Lecture 4: Unit Two (2)
? Homework; ? Surface culture and deep culture; ? Meanings in conversation; ? Chinese way of showing politeness
Part Ⅰ. Review
?1. What is culture? ?2. How do you understand the universality (commonality) and diversity of culture?
Discovering Problems: Misleading Commercial Signs (P. 56)
It will be not be difficult for us to see what is wrong with each of the commercial signs in its use of English.
Some of them are grammatically incorrect; some others, though without grammatical mistakes, use English in a strange way (not idiomatically), probably due to the influence (nagative transfer) of the native language.
1. Forbidden to steal the hotel towels. One who never does such things just ignore the notice. 2. The lift will be out of service tomorrow, for it is being fixed. 3. The chambermaid is at your service if your underwear needs ironing. 4. Our wine will leave nothing else to be desired. 5. Please don’t feed the animals. Your food for animals should be given to the guard on duty.
6. Welcome to the cemetery daily except Thursday where famous Russian artists were buried. 7. Women's fur coats made of animal skins. 8. It is forbidden for a foreign woman, even dressed as a man, to enter the temple. 9. Ladies are requested not to bring the children to the bar. 10. We keep your bags and then deliver them to your direction. 11. It is strictly forbidden for two people of different sexes, unless a married couple, to live in one tent on our black forest camping. 12. Specialist in gynecology and other diseases.
Part Ⅱ. Surface Culture & Deep Culture ?CultureFill-in Task (P. 44)
Part Ⅲ: Surface culture & deep culture The Iceberg Model of Culture: Culture hides much more than it reveals.
Surface culture refers to the tangible things that are related to and unique to an ethnic group. Associated with surface culture are the arts and crafts, intellectual achievements, historic events, daily living,race,etc.
?Elements of deep culture deal with the feelings and attitudes that are outside of conscious awareness .
?Those that are above the water are:
what to eat and how to eat it ; how to wear; how to speak; how to greet others ; how to entertain oneself.
?Those that are below the water are
what is good or bad ; what is right or wrong ; what is beautiful or ugly; what is clean or dirty ; how is an individual related to others.
---Which is more likely to be the barrier
to intercultural communication, deep culture or surface culture? ---Why?
Elements of deep culture are more likely to be barriers to intercultural communication. Deep culture is internalized in our mind and thus is hard to be perceived.
Part Ⅲ. Meanings in Communication
Matching work (P. 57) Example 1: Tom: Lucy, I have 2 tickets for tonight’s show. Lucy: Merry is free tonight. Sentence meaning 话语本身的含意 Speaker’s meaning 说者的含意
More Examples ?
? 2. A: Have you finished your homework? B: I have started it. No, I haven’t finished my homework. ? 3. A: Has the machine been fixed? ? B: Tom is away but he will be back soon. No, but it will be fixed soon.
奥斯汀的言语行为理论 言语行为理论(Speech act theory)是英国哲学家奥 斯汀首先提出的。1957年，他到美国哈佛大学去做讲 座，以《以言行事》(How to do things with words)为 书名发表了讲座的全部内容，在其论述中，贯穿了一 个思想：人们说话的目的不仅仅是为说话，当他说一 句话的同时可以实施一个行为。奥斯汀把人们说话时 所实施的言语行为分作三类，即“发话行为 (locutionary act)(又叫言内行为)、第二种叫行事行为 (illocutionary act)(又叫言外行为)、取效行为 (perlocutionary act)(又称言后行为)，发话行为泛指一 切用声音说出的有意义的话语；行事行为涉及说话者 的意图，如：断定、疑问、命令、描写、解释、道歉 、感谢、祝贺等；取效行为涉及说话者在听话者身上
Answers to Matching Task
1. ----------- j 2. -----------f 3. -----------a 4. -----------g 5. -----------i 6. -----------h 7. -----------b 8. -----------c 9. -----------d 10. -----------e
Case study *
? Case 6 (P. 61) When a speaker says something to a hearer, there are at least three kinds of meanings involved: utterance meaning, speaker’s meaning and hearer’s meaning. In the dialogue, when Litz said “How long is she going to stay?” She meant to say that if she knew how long her mother-in-law was going to stay in Finland, she would be able to make proper arrangements for her, such as taking her out to do some sightseeing. This is the speaker’s meaning. However, her mother-in-law overheard the conversation, and took Litz’s question to mean that Litz does not want her to stay for long. This is the speaker’s meaning. From the Chinese point of view, it seems to be inappropriate for Litz to ask such a question just two days after her mother-inlaw’s arrival. Above all, she should not let her mother-in-law hear it. 20
Part Ⅳ. Group work
--- Discussion about Chinese courtesy and propriety
China is noted as “the land of courtesy and propriety”（礼仪之 邦）, and Chinese culture has long been known for “ strong orientation of form and politeness”. However, this aspect of the culture may lead to culture shock or miscommunication in intercultural settings. （Note: propriety means correctness of social or moral behaviour）
Eating may be one of the most important social activities in Chinese people’s everyday life. The concept of face is as important as the food itself. When the roles of host and guest are clearly defined, it is customary for the hosts to pay the bill. The payment of the bill becomes a matter of face, which is of extreme importance in China. More often than not, nearly all diners at the dinner table will struggle very hard with one another for the bill. An onlooker could have easily mistaken the scene for a fight. Chinese culture is unique in its courtesy and propriety, and Chinese people are always standing on ceremony, and They are inclined to show too much of their hospitality to their friend and guests. Though nowadays young people tend to go Dutch when having a dinner with their friends, this type of scene is still very common in restaurants across the country.
? Case 5 on P. (60)
In China, it is often not polite to accept a first offer. We are very likely to make a pretense of refusing before finally accept an offer because of “strong orientation of form and politeness”. ? But Heping had not understood North American rules which firmly say that you do not push alcoholic drinks on anyone. In the case the American and his Canadian colleage did not make a second offer of beer to Heping, who probably thought North Americans lack good manners. ? However, cultures are seldom rigid in every instance for all and there are always individual differences. Probably the young Chinese nurse was very different from Heping, for she may had known something about the American cultural rules and was just trying to behave in the way that was proper in American culture.
? Case 7 (P. 62); ? Reading Ⅱ (P. 49); ? Writing (P. 48).（To summarize the major points of view）
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