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介词


介词
一.概念: 介词表示它后面的名词或相当于名词的其他结构与句中其他成分的关系. 二.相关知识点精讲 介词不能独立在句中做成份,介词后必须与名词、代词、或动名词构成介词短语在句中充当一个成份,表示人、 物、事件等与其它人、物、事件等之间的关系。 1、作定语:The book on the table is mine. 2、作状语:We have breakfast a

t seven.(表时间) ; They were late for meeting because of the heavy rain.(表原因) ; They started the machine by pressing the button.(表方法) 3、作表语:My dictionary is in the bag. 4、作宾语补足语:I found him in the office. 1.表示地点位置的介词 1)at ,in, on, to at (1)表示在小地方; (2)表示“在??附近,旁边” in (1)表示 在大地方; (2)表示“在?范围之内”。 on 表示毗邻,接壤 to 表示在??范围外,不强调是否接壤 He arrived at the station at ten. He arrived in Shanghai yesterday. Jiangsu lies in the east of China. Russia lies on the north of China. Fujian is to the south of Jiangsu Province. 2)above, over, on 在??上 above 指在??上方,不强调是否垂直,与 below 相对; over 指垂直的上方,与 under 相对,但 over 与物体有一定的空间,不直接接触。 on 表示某物体上面并与之接触。 The bird is flying above my head. There is a bridge over the river. He put his watch on the desk. 3)below, under 在??下面 under 表示在?正下方 below 表示在??下,不一定在正下方 There is a cat under the table. Please write your name below the line. 2.表示时间的介词 1)in , on,at 在??时 in 表示较长时间,如世纪、年、季节、月及一般(非特指)的早、中、晚等。 th 如 in the 20 century, in the 1950s, in 1989, in summer, in January, in the morning, in the night, in one’s life , in one’s thirties 等。 on 表示具体某一天及其早、中、晚。 如 on May 1, on Monday, on New Year’s Day, on a cold night in January, on a fine morning, on Sunday afternoon 等。 at 表示某一时刻或较短暂的时间,或泛指圣诞节,复活节等。 如 at 3:20, at this time of year, at the beginning of, at the end of ?, at the age of ?, at Christmas, at night, at noon, at this moment 等。 注意:在 last, next, this, that, some, every 等词之前一律不用介词。 2)in, after 在??之后 “in +段时间”表示将来的一段时间以后;

“after+段时间”表示过去的一段时间以后; “after+将来点时间”表示将来的某一时刻以后。 My mother will come back in three or four days. He arrived after five months. She will appear after five o’clock this afternoon. 3)from, since 自从?? from 仅说明什么时候开始,不说明某动作或情况持续多久; since 表示某动作或情况持续至说话时刻,通常与完成时连用。 He studied the piano from the age of three. They have lived here since 1978. 4)after, behind 在??之后 after 主要用于表示时间; behind 主要用于表示位置。 We shall leave after lunch. Lucy is hiding behind an old house. 3.表运动方向的介词:across, through 通过,穿过 across 表示横过,即从物体表面通过,与 on 有关; through 穿过,即从物体内部穿过,与 in 有关。 She swam across the river. He walked through the forest. 4.表示“在??之间”的介词:between, among between 指在两个人或两个事物之间; among 指在三个或三个以上的人或事物之间。 There is a football match between Class One and Class Two on the playground. The teacher is standing among the students. 5.表示其他意义的介词 1)on ,about 关于 on 表示这本书,这篇文章或演说是严肃的,或学术性的,可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读; about 表示内容较为普通,不那么正式。 There will be a lecture on economics this afternoon. He is writing a book on cooking. He told me a lot about his life in the summer vocation. 2)by, with, in 表示方法、手段、工具 by 以??方法、手段或泛指某种交通工具; with 表示用 ?工具、手段,一般接具体的工具和手段; in 表示用?方式,用?语言(语调、笔墨、颜色)等; He makes a living by selling newspapers. He broke the window with a stone. The foreigner spoke to us in English. 3)except, besides 除了 except 除??之外,不包括在内; besides 除??之外,包括在内。

巩固练习 The doctor will be free ____ . A . in 10 minutes B . after 10 minutes C . in 10-minutes time D . in 10 minutes away ---How long has this bookshop been in business ? --- _____ 1992 . A . After B . In C . From D . Since I can hardly hear the radio . Would you please _____ ? A . turn it on B . turn it down C . turn it up D . turn it off It’s wise to have some money ____ for the old age . A . put away B .kept up C . given away D . laid up The train leaves at 6 . So have to be at the station ___ 5:40 the latest . A . until B . after C . by D . around Visitors ___ Egypt always admire the pyramid . A . in B . to C . at D . with They had a party ___ Christmas Eve . A .at B . in C . on D . during He won’t come to your party ____ . A . without invited B . unless being invited C . without being invited D . if not being invited We offered him our congratulations ___ his passing the exam . A .at B . on C . for D . of Don’t all speak at once ! ___ , please . A . Each at one time B . One by one time C . One for each time D . One at a time We’re all going to the games . Why don’t you come ____ ? A . up B . across C . along D . to Rose was wild with joy ___ the result of the exam . A . to B . at C . by D . as I don’t think I will need money , but I’ll bring some ___ . A . at last B . in case C . once again D . in time ___ the production up by 60% , the company has had another excellent year . A . As B . For C . With D .Through --- You are so lucky . --- What do you mean ___ that ? A . for B . in C . by D . of The sunlight came in ___ the window in the roof and lit up the whole room . A . through B . across C . on D . over The number of the employees has grown from 1000 to 1200 .This means it has risen ___ 20%. A .by B . at C . to D . with It was not ___ 10 that my baby went to bed . A . since B . till C on D . until A new bridge will be built ___ the river . A . with B . in C . over D . through He suddenly returned ___ a rainy night . A . on B . at C . for D . of Please write ___ pencil , not ___ ink . A . in ; with B .in a ; with C . with a ; in D . with ; in a

介词短语
come across 偶然遇见, 发现 for oneself 为某人自己;亲自 look after 照料 name after 以…的名字命名 day after day 日复一日地 after all 毕竟 run after 追求;在…后面跑 at once 马上 at first 开始时 at present 现在 at the entrance to 在…的入口处 at the mercy of 在….的支配下 at breakfast 早餐时 at one time 以前;曾经 throw at 向…..扔去 point at 把….对准 work hard at 努力学 run across 跑过偶然遇见 by accident/by chance 偶然 by mistake 由于疏忽所致 one by one 一个一个地 by the side of 在..的附近 little by little 一点一点地 by the end of 到…末为止 step by step 一步一步地 by sea 由海路 day by day 日复一日地 judge…by 通过…判断 side by side 并肩 learn….by 记住 head for 开往,前往 for sale 待售 prepare for 为…做好准备 for one’s good 为某人好 stand for 代表 for oneself 为自己,对自己来说 look out for 警戒,当心… for free 免费 go in for 喜欢 take sb. for 把…误当作 for sale 待售 for one’s good 为某人好 for the time being 目前;暂时 for free 免费 ask for 询问;向…要 for one’s sake 为某人的缘故 prevent/stop/keep…from 使…免于 die from 死于 suffer from 遭受 date from 起源于 separate…from 使…与…分开 tell… from .. 把…和…区别开 from the beginning 从一开试始 from now on 从现在起 from time to time 不时的 from then on 从那时起 from … to 从…到 far from 远离;远非 in all 总计 in fact 事实上 in public 公开的 in the air 在空中 in modern times 现代,近代 in a hurry 匆忙的 in battle 在战斗中 in space 在宇宙中 in place of 代替 in future 在今后 in time 及时 in one’s opinion 依某人看来 in front of 在…看来 in this way 以这种方式 in a short while 不久 in charge of 主管,负责 in search of 寻找 in a word 总而言之 in other words 换句话说 in place 在适当的位置 in the past 在过去 in debt 欠帐,欠债 in case 如果,万一 in that case 假如那样的话

in the future in turn in a flash

将来 轮流 一刹那

spend on live on call on

在…上花费时间 靠…生活 拜访,号召

once in a while 偶尔 in praise of 称赞,歌颂 in need of 需要 in honor of 为向..表示敬意,为了纪念 be interested in 对…有兴趣 be rich in 富含 be in love with 与…相爱 fall in love with 爱上 join in 参与 take part in 参加 take…in one’s arms 把…抱在怀里 put in prison 把…投进监狱 take pride in 以…为自豪 get in touch with 与…取得联系 succeed in doing 成功的做 of course 当然 because of 由于,因为 be short of 缺乏 of one’s own 某人自己的 die of 死于 rob sb. of 抢走某人某物 talk of 谈及 be made up of 由…组成 be made of 由…制成 on duty 值日,值班 on watch 在警戒 on holiday 度假 on a visit 在访问中 on fire 着火了 on board 在船上 on average 按平均记算 on the air 在播送 on the radio 通过广播 on the other hand 另一方面 on one’s own 独立的 on the telephone 在电话中 on time 准时 on the point of doing 正要做某事 play a trick on 捉弄某人 agree on 商定,达成共识

depend on 依靠 out of work 失业了 out of order (机器)损坏了 out of breath 气喘吁吁 out of date 过时 get out of 从…出去,逃避 over the telephone 通过电话 all over 遍及,全… over the radio 从广播里 watch over 照看 get over go over run over see through look through all through pay attention to see to look forward to lead to 克服,忘记(痛苦等) 省阅,复习 压过… 看穿 浏览 贯穿 注意 负责 盼望 导致;通向

refer to 谈及;参阅,涉及 be/get used to 习惯于 stick to 坚持 set fire to 放火,点火 burn…to the ground 把…烧毁 compared to 连接;相连 get down to 开始认真做 sentence to death 判处…死刑 belong to 属于 make… to one’s own measure 依某人的尺寸做 come to oneself 苏醒过来 come to 共计;达到;涉及到 struggle to one’s feet 挣扎着站起来 get close to 接近 beat …to death 打死 help oneself to 自取,随便吃,擅自取用 agree to 同意 turn to sb. for help 向某人求助 set an example to sb. 为某人树立榜样 devote… to 把…奉献给


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