chemical reactors 5. many disciplines 15. flowchart 6. kinetics 16. necessarily 7. thermodynamics, 17. tail 8. fluid mechanics 18. each reaction 9. microscopic 19. temperature and concentrations 10. chemical reactions 20. linear

Unit 19 Introduction to Process Design 1. a flowsheet 7. health 2. control scheme 8. safety 3. process manuals 9. a reactor 4. profit 10. tradeoffs 5. sustainable industrial 11. optimizations activities 12. hierarchy 6. waste

Materials areas
Polymer

Research activities
Probe the microscale dynamics of macromolecules Develop improved processes, Create new materials Microstructural reinforcement

Polymer Composites Advanced Ceramics Ceramic Composites Composite Liquids

Produce specific micro structures Application research Engineering the chemical reactions related


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